Questions on group theory which concern finite groups.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

12
votes
2answers
1k views

Generalization of a theorem of Øystein Ore in group theory

Theorem (Øystein Ore, 1938): A finite group $G$ is cyclic iff its lattice of subgroups $\mathcal{L}(G)$ is distributive. Proof: see below. Let $(H \subset G)$ be an inclusion of finite groups and ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Is there a purely group-theoretic reformulation of an equivalence of subgroups?

There is an equivalence relation between inclusion of finite groups coming from the world of subfactors: Definition: $(H_{1} \subset G_{1}) \sim(H_{2} \subset G_{2})$ if $(R^{G_{1}} \subset R^{H_{1}...
0
votes
2answers
165 views

Products of maximal inclusions of finite groups with a non-obvious intermediate

Let $(H_1 \subset G_1)$ and $(H_2 \subset G_2)$ be core-free maximal inclusions of finite groups. Their product, the inclusion $(H_1 \times H_2 \subset G_1 \times G_2)$, admits four obvious ...
22
votes
2answers
1k views

Examples of finite groups with “good” bijection(s) between conjugacy classes and irreducible representations?

For symmetric group conjugacy classes and irreducible representation both are parametrized by Young diagramms, so there is a kind of "good" bijection between the two sets. For general finite groups ...
25
votes
6answers
3k views

Generating finite simple groups with $2$ elements

Here is a very natural question: Q: Is it always possible to generate a finite simple group with only $2$ elements? In all the examples that I can think of the answer is yes. If the answer is ...
8
votes
1answer
835 views

A dual version of a theorem of Øystein Ore in group theory

Let $(H \subset G)$ be an inclusion of finite groups. This post is a dual version for the Generalization of a theorem of Øystein Ore in which it's proved: Theorem: $\mathcal{L}(H\subset G)$ ...
29
votes
2answers
1k views

Are there “real” vs. “quaternionic” conjugacy classes in finite groups?

The complex irreps of a finite group come in three types: self-dual by a symmetric form, self-dual by a symplectic form, and not self-dual at all. In the first two cases, the character is real-valued, ...
15
votes
4answers
3k views

Classification of finite groups of isometries

Consider the problem of classifying the finite groups of isometries of $\mathbb{R}^n$. For $n=2$ it is cyclic and dihedral groups. For $n=3$ they are well known, probably from Kepler and are related ...
10
votes
2answers
927 views

Number of isomorphism types of finite groups

Are there some good asymptotic estimations for the number $F(n)$ of non-isomorphic finite groups of size smaller than $n$?
8
votes
1answer
348 views

Characterization of Frobenius complements

I have learned that Frobenius complements are characterized (among finite groups) by having a fixed point free complex representation. That is, a finite group $G$ is a Frobenius complement if and only ...
8
votes
1answer
710 views

Are there workable algebraic geometry approaches for the pentagon equation?

A pentagon equation is a system of polynomial equations of degree $3$ with several variables and integer coefficients, given by a fusion ring. A fusion ring is given by a finite set of integer ...
4
votes
0answers
283 views

Are the homogeneous single chain subfactors, Dedekind?

Background: See here and there. Recall that a subfactor is Dedekind if all its intermediate subfactors are normal. A subfactor $(N \subset M)$ is Homogeneous Single Chain (HSC) if its lattice ...
4
votes
1answer
276 views

Normal intermediate subgroup and normal core

Let $G$ be a finite group and $H$ a subgroup. The normal core of $H$ in $G$ is $core_G(H) := \bigcap_{g \in G}g^{-1}Hg$ Definition: $K$ is a normal intermediate subgroup of the inclusion $(H \...
2
votes
1answer
395 views

A second isomorphism theorem for the inclusions of groups

The usual second isomorphism theorem for groups is: let $G$ be a group, $S$ and $N$ subgroups with $N$ normal, then $SN$ is a subgroup of $G$, $S\cap N$ is a normal subgroup of $S$ and $SN/N \simeq ...
36
votes
14answers
5k views

Fantastic properties of Z/2Z

Recently I gave a lecture to master's students about some nice properties of the group with two elements $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$. Typically, I wanted to present simple, natural situations where the ...
29
votes
7answers
5k views

The finite subgroups of SU(n)

This question is inspired by the recent question "The finite subgroups of SL(2,C)". While reading the answers there I remembered reading once that identifying the finite subgroups of SU(3) is still an ...
28
votes
9answers
3k views

How many groups of size at most n are there? What is the asymptotic growth rate? And what of rings, fields, graphs, partial orders, etc.?

Question. How many (isomorphism types of) finite groups of size at most n are there? What is the asymptotic growth rate? And the same question for rings, fields, graphs, partial orders, etc. ...
25
votes
6answers
2k views

Measures of non-abelian-ness

Let $G$ be a finite non-abelian group of $n$ elements. I would like a measure that intuitively captures the extent to which $G$ is non-commutative. One easy measure is a count of the non-commutative ...
23
votes
2answers
1k views

Definition of “finite group of Lie type”?

The list of finite simple groups of Lie type has been understood for half a century, modulo some differences in notation (and identifications between some of the very small groups coming from ...
18
votes
2answers
1k views

(co)homology of symmetric groups

Let $S_n=\{\text{bijections }[n]\to[n]\}$ be the n-th symmetric group. Its (co)homology will be understood with trivial action. What are the $\mathbb{Z}$-modules $H_k(S_n;\mathbb{Z})$? Using GAP, we ...
29
votes
3answers
3k views

Feit-Thompson Theorem: The Odd Order Paper

For reference, the Feit-Thompson Theorem states that every finite group of odd order is necessarily solvable. Equivalently, the theorem states that there exist no non-abelian finite simple groups of ...
21
votes
2answers
878 views

Nilpotency of a group by looking at orders of elements

For any finite group $G$, let $$\theta(G) := \sum_{g \in G} \frac{o(g)}{\phi(o(g))},$$ where $o(g)$ denotes the order of the element $g$ in $G$, and where $\phi$ is the Euler totient function. It is ...
20
votes
0answers
797 views

Given a lattice L with n elements, are there finite groups H < G such that L $\cong$ the lattice of subgroups between H and G?

If there is no restriction on $n$, this is a famous open problem. I'm wondering if any recent work has been done for small $n>6$. I believe the question is answered (positively) for $n=6$ by ...
2
votes
2answers
346 views

If all real conjugacy classes are strongly real, then all real irreps are “strongly real”(symmetric), true ?

Question Is true that if all real conjugacy classes of a finite group are strongly real, then all its real irreducible representations (irreps) are "strongly real"(symmetric) ? And vice verse ? ...
6
votes
4answers
901 views

Structure of the adjoint representation of a (finite) group (Hopf algebra) ?

Every group acts on itself by conjugation $h \mapsto g h g^{-1}$. Respectively considering functions on a group we obtain a linear representation. Question 1: what is known about this representation ...
3
votes
3answers
357 views

A problem with pointwise stabilizer subgroups of fixed-point subspaces II

Definitions: Let $W$ be a representation of a group $G$, $K$ a subgroup of $G$, and $X$ a subspace of $W$. Let the fixed-point subspace $W^{K}:=\{w \in W \ \vert \ kw=w \ , \forall k \in K \}$. Let ...
10
votes
1answer
387 views

Factorization of a finite group by two subsets

I want to write a GAP program for checking the following question. Let $G$ be a given finite group with order $n$. Is it true that for every factorization $n=ab$ there exist subsets $A$ and $B$ ...
6
votes
1answer
454 views

Non-vanishing of the Tate-Shafarevich kernel in group cohomology

Let $G$ be a finite group. Let $M$ be a finite $G$-module (a finite abelian group with an action of $G$). We consider a special kind of $G$-modules; in particular, our $M$ is a finite dimensional ...
6
votes
1answer
562 views

Positivity of the alternating sum of indices for boolean interval of finite groups

Let $G$ be a finite group and $H$ a subgroup such that the interval $[H,G]$ is a boolean lattice. Let $L_1, \dots , L_n$ be the maximal subgroups of $G$ containing $H$. Let the alternative sum ...
5
votes
2answers
404 views

Decomposing the conjugacy representation of Sym$(n)$ for small $n$

I am trying to compute the decomposition of the conjugacy representation of some small symmetric groups. Perhaps someone has undertaken a similar calculation. My own calculations are quite slow, ...
4
votes
2answers
647 views

Decomposing representations of finite groups

Let $G$ be a finite group, $p$ a prime number. We denote by $\mathbb{F}_p$ the field of cardinality $p$. Let $V$ be an infinite dimensional representation of $G$ over $\mathbb{F}_p$. Must there be $G$...
2
votes
1answer
212 views

An upper bound for the maximal subgroups at fixed index?

Let us call a subgroup an injective homomorphism between groups. I warn the reader that a subgroup designates here an inclusion $(H \subset G)$, not $H$ alone. A subgroup $H \subset G$ is ...
1
vote
1answer
180 views

relatively free groups in $Var(S_3)$

Suppose $S_3$ is the symmetric group of order 6. Which elements of the variety $Var(S_3)$ are relatively free? This question is related to my previous question Relatively free algebras in a variety ...
1
vote
0answers
191 views

$\mathcal{L}(H_i \subset G_i)$ distributive $\Rightarrow$ $\mathcal{L}(H_1 \times H_2 \subset G_1 \times G_2)$ modular?

Let $\mathcal{L}( G)$ be the lattice of subgroups of $G$ and $\mathcal{L}(H \subset G)$ the lattice of intermediate subgroups. Definitions: A lattice $(L, \wedge, \vee)$ is distributive if, $\...
0
votes
1answer
267 views

Projective characters with corresponding factor set

The following is just a follow up to my previous question. I have a finite group $H$ with 14 ordinary characters. The Schur multiplier $M(H)\cong 2^2$. Hence the group $H$ will have 3 sets of ...
53
votes
4answers
2k views

Is there a 0-1 law for the theory of groups?

Several months ago, Dominik asked the question Is there a 0-1 law for the theory of groups? on mathstackexchange, but although his question received attention there is still no answer. By asking the ...
51
votes
1answer
4k views

Why can't a nonabelian group be 75% abelian?

This question asks for intuition, not a proof. An earlier question, Measures of non-abelian-ness was thoroughly answered by Arturo Magidin. A paper by Gustafson1 proves that, for a nonabelian group, ...
29
votes
4answers
2k views

For which $n$ is there only one group of order $n$?

Let $f(n)$ denote the number of (isomorphism classes of) groups of order $n$. A couple easy facts: If $n$ is not squarefree, then there are multiple abelian groups of order $n$. If $n \geq 4$ is ...
50
votes
1answer
1k views

Are there $n$ groups of order $n$ for some $n>1$?

Given a positive integer $n$, let $N(n)$ denote the number of groups of order $n$, up to isomorphism. Question: Does $N(n)=n$ hold for some $n>1$? I checked the OEIS-sequence https://oeis.org/...
28
votes
3answers
1k views

Being a subgroup: proof by character theory

Let me first cite a theorem due to Frobenius: Let $G$ be a finite group, with $H$ a proper subgroup ($H\ne (1)$ and $G$). Suppose that for every $g\not\in H$, we have $H\cap gHg^{-1}=(1)$. Then ...
27
votes
1answer
2k views

Do all exact 1 -> A -> AxB -> B -> 1 split for finite groups?

Let $A$, $B$ be finite groups. Is it true that all short exact sequences $1 \rightarrow A \rightarrow A \times B \rightarrow B \rightarrow 1$ split on the right? In other words, do there exist ...
25
votes
3answers
835 views

Do finite groups acting on a ball have a fixed point?

Suppose that $G$ is a finite group, acting via homeomorphisms on $B^n$, the closed $n$-dimensional ball. Does $G$ have a fixed point? A fixed point for $G$ is a point $p \in B^n$ where for all $g \...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

learning Deligne-Lusztig theory

Can someone give me a roadmap for learning Deligne-Lusztig theory? (Except for the original article by Deligne and Lusztig) Edit: You may assume knowledge of representation theory of finite groups (...
35
votes
4answers
2k views

How much of the ATLAS of finite groups is independently checked and/or computer verified?

In a recent talk Serre made some comments about proofs that rely on the classification of finite simple groups (CFSG) and on the ATLAS of Finite Groups. Namely, he said that a proof that relied on the ...
30
votes
2answers
1k views

A group-theoretic perspective on Frankl's union closed problem

Here is a group theoretic phrasing of a special case of the union closed conjecture: Question: Given a finite group $G$, is there an element of prime power order which is contained in at most half ...
23
votes
2answers
2k views

Order of products of elements in symmetric groups

Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$. Is it true that for any $a, b, c \in \mathbb{N}$ satisfying $1 < a, b, c \leq n-2$ the symmetric group ${\rm S}_n$ has elements of order $a$ and $b$ whose product has order ...
10
votes
2answers
613 views

A group action of the Heisenberg group with special symmetries

Suppose we look at the Heisenberg group $H_{d}$ as a matrix group of upper triangular matrices over the ring $\mathbb{Z}/d\mathbb{Z}$. You can even choose $d$ to be prime if you want. A natural ...
20
votes
3answers
2k views

What is this subgroup of $\mathfrak S_{12}$?

On some occasion I was gifted a calendar. It displays a math quizz every day of the year. Not really exciting in general, but at least one of them let me raise a group-theoretic question. The quizz: ...
20
votes
3answers
1k views

Periodic Automorphism Towers

In Scott's classic textbook on Group Theory, he asks: Suppose that $G$ is a finite group. Is the sequence of isomorphism types of the groups $Aut^{(n)}(G)$ for $n \in \mathbb{N}$ eventually periodic? ...
19
votes
1answer
747 views

Geodesics in finite groups

It seems that I can generalize a result from compact, connected Lie groups to finite groups, but in order to do so, I need to have some kind of geodesics on finite groups. Below is a proposition for ...