Forcing is a method first used to prove the continuum hypothesis is independent of the classical axioms of set theory

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249 views

Possible Choices for Cofinality of $\aleph_n$ without Choice

$\text{ZFC}$ proves that each $\aleph_{n}$ for $n\in \omega$ is a regular cardinal. But it seems without the Axiom of Choice there are many consistent possible choices for cofinality of such ...
6
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1answer
199 views

An explicit construction of reals added after some forcing notions

Consider the forcing notion(s) introduced by Friedman (or Mitchell or Neeman) for adding a club subset of $\omega_2$ by finite conditions. In the generic extension CH fails, but I can't see the reals ...
5
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0answers
149 views

Impact of Supercompacts on Measurables

It is consistent that the least measurable cardinal can carry exactly one normal measure but in almost all models for this theory there is no supercompact cardinal. It seems existence of a ...
7
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4answers
461 views

A Special Pair of Models for ZFC (New Version)

Are there two models $M$ and $N$ for $\text{ZFC}$ such that: (1) $M\subseteq N$ (2) $\aleph_{1}^{N}=\aleph_{1}^{M}$ (3) $\aleph_{2}^{N}=\aleph_{\omega +1}^{M}$ Update: According to Peter's useful ...
6
votes
2answers
384 views

The First Failure of GCH in Large Cardinals Smaller than Measurables

A well known theorem by Scott says: If $\kappa$ is a measurable cardinal and $\mu$ a normal measure on it and $\mu (\lbrace\lambda\in\kappa~|~2^{\lambda}=\lambda^{+}\rbrace)=1$ then ...
7
votes
1answer
264 views

Countable Product of Class Forcing Notions

Is the following consistent? There are definable class forcing notions $\lbrace \mathbb{P}_{n}\rbrace_{n\in \omega}$ such that: The product of any finitly many of them preserves $\text{ZFC}$ and ...
4
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0answers
201 views

random real forcing, independent real

Assume all independent reals that are added by random real forcing. Take enumeration of each independent real. Is the family of all enumerations dominating?
3
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4answers
261 views

What is the role of absoluteness in existence of a non-trivial self elementary embedding on an inner model?

ِDefinition (1): Call an inner model M "rigid" if there are no non-trivial elementary embeddings $j: M\longrightarrow M$. It is possible that $L$ is not rigid, while the problem is open for $HOD$. ...
5
votes
1answer
229 views

Adding large sets not containing countable ground model sets

The question is motivated by Toni's question "Approximation of infinite set in generic extension" (see Approximation of infinite set in generic extension). Before I state the question, let me add ...
6
votes
2answers
346 views

Question about Woodin's stationary tower

Suppose that $\delta$ is a Woodin cardinal and that $\kappa$ is the critical point of the generic embedding $j:V\rightarrow M$ after forcing with the stationary tower ($\kappa$ can be $\omega_1$ or ...
2
votes
1answer
212 views

Are measures of a measurable cardinal measurable? (Edited and Updated Version)

Update: Regarding to Prof. Hamkins's guidance I restricted the questions to the "normal" measures to avoid trivial answers. Definition: Let $\kappa$ be a measurable cardinal. Define: ...
3
votes
3answers
385 views

A Question on Special Forcings

The usual use of forcing begins with a "countable" and "transitive" ground model of $ZFC$ and reaches to a "countable" and "transitive" generic model of $ZFC$ with the "same ordinals". In a discussion ...
5
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1answer
175 views

what kind of ordinal is the degree of strongness of a partially strong cardinal (Edited and revised)

For an infinite cardinal $\kappa$ and an ordinal $\lambda>\kappa,$ $\kappa$ is called $\lambda-$strong, if there is a non-trivial elementary embedding $j: V \rightarrow M$ with $crit(j)=\kappa$ ...
4
votes
2answers
295 views

Can we force with Fraisse filters to solve Vaught's conjecture?

Around the classic Fraisse amalgamation theorem in model theory we have the following notions: Definition (1): If $M$ be an $\mathcal{L}$-structure then define: $age(M):=\lbrace N~|~N~\text{is ...
7
votes
1answer
189 views

Is there a forcing closure?

The main theorem of forcing says that for any c.t.m of $ZFC$ like $M$ and for all partial order $\mathbb{P}$ and $\mathbb{P}$-generic $G$ over $M$, there is a c.t.m of $ZFC$, like $N$ such that $N$ is ...
5
votes
1answer
187 views

Can we always permute Cohen reals?

Consider the Cohen forcing, and suppose that $\dot x,\dot y$ are names for reals, which are not in the ground model (i.e. $1$ forces that neither is in the ground model). Can we always find an ...
8
votes
1answer
160 views

Why does an $\varepsilon$-incomplete $Q$ remain so in the forcing extension of any $\varepsilon$-complete $P$?

This is Shelah's simpler notion of 'completeness' for not adding reals via forcing. Here $P$ and $Q$ are forcing notions. Let $S_{\aleph_0}(\kappa)$ be the set of all countable subsets of a cardinal ...
5
votes
1answer
308 views

How Random is Cohen?

Suppose that $V$ is a universe of $\sf ZFC$, and $c$ is a Cohen generic real over $V$. Is it possible that $c$ is also generic in other senses? I know that it can't be random or Sacks or whatnot ...
12
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6answers
1k views

The origins of forcing in mathematical logic and other branches of mathematics

As everyone knows, forcing was created by Cohen to answer questions in set theory. Question 1. What are the first applications of set theoretic forcing in other branches of mathematical logic, like ...
6
votes
2answers
158 views

Separation of almost disjoint families by ground model almost disjoint families

Suppose that $V$ is a model of $\sf ZFC$, and for concreteness I should point that at this point I am interested in $V=L$ as a ground model. Suppose that $V[c]$ is a Cohen extension of $V$ where $c$ ...
14
votes
3answers
537 views

Singularizing forcing of “small” cardinality?

Can there be a large cardinal $\kappa$ and a forcing of size $\kappa$ that makes $\kappa$ a singular cardinal? The motivation is that the standard Prikry forcing does not have a dense set of size ...
6
votes
6answers
489 views

Applications of forcing in model theory

What are the major applications of (set theoretic) forcing in model theory?
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1answer
304 views

Consistency results using nonstandard models

Are there any consistency results in set theory (or in mathematics) that can be proved using nonstandard models of ZFC but not using transitive models of ZFC?
18
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1answer
659 views

Kaplansky's conjecture and Martin's axiom

Recall Kaplansky's conjecture which states that every algebra homomorphism from the Banach algebra C(X) (where X is a compact Hausdorff topological space) into any other Banach algebra, is ...
5
votes
1answer
140 views

Generalization of Levy-Solovay theorem to kappa-c.c. forcings

The Levy-Solovay theorem says that if $\kappa$ is measurable, then it remains measurable in the extension by a small forcing ($|\mathbb{P}|<\kappa$). Is still true if we replace ...
6
votes
1answer
662 views

Is there a monster behind the trees?

‎First Fix the following notation:‎ ‎ $‎‎\forall ‎\kappa‎\in Card~~~Tp(‎\kappa‎):="‎\kappa‎~has~tree~property"$‎ ‎‎‎‎ The large cardinals as "monsters of heaven" live everywhere in the land of ...
3
votes
1answer
283 views

Countable support iterated forcing of length $\alpha$ which forces $|\alpha| > \aleph_2$

Let $cf(\alpha) > \omega$, and $P_\alpha := \langle P_{\beta}, \dot{Q}_{\beta} : \beta < \alpha \rangle$ be a countable support iterated forcing construction (so for each $\beta$, $P_{\beta} = ...
6
votes
1answer
256 views

The Ground Axiom for special statements of set theory

The Ground Axiom (GA), introduced by Hamkins and Reitz, asserts that the universe is not a nontrivial set forcing extension of any inner model, and it is known that GA is consistent relative to ZFC. ...
7
votes
1answer
330 views

Making all cardinals countable and its HOD

Suppose that $G$ is $Col(\omega, <Ord)$-generic over $V$ and let $W=HOD^{V[G]}$. Is $CH$ true in $W$? In general, what can we say about the behaviour of the power function in $W$? Update. Are the ...
8
votes
0answers
150 views

Consistency strength of saturated ideals on $[\lambda]^{<\kappa}$

In the Handbook of Set Theory, Foreman notes that in models constructed by Magidor from a huge cardinal, there exists a normal ideal on $[\omega_2]^{<\omega_1}$ that is $\omega_3$-saturated. Other ...
6
votes
1answer
255 views

If there is a non-constructible real, is there an $L$-generic real?

If we assume that $\Bbb R^V\neq\Bbb R^L$, can we deduce that there is some $x\in\Bbb R^V$ which is $L$-generic? Of course if $V$ is a generic extension of $L$ this is true, but if $V=L[0^\#]$ this is ...
7
votes
2answers
252 views

How to make countably closed forcing “nice” without choice

When working over a model $V$ of $ZFC$, countably closed forcings are extremely nice: If $\mathbb{P}$ is countably closed, then $V[G]$ has no new $\omega$-sequences of elements of $V$. In ...
7
votes
2answers
491 views

Does forcing generally go one way?

Question Is there any forcing free proof for hard independence results? talks about the use of forcing for independence results such as: $Con(ZFC)\longrightarrow Con (ZFC+\neg CH) $. For that case ...
8
votes
1answer
333 views

Is there any forcing free proof for hard independence results?

We are forced to use forcing for almost all "hard" independence results such as: $Con(ZFC)\longrightarrow Con (ZFC+\neg CH) $. The question simply is: Primary Question: Is there any "forcing free" ...
13
votes
3answers
390 views

Is Prikry forcing minimal?

Let $M$ be a model of $\sf ZFC$ in which $\kappa$ is a measurable cardinal, and $\cal U$ is a normal measure on $\kappa$. We can define the Prikry forcing (the most simple one) as the poset: $$\Bbb ...
15
votes
2answers
773 views

Woodin's unpublished proof of the global failure of GCH

An unpublished result of Woodin says the following: Theorem. Assuming the existence of large cardinals, it is consistent that $\forall \lambda, 2^{\lambda}=\lambda^{++}.$ In the paper "The ...
8
votes
1answer
236 views

On free limits of iterations

Shelah isolates the notion of "$\aleph_1$-free iteration" in the first two sections of Chapter IX from Proper and Improper Forcing, and he proves there that properness is preserved by this sort of ...
3
votes
1answer
236 views

Large cardinals and mild extensions

It is known that for many large cardinals $\kappa$ (like weakly compact, measurable,...) , $\kappa$ remains large of the same type after forcings of size $<\kappa$. Now the questions are: Question ...
12
votes
0answers
419 views

Some questions about $0^{\sharp}$ and forcing over $L$

1-Let $P\in L$ be a nontrivial set forcing or even a tame class forcing (tameness in the sense of Sy Friedman; see for example his Handbook paper), and let $G$ be $P-$generic over $L$. Then it is ...
2
votes
2answers
177 views

Preservation of measurable cardinals in mild extensions

I would like some help with the proof of the preservation of measurable cardinals in mild extensions, as I am a bit new with forcing. By mild extensions, I mean the generic extension produced from a ...
10
votes
2answers
548 views

Failure of diamond at large cardinals

What is known about the failure of $\Diamond_{\kappa}$ (diamond at $\kappa$) for $\kappa$ (the least) inaccessible, (the least) Mahlo and (the least) weakly compact. Remark. The problem of forcing ...
4
votes
1answer
379 views

set theory forcing

Suppose $M$ satisfies the $CH$ and that we force over $M$ with $\mathbb{P}=Fn(I,2)$ where $(\omega_{2} \leq |I|))^{M}$, that is, with the finite partial functions from $I$ to $2$. If $f \in M[G] \cap ...
9
votes
0answers
400 views

Existence of a regular subposet which collapses everything except the top cardinal

Suppose $\delta$ is an inaccessible cardinal, and $\mathbb{P}$ is the Levy Collapse $\text{Col}(\kappa, \delta)$ which adds a surjection from $\kappa \to \delta$ (for some regular $\kappa < ...
3
votes
1answer
236 views

Trivial forcings which are not very trivial

Suppose that $M$ is a model of $\sf ZFC$, and we add some generic set $G$. Then it is not hard to see that for every $x\in M[G]$ it holds $M\subseteq M[x]\subseteq M[G]$. Given $x\in M[G]$ such that ...
6
votes
3answers
315 views

Class forcing: Pelletier vs Friedman

[Apologies in advance for a fluffy question] I'm reading this old paper by Pelletier, where he gives a Boolean-valued model version of class forcing, assuming that the Boolean algebra in question can ...
4
votes
1answer
135 views

Amalgamation of two ccc algebras may collapse the continuum

The claim that appears in the title of this question is mentioned in the paper "On Shelah's amalgamation" by Judah and Roslanowski. I'd really like to see a proof of this fact, but unfortunately I ...
7
votes
2answers
420 views

collapsing successor of singular

Let $\lambda$ be a singular cardinal. Is it consistent that there is a forcing of size $\lambda^+$ that collapses $\lambda^+$ while preserving all cardinals below $\lambda$? (Note that even without ...
5
votes
1answer
244 views

Question about Shelah's version of “Shooting a club” found in PIF

Suppose $S \subset \omega_{1}$ is stationary co-stationary. Then there is a forcing notion $P_{S}$ which shoots a closed unbounded $C \subset S$ without collapsing cardinals (or changing ...
10
votes
1answer
437 views

Forcing mildly over a worldly cardinal.

A cardinal $\theta$ is worldly if $V_{\theta}$ is a model of ZFC. We could force to collapse $\theta$ to a successor cardinal, for example, and destroy the worldliness of $\theta$, but is there a ...
4
votes
1answer
175 views

Which $\omega_1$-trees are proper?

Consider a tree $(T, <_T)$ of height $\omega_1$, with countable levels. One can view $T$ as a forcing poset by calling a condition $s\in T$ stronger than $t\in T$ if $t <_T s$. My question is: ...