The factorization tag has no usage guidance.

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### Bounded domain matrix factorization

Assume we're trying to find $A\in [-1,1]^{n\times d}, B\in [-1,1]^{m\times d}$, from an observed matrix $C\in [-d,d]^{n\times m}$, where $C=AB^T$.
The goal is to return $\widehat A, \widehat B$ such ...

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### Finding integer representation as difference of two triangular numbers

Since $n = \frac{n(n+1)}{2}-\frac{n(n-1)}{2}$, every natural number can be represented as the difference of two triangular numbers:
$ n = \frac{a(a+1)}{2}-\frac{b(b-1)}{2}$. Finding such a ...

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### Do the coefficients of these irreducible polynomials always become periodic?

Fix $n\in\mathbb N$ and a starting polynomial (or seed) $p_n=a_0+a_1x+\dots+a_nx^n$ with $a_k\in\mathbb Z\ \forall k$ and $a_0a_n\ne0$.
Define $p_{n+1},p_{n+2},\dots$ recursively by $p_r = ...

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### On factorization algorithms for $\mathcal{O}[x]$

We know that $\mathsf{LLL}$ algorithm provides factorization procedure that runs in poly time for polynomials in $\Bbb Z[x]$ that are primitive.
What other rings $\mathcal{O}$ can we use instead of ...

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504 views

### Optimal Gear Trains

Suppose you need to slow down a turning motor so that a gear turns at
an angular velocity $\frac{a}{b}$ of that of the motor shaft, where $a$ and
$b$ are natural numbers. For example, this set of ...

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228 views

### Analog of Euler's factoring technique

Is there an analog of Euler's Two Squares factoring theorem over polynomial rings $\Bbb Z[x]$ by considering a version for non-negative polynomials?
Euler's two squares factoring states that numbers ...

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### Efficiently factorize a KKT system with block diagonal upper corner

I have a system resulting from a quadratic energy minimization with linear equality constraints enforced with Lagrange multipliers which has the form:
\begin{equation}
A =
\left[\begin{array}{c|c}
...

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### Possible $\mathsf{NP}$ complete problem from number theory

A candidate $\mathsf{NP}$ complete variant of factoring was posted in http://cstheory.stackexchange.com/questions/4769/an-np-complete-variant-of-factoring, where decision problem ...

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### More 3-connected cubic graphs with all 2-factors of same cycle type?

The setup is as in this question: Let $G$ be a 3-connected cubic graph. If all 2-factors of $G$ are isomorphic (as graphs), i.e. all have the same partition $\pi$ as cycle type, we'll say that $G$ is ...

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104 views

### Coim factorization of a morphism in a complete well-powered category

In a complete, cocomplete and well-powered category with zero object consider the canonical factorization of a morphism $f=k\circ \mathrm{Coim}(f)$. Does cocomplete+complete+well-powered guarantee ...

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### Least Prime Factor in a sequence of 2n consecutive integers

I was thinking about consecutive integers and I wondered if anyone had done work exploring whether a sequence of $2n$ consecutive integers (i.e. 101,102,103,...,100+2n) always contains at least one ...

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155 views

### Pulling out factors in a Noetherian Domain

Let $R$ be a Noetherian domain (not-necessarily commutative), and let $S$ be a Noetherian subring of $R$. An element $r\in R$ is left $S$-irreducible if, for any $s\in S$ and $r' \in R$ with $sr'=r$, ...

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### How does a permutation $P$ affect the singular value $\sigma_{\text{max}}(Q^\top P^\top Q)$ for orthogonal $Q$?

Let $q_i$ for $i=1,\ldots,m$ be the columns of the matrix $Q\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times m}$, $n>m$, which are pairwise orthonormal ( i.e.
$q_i^\top q_j = \begin{cases} 1 & \text{if}\quad i=j \\ 0 ...

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### On variant of integer factorization

In the post on site cstheory.stackexchange on whether a variant of integer factorization
$$\mathsf{}\mbox{ }{\Pi} = \{\langle a, b, n \rangle \;|\; \exists \mbox{ } \mathsf{ an}\mbox{ }\mathsf{ ...

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104 views

### counting irreducible factors

In How hard is it to compute the number of prime factors of a given integer? a question was asked on computing number of prime factors of an integer.
Suppose we have a polynomial $f(X)\in \Bbb Z[X]$ ...

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106 views

### On reducible polynomials

Let $f(x),g(x)\in\Bbb Z[x]$ with $deg(f)>deg(g)$.
Given an integer $B$, is there any algorithm that runs in $\log^c |B|$ for some fixed $c\in \Bbb R$ to find a $h(x)\in\Bbb Z[x]$ (if one exists) ...

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### Elements of low multiplicative order and computing square roots modulo composites

In "On computing factors of cyclotomic polynomials", Richard P. Brent
gives the identity
$$ 4 \Phi_n(x) = A_n(x)^2 - (-1)^{(n-1)/2} n B_n(x)^2 \qquad (1) $$
where $n$ is odd squarefree and $A_n,B_n$ ...

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### Is this factoring algorithm sufficiently efficient for some integers of special kind?

Basically the question is if $m$ is factored over the integers,
can it be relatively efficiently factored over $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{n}]$
where $n$ is not factored, but might be of special form?
Suppose ...

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### What algebras does the hidden subgroup problem for finite abelian groups apply to?

Shor's algorithm is said to solve the hidden subgroup problem for finite Abelian groups, of which factoring and the discrete logarithm problem for integers belong to. Apparently the HSP for finite ...