The formal-proof tag has no usage guidance.

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### How do I verify the Coq proof of Feit-Thompson?

I probably don't have the appropriate background to even ask this question. I know next to nothing about formal or computer-aided proof, and very little even about group theory. And this question is ...

**35**

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**4**answers

2k views

### How much of the ATLAS of finite groups is independently checked and/or computer verified?

In a recent talk Serre made some comments about proofs that rely on the classification of finite simple groups (CFSG) and on the ATLAS of Finite Groups. Namely, he said that a proof that relied on the ...

**28**

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**6**answers

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### How true are theorems proved by Coq?

Less tongue in cheek, is it known what the relative consistency is for theorems proved with an automatic theorem prover? Of course this depends somewhat on what assumptions one makes with respect to ...

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**0**answers

544 views

### Next steps on formal proof of classification of finite simple groups

While people are steaming ahead on finessing the proof of the classification of finite simple groups (CFSG), we have a formal proof in Coq of one of the first major components: the Feit-Thompson odd-...

**22**

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**1**answer

2k views

### How much mathematics has been formally verified?

That's a vague question so allow me to tighten it up a bit.
I recently noticed that there is a formal machine verified proof of the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) implemented with Isabelle. This ...

**16**

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**3**answers

852 views

### Finite versions of Godel' s incompleteness

Assume you have some notion of proof complexity: for instance, at the basic level, the length of a proof, or the number of symbols used, take your pick (there are more involved measures, but for sake ...

**12**

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**2**answers

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### Consequences of technically proving anything in Coq (on at least Linux) exploiting a bug? [closed]

Technically, it is possible to prove anything in Coq proof assistant [1] (on at least Linux) due to a programming feature (or bug). This seems tractable when validating large proofs. Human analysis ...

**12**

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**1**answer

1k views

### Where can I find Gonthier's Coq code proving the four color theorem?

In a 2008 article in the Notices, Georges Gonthier announced a computer-checked proof of the four color theorem using Coq:
Gonthier, Georges. Formal proof—the four-color theorem.
Notices Amer. ...

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**2**answers

555 views

### Why is there a need for ordinal analysis?

Consider the Peano axioms. There exists a model for them (namely, the natural numbers with a ordering relation $<$, binary function $+$, and constant term $0$). Therefore, by the model existence ...

**8**

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**1**answer

408 views

### Proving that a combinatorial sequence has no compact formula

Suppose we have a sequence $a_n$ given by some combinatorial formula, e.g. involving a sum of n terms (like ${n \choose k}^{10}3^{-k}$ etc.). Sometimes it is plausible that there is no compact ...

**3**

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**2**answers

187 views

### Uniform Convergence of Moment Generating Function

In the article, "The Empirical Moment Generating Function" by Csörgö, the author defines the empirical moment generating function for a sample of $n$ variables $X_1,X_2, \dots, X_n$ as:
$$
\begin{...

**2**

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**1**answer

710 views

### Hilbert style axiomatic proof or sequent Calculus?

I am puzzling with the question which of the two proof systems (Hilbert style axiomatic proofs or substructural Sequent Calculi) is the most discriminatory?
With discriminatory I mean is which proof ...

**2**

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**1**answer

359 views

### Sequent calculus: is there a complete linear reasoning (i.e., no trees)?

In Gentzen's sequent calculus, a formal proof is described by a tree, with each node representing the sequent obtained from the child(ren) by applying a given inference rule.
If no inference rule has ...

**2**

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**1**answer

142 views

### existence of multiplicity of roots [closed]

Im confuse..I read in an article that in dealing with polynomials, a quadratic equation can have either 2 real roots, 1 equal real root or 2 complex roots...but in dealing with random polynomials only ...

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**1**answer

979 views

### Where is a proof of “2 is more than 1 plus 1” said by Saunders Mac Lane? [closed]

I came across this statement in the autobiography by Saunders Mac Lane.
It was the interaction between solenoids and group extension that got our collaboration started, and this first work of ...

**1**

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**1**answer

481 views

### Since an inconsistent system can prove its own consistency…

Say a proof for the consistency of a formal system (proved within the formal system) is known. There are two possible cases: 1. the formal system is consistent and it can be and has been proven to be, ...

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**0**answers

63 views

### How to prove this Gaussian Mixture theorem? (Fitting/Overfitting)

Note from OP: I gave up and reposted this Question with a Bounty on Cross Validated HERE.
In certain applications, we approximate an unknown pdf by placing uniformly weighted Gaussian terms at each ...

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**1**answer

700 views

### Is there any danger far from home? (Edited & Revised Version) [closed]

The notion of formal proof is defined by finite sequences ($<\omega$ - sequences) of sentences. In some sense if a sentence $\sigma$ is (finitely) provable from the theory $T$ it is very "near" to ...