Questions on group theory which concern finite groups.

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### Generalization of a theorem of Øystein Ore in group theory

Theorem (Øystein Ore, 1938): A finite group $G$ is cyclic iff its lattice of subgroups $\mathcal{L}(G)$ is distributive.
Proof: see below.
Let $(H \subset G)$ be an inclusion of finite groups and ...

**0**

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**2**answers

160 views

### Products of maximal inclusions of finite groups with a non-obvious intermediate

Let $(H_1 \subset G_1)$ and $(H_2 \subset G_2)$ be core-free maximal inclusions of finite groups.
Their product, the inclusion $(H_1 \times H_2 \subset G_1 \times G_2)$, admits four obvious ...

**11**

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**3**answers

1k views

### Is there a purely group-theoretic reformulation of an equivalence of subgroups?

There is an equivalence relation between inclusion of finite groups coming from the world of subfactors:
Definition: $(H_{1} \subset G_{1}) \sim(H_{2} \subset G_{2})$ if $(R^{G_{1}} \subset ...

**22**

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**2**answers

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### Examples of finite groups with “good” bijection(s) between conjugacy classes and irreducible representations?

For symmetric group conjugacy classes and irreducible representation both are parametrized by Young diagramms, so there is a kind of "good" bijection between the two sets. For general finite groups ...

**25**

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**6**answers

3k views

### Generating finite simple groups with $2$ elements

Here is a very natural question:
Q: Is it always possible to generate a finite simple group with only $2$ elements?
In all the examples that I can think of the answer is yes.
If the answer is ...

**10**

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**2**answers

899 views

### Number of isomorphism types of finite groups

Are there some good asymptotic estimations for the number $F(n)$ of non-isomorphic finite groups of size smaller than $n$?

**8**

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**1**answer

789 views

### A dual version of a theorem of Øystein Ore in group theory

Let $(H \subset G)$ be an inclusion of finite groups.
This post is a dual version for the Generalization of a theorem of Øystein Ore in which it's proved:
Theorem: $\mathcal{L}(H\subset G)$ ...

**28**

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1k views

### Are there “real” vs. “quaternionic” conjugacy classes in finite groups?

The complex irreps of a finite group come in three types: self-dual by a
symmetric form, self-dual by a symplectic form, and not self-dual at all.
In the first two cases, the character is real-valued, ...

**8**

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**1**answer

343 views

### Characterization of Frobenius complements

I have learned that Frobenius complements are characterized (among finite groups) by having a fixed point free complex representation.
That is, a finite group $G$ is a Frobenius complement if and only ...

**8**

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**1**answer

699 views

### Are there workable algebraic geometry approaches for the pentagon equation?

A pentagon equation is a system of polynomial equations of degree $3$ with several variables and integer coefficients, given by a fusion ring.
A fusion ring is given by a finite set of integer ...

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**0**answers

280 views

### Are the homogeneous single chain subfactors, Dedekind?

Background: See here and there.
Recall that a subfactor is Dedekind if all its intermediate subfactors are normal.
A subfactor $(N \subset M)$ is Homogeneous Single Chain (HSC) if its lattice ...

**10**

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**1**answer

387 views

### Factorization of a finite group by two subsets

I want to write a GAP program for checking the following question.
Let $G$ be a given finite group with order $n$. Is it true that for every factorization $n=ab$ there exist subsets $A$ and $B$ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

272 views

### Normal intermediate subgroup and normal core

Let $G$ be a finite group and $H$ a subgroup.
The normal core of $H$ in $G$ is $core_G(H) := \bigcap_{g \in G}g^{-1}Hg$
Definition: $K$ is a normal intermediate subgroup of the inclusion $(H ...

**2**

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**1**answer

392 views

### A second isomorphism theorem for the inclusions of groups

The usual second isomorphism theorem for groups is: let $G$ be a group, $S$ and $N$ subgroups with $N$ normal, then $SN$ is a subgroup of $G$, $S\cap N$ is a normal subgroup of $S$ and $SN/N \simeq ...

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5k views

### Fantastic properties of Z/2Z

Recently I gave a lecture to master's students about some nice properties of the group with two elements $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$. Typically, I wanted to present simple, natural situations where the ...

**26**

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### The finite subgroups of SU(n)

This question is inspired by the recent question "The finite subgroups of SL(2,C)". While reading the answers there I remembered reading once that identifying the finite subgroups of SU(3) is still an ...

**29**

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### For which $n$ is there only one group of order $n$?

Let $f(n)$ denote the number of (isomorphism classes of) groups of order $n$. A couple easy facts:
If $n$ is not squarefree, then there are multiple abelian groups of order $n$.
If $n \geq 4$ is ...

**28**

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**9**answers

3k views

### How many groups of size at most n are there? What is the asymptotic growth rate? And what of rings, fields, graphs, partial orders, etc.?

Question. How many (isomorphism types of) finite groups of size at most n are there? What is the asymptotic growth rate? And the same question for rings,
fields, graphs, partial orders, etc.
...

**26**

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**6**answers

2k views

### Measures of non-abelian-ness

Let $G$ be a finite non-abelian group of $n$ elements.
I would like a measure that intuitively captures the
extent to which $G$ is non-commutative.
One easy measure is a count of the non-commutative ...

**23**

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**2**answers

2k views

### Order of products of elements in symmetric groups

Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$. Is it true that for any $a, b, c \in \mathbb{N}$ satisfying
$1 < a, b, c \leq n-2$ the symmetric group ${\rm S}_n$ has elements of order $a$ and $b$
whose product has order ...

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1k views

### Definition of “finite group of Lie type”?

The list of finite simple groups of Lie type has been understood for half a century, modulo some differences in notation (and identifications between some of the very small groups coming from ...

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1k views

### (co)homology of symmetric groups

Let $S_n=\{\text{bijections }[n]\to[n]\}$ be the n-th symmetric group. Its (co)homology will be understood with trivial action. What are the $\mathbb{Z}$-modules $H_k(S_n;\mathbb{Z})$? Using GAP, we ...

**29**

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### Feit-Thompson Theorem: The Odd Order Paper

For reference, the Feit-Thompson Theorem states that every finite group of odd order is necessarily solvable. Equivalently, the theorem states that there exist no non-abelian finite simple groups of ...

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609 views

### A group action of the Heisenberg group with special symmetries

Suppose we look at the Heisenberg group $H_{d}$ as a matrix group of upper triangular matrices over the ring $\mathbb{Z}/d\mathbb{Z}$. You can even choose $d$ to be prime if you want. A natural ...

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**0**answers

783 views

### Given a lattice L with n elements, are there finite groups H < G such that L $\cong$ the lattice of subgroups between H and G?

If there is no restriction on $n$, this is a famous open problem. I'm wondering if any recent work has been done for small $n>6$. I believe the question is answered (positively) for $n=6$ by ...

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338 views

### If all real conjugacy classes are strongly real, then all real irreps are “strongly real”(symmetric), true ?

Question Is true that if all real conjugacy classes of a finite group are strongly real, then all its real irreducible representations (irreps) are "strongly real"(symmetric) ? And vice verse ?
...

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**1**answer

213 views

### permutation action on cohomology of Stiefel manifolds

Let $V_k(\mathbb{R}^n)$ be Stiefel manifolds.
In the paper The cohomology rings of real Stiefel manifolds with integer coefficients, Martin Čadek, Mamoru Mimura, and Jiří Vanžura, J. Math. Kyoto ...

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880 views

### Structure of the adjoint representation of a (finite) group (Hopf algebra) ?

Every group acts on itself by conjugation $h \mapsto g h g^{-1}$. Respectively considering functions on a group we obtain a linear representation.
Question 1: what is known about this representation ...

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353 views

### A problem with pointwise stabilizer subgroups of fixed-point subspaces II

Definitions: Let $W$ be a representation of a group $G$, $K$ a subgroup of $G$, and $X$ a subspace of $W$.
Let the fixed-point subspace $W^{K}:=\{w \in W \ \vert \ kw=w \ , \forall k \in K \}$.
Let ...

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402 views

### Decomposing the conjugacy representation of Sym$(n)$ for small $n$

I am trying to compute the decomposition of the conjugacy representation of some small symmetric groups. Perhaps someone has undertaken a similar calculation.
My own calculations are quite slow, ...

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637 views

### Decomposing representations of finite groups

Let $G$ be a finite group, $p$ a prime number. We denote by $\mathbb{F}_p$ the field of cardinality $p$. Let $V$ be an infinite dimensional representation of $G$ over $\mathbb{F}_p$.
Must there be ...

**2**

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**1**answer

212 views

### An upper bound for the maximal subgroups at fixed index?

Let us call a subgroup an injective homomorphism between groups.
I warn the reader that a subgroup designates here an inclusion $(H \subset G)$, not $H$ alone.
A subgroup $H \subset G$ is ...

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vote

**1**answer

177 views

### relatively free groups in $Var(S_3)$

Suppose $S_3$ is the symmetric group of order 6. Which elements of the variety $Var(S_3)$ are relatively free?
This question is related to my previous question
Relatively free algebras in a variety ...

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**1**answer

299 views

### Reference for embeddings of reflection groups (related to folding ADE Coxeter graphs?

There are a couple of indirect methods, using Lie theory or Springer's general theory of regular elements in (real, complex) reflection groups, to construct natural embeddings among certain Weyl ...

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**0**answers

190 views

### $\mathcal{L}(H_i \subset G_i)$ distributive $\Rightarrow$ $\mathcal{L}(H_1 \times H_2 \subset G_1 \times G_2)$ modular?

Let $\mathcal{L}( G)$ be the lattice of subgroups of $G$ and $\mathcal{L}(H \subset G)$ the lattice of intermediate subgroups.
Definitions: A lattice $(L, \wedge, \vee)$ is distributive if, ...

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**4**answers

2k views

### Is there a 0-1 law for the theory of groups?

Several months ago, Dominik asked the question Is there a 0-1 law for the theory of groups? on mathstackexchange, but although his question received attention there is still no answer. By asking the ...

**50**

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**1**answer

4k views

### Why can't a nonabelian group be 75% abelian?

This question asks for intuition, not a proof.
An earlier question,
Measures of non-abelian-ness
was thoroughly answered by Arturo Magidin.
A paper by Gustafson1
proves that, for a nonabelian group,
...

**49**

votes

**1**answer

994 views

### Are there $n$ groups of order $n$ for some $n>1$?

Given a positive integer $n$, let $N(n)$ denote the number of groups of order $n$, up to isomorphism.
Question: Does $N(n)=n$ hold for some $n>1$?
I checked the OEIS-sequence ...

**28**

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1k views

### Being a subgroup: proof by character theory

Let me first cite a theorem due to Frobenius:
Let $G$ be a finite group, with $H$ a proper subgroup ($H\ne (1)$ and $G$). Suppose that for every $g\not\in H$, we have $H\cap gHg^{-1}=(1)$. Then
...

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### Do all exact 1 -> A -> AxB -> B -> 1 split for finite groups?

Let $A$, $B$ be finite groups. Is it true that all short exact sequences $1 \rightarrow A \rightarrow A \times B \rightarrow B \rightarrow 1$ split on the right?
In other words, do there exist ...

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831 views

### Do finite groups acting on a ball have a fixed point?

Suppose that $G$ is a finite group, acting via homeomorphisms on $B^n$, the closed $n$-dimensional ball. Does $G$ have a fixed point?
A fixed point for $G$ is a point $p \in B^n$ where for all ...

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**2**answers

1k views

### learning Deligne-Lusztig theory

Can someone give me a roadmap for learning Deligne-Lusztig theory? (Except for the original article by Deligne and Lusztig)
Edit: You may assume knowledge of representation theory of finite groups ...

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### How much of the ATLAS of finite groups is independently checked and/or computer verified?

In a recent talk Serre made some comments about proofs that rely on the classification of finite simple groups (CFSG) and on the ATLAS of Finite Groups. Namely, he said that a proof that relied on the ...

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1k views

### A group-theoretic perspective on Frankl's union closed problem

Here is a group theoretic phrasing of a special case of the union closed conjecture:
Question: Given a finite group $G$, is there an element of prime power order which is contained in at most half ...

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802 views

### Nilpotency of a group by looking at orders of elements

For any finite group $G$, let
$$\theta(G) := \sum_{g \in G} \frac{o(g)}{\phi(o(g))},$$
where $o(g)$ denotes the order of the element $g$ in $G$, and where $\phi$ is the Euler totient function.
It is ...

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**4**answers

3k views

### Classification of finite groups of isometries

Consider the problem of classifying the finite groups of isometries of R^n.
--For n=2 it is cyclic and dihedral groups.
--For n=3 they are well known, probably from Kepler and are related to ...

**30**

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2k views

### Smallest n for which G embeds in $S_n$?

Question: Given a finite group $G$, how do I find the smallest $n$ for which $G$ embeds in $S_n$?
Equivalently, what is the smallest set $X$ on which $G$ acts faithfully by permutations?
This ...

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2k views

### What is this subgroup of $\mathfrak S_{12}$?

On some occasion I was gifted a calendar. It displays a math quizz every day of the year. Not really exciting in general, but at least one of them let me raise a group-theoretic question.
The quizz: ...

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**1**answer

738 views

### Geodesics in finite groups

It seems that I can generalize a result from compact, connected Lie groups to finite groups, but in order to do so, I need to have some kind of geodesics on finite groups.
Below is a proposition for ...

**16**

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**3**answers

2k views

### Which groups have only real and quaternionic irreducible representations?

Consider a continuous irreducible representation of a compact Lie group on a finite-dimensional complex Hilbert space. There are three mutually exclusive options:
1) it's not isomorphic to its dual ...