The factorization tag has no wiki summary.

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### Irreducibility of Faulhaber-like Polynomials over $\mathbb Q[x]$

Motivation: Inspired by the famous Faulhaber polynomials $F_k(N)=\displaystyle\sum_{n=0}^Nn^k,$ I decided to study their alternating versions, $\Phi_k(M)=\displaystyle\sum_{n=0}^M(-1)^nn^k$.
For ...

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### Bounded domain matrix factorization

Assume we're trying to find $A\in [-1,1]^{n\times d}, B\in [-1,1]^{m\times d}$, from an observed matrix $C\in [-d,d]^{n\times m}$, where $C=AB^T$.
The goal is to return $\widehat A, \widehat B$ such ...

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### Analog of Euler's factoring technique

Is there an analog of Euler's Two Squares factoring theorem over polynomial rings $\Bbb Z[x]$ by considering a version for non-negative polynomials?
Euler's two squares factoring states that numbers ...

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### On reducible polynomials

Let $f(x),g(x)\in\Bbb Z[x]$ with $deg(f)>deg(g)$.
Given an integer $B$, is there any algorithm that runs in $\log^c |B|$ for some fixed $c\in \Bbb R$ to find a $h(x)\in\Bbb Z[x]$ (if one exists) ...

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### Irreducible/prime/indivisible elements

in what follows all the rings are commutative, nontrivial, with unit.
Recall the following definitions:
1) $\pi\in A$ is prime if $(\pi)$ is a nonzero prime ideal
2) $\pi\in A$ is irreducible if ...

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### Finding the greatest (smallest) factor of a number smaller (greater) than another number

Instead of iterating through all the possible numbers, is there a better way to find the greatest factor of a number $n$, such that it is less than $m$ ($m$ < $n$). Similarly how does one find the ...

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### Do the coefficients of these irreducible polynomials always become periodic?

Fix $n\in\mathbb N$ and a starting polynomial (or seed) $p_n=a_0+a_1x+\dots+a_nx^n$ with $a_k\in\mathbb Z\ \forall k$ and $a_0a_n\ne0$.
Define $p_{n+1},p_{n+2},\dots$ recursively by $p_r = ...

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### Difficulty of factoring a Gaussian integer (compared to factoring its norm)

Given a Gaussian integer $G=a+ib$, with $gcd(a,b)=1$, a well-known strategy for factoring $G$ is to first compute its norm $N(G)=a^2+b^2$, factor the norm and finally recover the correct generator ...

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### counting irreducible factors

In How hard is it to compute the number of prime factors of a given integer? a question was asked on computing number of prime factors of an integer.
Suppose we have a polynomial $f(X)\in \Bbb Z[X]$ ...

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### Which nonnegative matrices have exact nonnegative matrix factors of smaller dimensionality?

The nonnegative matrix
$V = \left( \begin{array}{cc}
1 & 1 \\
1 & 1 \end{array} \right)$
has nonnegative matrix factors $W = \left( \begin{array}{c} 1 \\ 1 \end{array} \right)$ and $H = ...

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### Puzzling CAS-detected factorization by cyclotomic polynomials [closed]

If one factorizes by CAS the expression $$x^{\frac{m(m+1)}{2}}\prod_{k=1}^m(x^k+(\frac{1}{x})^k)$$ a puzzling perfect factorization seems to be possible for all natural values of $m$.
E.g. for ...

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### More 3-connected cubic graphs with all 2-factors of same cycle type?

The setup is as in this question: Let $G$ be a 3-connected cubic graph. If all 2-factors of $G$ are isomorphic (as graphs), i.e. all have the same partition $\pi$ as cycle type, we'll say that $G$ is ...

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### Cubic graphs whose 2-factors all have the same cycle type

Let $G$ be a bridgeless cubic graph. I am interested in such graphs where all 2-factors are isomorphic (as graphs), i.e. have the same partition as cycle type. We'll say that this partition is ...

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### runs of consecutive non squarefree integers

This question gained no attention at Math SE.
Call a sequence of $k$ consecutive naturals squary if each one of them is divided by a square > 1. The Chinese Remainder theorem trivially guarantees us ...

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### Degrees of factors of polynomial $f(x)=x^q-(ax^2+bx+c)\in \mathbb{F}_q[x]$

I’m facing the problem of factoring polynomials of type $f(x)=x^q-(ax^2+bx+c)\in \mathbb{F}_q[x]$ and the degrees of factors seem to be quite special. For example, according to my experimental results ...

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### Distinct primitive factorizations over integers of number fields

I am curious about the following.
Let $K$ be a number field. For any $a \in \mathcal{O}_K$ in its ring of integers, let $N(a)$ be zero if there exist elements $b, c \in \mathcal{O}_K \setminus ...

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### Efficiently factorize a KKT system with block diagonal upper corner

I have a system resulting from a quadratic energy minimization with linear equality constraints enforced with Lagrange multipliers which has the form:
\begin{equation}
A =
\left[\begin{array}{c|c}
...

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### What algebras does the hidden subgroup problem for finite abelian groups apply to?

Shor's algorithm is said to solve the hidden subgroup problem for finite Abelian groups, of which factoring and the discrete logarithm problem for integers belong to. Apparently the HSP for finite ...

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### Given an arbitrary composite odd integer $N$, find two integers $P$ and $Q$ such that $P-Q \neq 1$ and $N=P^2-Q^2$ [closed]

Given an arbitrary composite odd integer $N$, find two integers $P$ and $Q$ such that:
$P-Q \neq 1$ and $N=P^2-Q^2$
I am assuming that the best known solution to this problem runs at $O(2^{|N|})$.
...

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### Proving conditions on $(r+s)^2 \mid (4r^4+1)$, related to Pell oblongs

While working on another problem (Solving the quartic equation $r^4 + 4r^3s - 6r^2s^2 - 4rs^3 + s^4 = 1$), I came across a question which seems to be of [semi-] independent interest.
Conjecture. If ...

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### Large gaps between consecutive irreducible polynomials with small heights

For a prime gap of length at least $n$, a trivial upper bound for its first occurrence is $N=n!$ or $N=lcm(2,\dots,n)$. A bit better is $N=p_1\cdots p_n$ where $p_k$ is the $k$th prime, as then ...

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### Aurifeuillean factorization with number fields

Basically the question is if number fields can be used
in Aurifeuillean factorization.
Probably this is easy and the answer is "no".
Let $f,g \in \mathbb{Z}[x], a \in \mathbb{N}$.
Let $f(x)$ and ...

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### Are there any fast algorithms for factoring integers that don't work by searching for smooth numbers?

All of the fast algorithms that I have seen which factor integers work by searching for smooth numbers. Are there any fast algorithms for factoring integers that don't work by searching for smooth ...

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### The number of distinct prime factors of $n\in\mathbb N$

Let $\omega(n)$ be the number of distinct prime factors of a natural number $n$.
Note that $\omega(n)=0\iff n=1$, and that $\omega(24)=\omega(2^3\cdot 3^1)=2\ (\not = 4)$.
(For more details, you ...

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### Density of Irreducible Polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$

Recently I was thinking about some questions concerning $\mathbb{Z}[x]$ and realized that they might be a bit easier if I knew the relative densities of reducible polynomials.
Let $P_d$ denote the ...

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### Number of ways to write an integer as a product of irreducibles

Is there any way to tell the number of distinct ways to factor $a\in\mathcal{O}_k$ (up to units, of course) when $k$ is not a PID? A simple investigation in $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{-5})$ with integer ring ...

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### Coim factorization of a morphism in a complete well-powered category

In a complete, cocomplete and well-powered category with zero object consider the canonical factorization of a morphism $f=k\circ \mathrm{Coim}(f)$. Does cocomplete+complete+well-powered guarantee ...

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### Using the decomposition $641 = 5^4 + 2^4$ to factor $F_5$

The question in the title arises from a problem in Stewart's "Galois Theory, Third Edition" (and possibly elsewhere) which has been bugging me for a few days since reading it:
Problem 19.5 (p. 224) ...

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### $\omega(p^n - 1)$ as $n \rightarrow \infty$

Although I am also interested in the number of distinct prime factors (not counting
multiplicity), today I use $\omega(m)$ to denote the number of (positive) prime
factors (with multiplicity) of the ...

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### For any prime $p$, is there $C$ such that if $x\ge C$, then all but one integer among $x+1, x+2, \dots, x+p$ has Greatest Prime Factor $> p$

I apologize if this is a naive question about greatest prime factors (gpf). I was thinking about the sequence of integers where $\mathrm{gpf}(x) \le p$ where $p$ is any prime.
Clearly, as $x$ ...

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### Collision polynomials

Consider $P_n(x)$ polynomials defined through the recurrence relations
$$P_n(x)=2(1-x)P_{n-1}(x)-(1+x)^2P_{n-2}(x),$$ with $P_0(x)=1$ and $P_1(x)=1-3x$.
In fact, the explicit solution of these ...

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### Significance behind splitting of (x+y)^7-(x^7+y^7)? [closed]

A quick check via third roots of unity establishes$$(x+y)^7-(x^7+y^7) = 7xy(x+y)(x^2+xy+y^2)^2$$
Some questions:
What is the significance of this factorization?
Does it have any connection to the ...

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### Elements of low multiplicative order and computing square roots modulo composites

In "On computing factors of cyclotomic polynomials", Richard P. Brent
gives the identity
$$ 4 \Phi_n(x) = A_n(x)^2 - (-1)^{(n-1)/2} n B_n(x)^2 \qquad (1) $$
where $n$ is odd squarefree and $A_n,B_n$ ...

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### Seeking Noetherian normal domain with vanishing Picard group but not a UFD

Once again, the question says it all.
My motivation is the article on factorization I am writing. I want to explain (as well as to understand!) why for normal Noetherian domains of dimension greater ...

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### Generating 3SAT circuit for Integer factorization example

I read somewhere that 3SAT can be used to solve Integer Factorization.
If that is true, could someone teach me a simple example of generating the 3SAT by using a small number? Let's say you are given ...

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### How can an integer be factorized as n*m so that n^m has the highest value. [closed]

Given an integer d, is there a way of finding max(n^m), where d=n*m, except brute-forcing it ?
n and m don't have to be primes.
For example:
The number 12 can be factorized into two factors as: ...

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### Saying things rapidly about integer factorisations

Let $N$ be a positive integer. Thanks to the Miller-Rabin test and the work of Agrawal, Kayal and Saxena, these days people have much much faster algorithms for testing whether $N$ is prime or ...

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### Can infinite polynomials be expressed as a product of its linear factors?

Background:
In the 1700s, Euler solved the Basel Problem, which was to solve $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{1}{n^2}$ in closed-form. Euler showed that it was equal to $\frac{\pi^2}{6}$ by first expressing ...

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### Factorization of antisymmetric bounded holomorphic functions

A basic principle in complex function theory is that one can split off zeros of holomorphic functions in a similar way as for polynomials: If $f$ is holomorphic near $0$ and $f(0) = 0$, then $f(z) = ...

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### Fastest way to factor integers < 2^60

I've been running a search for Mordell curves of rank >=8 for about 12 months and have identified approximately 280,000 curves in our archivable range, amongst many millions that aren't.
For this ...

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### Optimal Gear Trains

Suppose you need to slow down a turning motor so that a gear turns at
an angular velocity $\frac{a}{b}$ of that of the motor shaft, where $a$ and
$b$ are natural numbers. For example, this set of ...

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### Groups of Rational Points on Gaussian Circles

Let a gaussian circle $C_R$ be any circle defined by the equation:
$$x^2+y^2 = R, (x,y) \in \mathbb{R}^2$$, where $R$ is the norm of a gaussian integer ($R=a^2+b^2, (a,b) \in \mathbb{Z}^2$). IF $R$ ...

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### Algorithm for detecting prime powers

While reading Peter Shor's paper Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer, I came across the following quote:
"This scheme will thus work as ...

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### What is known about the polynomial factorization of power series?

Some power series factorize; $1+\sum_{n=1}^\infty x^n=\prod_{n=1}^\infty (1+x^{2^n})$ and $1+\sum_{n=1}^\infty x^{2n}/(2n+1)!=\prod_{x=1}^\infty (1+x^2/n^2\pi^2)$ for example; while others do ...

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### Divisibility and factorization in rings that are not integral domains

In my course notes for an undergraduate course "Algebra I", I wrote at the point when I'm introducing the notion of divisibility in rings (in a section on unique factorization):
We want to study ...

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### find the minimum difference between the factors of a number

Given a number c, what is the smartest way to find |x - y| such that x * y =c and |x - y| is minimum

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### Polynomials all of whose roots are rational

I have two questions about the class of integer-coefficient polynomials all of whose roots are rational.
I asked this at MSE, but it attracted little interest (perhaps because it is not interesting!)
...

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### Factoring a certain quartic mod primes

Let $h(x)=x^4+12x^3+14x^2-12x+1$, and let $p>5$ be a prime.
I want to show $h(x)$ factors into 2 quadratics mod $p$ if $p \equiv 9,11$ mod 20, while
$h(x)$ factors mod $p$ into 4 linear factors if ...

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### Is the ring of quaternionic polynomials factorial?

Denote by $\mathbb{H}[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ the ring of polynomials in $n$ variables with quaternionic coefficients, where the variables commute with each other and with the coefficients. Two polynomials ...

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### Finding a divisor of a number under a constraint

Given 2 positive integers $n, l$ with $ l \leq n$, I am looking for a way to find the largest divisor $d$ of $n$, such as $d \leq l$.
Assume $n$ has too many divisors for an exhaustive search.
Thanks ...