The factorization tag has no usage guidance.

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### Given an arbitrary composite odd integer $N$, find two integers $P$ and $Q$ such that $P-Q \neq 1$ and $N=P^2-Q^2$ [closed]

Given an arbitrary composite odd integer $N$, find two integers $P$ and $Q$ such that:
$P-Q \neq 1$ and $N=P^2-Q^2$
I am assuming that the best known solution to this problem runs at $O(2^{|N|})$.
...

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**1**answer

141 views

### Aurifeuillean factorization with number fields

Basically the question is if number fields can be used
in Aurifeuillean factorization.
Probably this is easy and the answer is "no".
Let $f,g \in \mathbb{Z}[x], a \in \mathbb{N}$.
Let $f(x)$ and $f(...

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**2**answers

694 views

### runs of consecutive non squarefree integers

This question gained no attention at Math SE.
Call a sequence of $k$ consecutive naturals squary if each one of them is divided by a square > 1. The Chinese Remainder theorem trivially guarantees us ...

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582 views

### Are there any fast algorithms for factoring integers that don't work by searching for smooth numbers?

All of the fast algorithms that I have seen which factor integers work by searching for smooth numbers. Are there any fast algorithms for factoring integers that don't work by searching for smooth ...

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**1**answer

1k views

### The number of distinct prime factors of $n\in\mathbb N$

Let $\omega(n)$ be the number of distinct prime factors of a natural number $n$.
Note that $\omega(n)=0\iff n=1$, and that $\omega(24)=\omega(2^3\cdot 3^1)=2\ (\not = 4)$.
(For more details, you ...

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325 views

### Do the coefficients of these irreducible polynomials always become periodic?

Fix $n\in\mathbb N$ and a starting polynomial (or seed) $p_n=a_0+a_1x+\dots+a_nx^n$ with $a_k\in\mathbb Z\ \forall k$ and $a_0a_n\ne0$.
Define $p_{n+1},p_{n+2},\dots$ recursively by $p_r = p_{r-1}+...

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211 views

### Large gaps between consecutive irreducible polynomials with small heights

For a prime gap of length at least $n$, a trivial upper bound for its first occurrence is $N=n!$ or $N=lcm(2,\dots,n)$. A bit better is $N=p_1\cdots p_n$ where $p_k$ is the $k$th prime, as then $N+2,\...

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482 views

### Number of ways to write an integer as a product of irreducibles

Is there any way to tell the number of distinct ways to factor $a\in\mathcal{O}_k$ (up to units, of course) when $k$ is not a PID? A simple investigation in $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{-5})$ with integer ring $\...

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**1**answer

352 views

### Proving conditions on $(r+s)^2 \mid (4r^4+1)$, related to Pell oblongs

While working on another problem (Solving the quartic equation $r^4 + 4r^3s - 6r^2s^2 - 4rs^3 + s^4 = 1$), I came across a question which seems to be of [semi-] independent interest.
Conjecture. If $...

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112 views

### Coim factorization of a morphism in a complete well-powered category

In a complete, cocomplete and well-powered category with zero object consider the canonical factorization of a morphism $f=k\circ \mathrm{Coim}(f)$. Does cocomplete+complete+well-powered guarantee ...

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**1**answer

449 views

### Using the decomposition $641 = 5^4 + 2^4$ to factor $F_5$

The question in the title arises from a problem in Stewart's "Galois Theory, Third Edition" (and possibly elsewhere) which has been bugging me for a few days since reading it:
Problem 19.5 (p. 224) ...

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**1**answer

2k views

### Difficulty of factoring a Gaussian integer (compared to factoring its norm)

Given a Gaussian integer $G=a+ib$, with $gcd(a,b)=1$, a well-known strategy for factoring $G$ is to first compute its norm $N(G)=a^2+b^2$, factor the norm and finally recover the correct generator ...

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164 views

### Collision polynomials

Consider $P_n(x)$ polynomials defined through the recurrence relations
$$P_n(x)=2(1-x)P_{n-1}(x)-(1+x)^2P_{n-2}(x),$$ with $P_0(x)=1$ and $P_1(x)=1-3x$.
In fact, the explicit solution of these ...

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158 views

### Significance behind splitting of (x+y)^7-(x^7+y^7)? [closed]

A quick check via third roots of unity establishes$$(x+y)^7-(x^7+y^7) = 7xy(x+y)(x^2+xy+y^2)^2$$
Some questions:
What is the significance of this factorization?
Does it have any connection to the ...

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817 views

### $\omega(p^n - 1)$ as $n \rightarrow \infty$

Although I am also interested in the number of distinct prime factors (not counting
multiplicity), today I use $\omega(m)$ to denote the number of (positive) prime
factors (with multiplicity) of the ...

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166 views

### Elements of low multiplicative order and computing square roots modulo composites

In "On computing factors of cyclotomic polynomials", Richard P. Brent
gives the identity
$$ 4 \Phi_n(x) = A_n(x)^2 - (-1)^{(n-1)/2} n B_n(x)^2 \qquad (1) $$
where $n$ is odd squarefree and $A_n,B_n$ ...

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347 views

### Generating 3SAT circuit for Integer factorization example

I read somewhere that 3SAT can be used to solve Integer Factorization.
If that is true, could someone teach me a simple example of generating the 3SAT by using a small number? Let's say you are given ...

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**1**answer

237 views

### How can an integer be factorized as n*m so that n^m has the highest value. [closed]

Given an integer d, is there a way of finding max(n^m), where d=n*m, except brute-forcing it ?
n and m don't have to be primes.
For example:
The number 12 can be factorized into two factors as: 1*12,...

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1k views

### Can infinite polynomials be expressed as a product of its linear factors?

Background:
In the 1700s, Euler solved the Basel Problem, which was to solve $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{1}{n^2}$ in closed-form. Euler showed that it was equal to $\frac{\pi^2}{6}$ by first expressing $\...

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262 views

### Factorization of antisymmetric bounded holomorphic functions

A basic principle in complex function theory is that one can split off zeros of holomorphic functions in a similar way as for polynomials: If $f$ is holomorphic near $0$ and $f(0) = 0$, then $f(z) = ...

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### Fastest way to factor integers < 2^60

I've been running a search for Mordell curves of rank >=8 for about 12 months and have identified approximately 280,000 curves in our archivable range, amongst many millions that aren't.
For this ...

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559 views

### Optimal Gear Trains

Suppose you need to slow down a turning motor so that a gear turns at
an angular velocity $\frac{a}{b}$ of that of the motor shaft, where $a$ and
$b$ are natural numbers. For example, this set of ...

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**3**answers

543 views

### Groups of Rational Points on Gaussian Circles

Let a gaussian circle $C_R$ be any circle defined by the equation:
$$x^2+y^2 = R, (x,y) \in \mathbb{R}^2$$, where $R$ is the norm of a gaussian integer ($R=a^2+b^2, (a,b) \in \mathbb{Z}^2$). IF $R$ ...

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552 views

### For any prime $p$, is there $C$ such that if $x\ge C$, then all but one integer among $x+1, x+2, \dots, x+p$ has Greatest Prime Factor $> p$

I apologize if this is a naive question about greatest prime factors (gpf). I was thinking about the sequence of integers where $\mathrm{gpf}(x) \le p$ where $p$ is any prime.
Clearly, as $x$ ...

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### Algorithm for detecting prime powers

While reading Peter Shor's paper Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer, I came across the following quote:
"This scheme will thus work as ...

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### What is known about the polynomial factorization of power series?

Some power series factorize; $1+\sum_{n=1}^\infty x^n=\prod_{n=1}^\infty (1+x^{2^n})$ and $1+\sum_{n=1}^\infty x^{2n}/(2n+1)!=\prod_{x=1}^\infty (1+x^2/n^2\pi^2)$ for example; while others do not----...

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827 views

### Saying things rapidly about integer factorisations

Let $N$ be a positive integer. Thanks to the Miller-Rabin test and the work of Agrawal, Kayal and Saxena, these days people have much much faster algorithms for testing whether $N$ is prime or ...

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### Divisibility and factorization in rings that are not integral domains

In my course notes for an undergraduate course "Algebra I", I wrote at the point when I'm introducing the notion of divisibility in rings (in a section on unique factorization):
We want to study ...

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637 views

### find the minimum difference between the factors of a number

Given a number c, what is the smartest way to find |x - y| such that x * y =c and |x - y| is minimum

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### Polynomials all of whose roots are rational

I have two questions about the class of integer-coefficient polynomials all of whose roots are rational.
I asked this at MSE, but it attracted little interest (perhaps because it is not interesting!)
...

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414 views

### Factoring a certain quartic mod primes

Let $h(x)=x^4+12x^3+14x^2-12x+1$, and let $p>5$ be a prime.
I want to show $h(x)$ factors into 2 quadratics mod $p$ if $p \equiv 9,11$ mod 20, while
$h(x)$ factors mod $p$ into 4 linear factors if ...

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467 views

### Is the ring of quaternionic polynomials factorial?

Denote by $\mathbb{H}[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ the ring of polynomials in $n$ variables with quaternionic coefficients, where the variables commute with each other and with the coefficients. Two polynomials $P,...

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### Are these polynomials irreducible over ring Z of integers ?

Is it true that polynomials of the form :
$ f(x)= x^n+x^{n-1}+...+x^{k+1}+ax^k+ax^{k-1}+...a$
where $gcd(n+1,k+1)=1$ and $ a\in \mathbb{Z^{+}} $
are irreducible over ring $\mathbb{Z} $ of ...

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420 views

### Finding a divisor of a number under a constraint

Given 2 positive integers $n, l$ with $ l \leq n$, I am looking for a way to find the largest divisor $d$ of $n$, such as $d \leq l$.
Assume $n$ has too many divisors for an exhaustive search.
Thanks ...

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3k views

### Evidence for integer factorization is in $P$

Peter Sarnak believes that integer factorization is in $P$. It is a well-known open problem in TCS to identify the real complexity class of integer factorization. Take a look at this link for Peter ...

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### Finding the greatest (smallest) factor of a number smaller (greater) than another number

Instead of iterating through all the possible numbers, is there a better way to find the greatest factor of a number $n$, such that it is less than $m$ ($m$ < $n$). Similarly how does one find the ...

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486 views

### Factoring and Index Calculus and duality between DL and factoring via compuational problems made easy through them

If factoring is in $P$ (with a blazing fast polynomial time in $P$), would it affect the index calculus algorithm used for Discrete Log calculation in any serious way?
Other connections
$1.)$ "...

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553 views

### Is this pleasing polynomial irreducible?

Let:
$f(x)=x^n+2x^{n-1}+3x^{n-2}+4x^{n-3}+\ldots + (n-1)x^2+nx+(n+1)$.
Is $f(x)$ irreducible?
In light of the answers to this question, I now know that this is true when $n+1$ is prime. What about ...

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636 views

### Factoring some integer in the given interval

I'm posting this question here (rather than on CSTheory) since it seems to require much more knowledge about number theory than algorithms.
Let N be a positive integer. Is there an efficient (i.e. ...

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257 views

### 10 factors for x^2 coefficient in quadratic sieve?

I wrote a quadratic sieve and I tried plugging in all the same parameters as the wikipedia article says msieve uses: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadratic_sieve#Parameters_from_realistic_example
It ...

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### Reduction from factoring to solving Pell equation

The paper Polynomial-Time Quantum Algorithms for Pell's Equation and the Principal Ideal Problem claims
There are reductions from factoring to solving Pell’s equation, and from solving Pell’s
...

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601 views

### Least Prime Factor in a sequence of 2n consecutive integers

I was thinking about consecutive integers and I wondered if anyone had done work exploring whether a sequence of $2n$ consecutive integers (i.e. 101,102,103,...,100+2n) always contains at least one ...

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### Factoring Integers using Complex Integrals

Suppose $n$ is an integer and we wish to factor it. As a special case we have $n = pq$ with $p,q$ distinct primes. The problem: factoring $n$ via complex analysis tools
Background
I have been ...

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563 views

### Is integer factorization harder than RSA ($n=pq$) factorization? [closed]

This is a repost. I could not get a precise answer on math.SE and cstheory.SE
Let FACT denote the integer factoring problem: given $n \in \mathbb{N},$ find primes $p_i \in \mathbb{N},$ and integers $...

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### What are the chances of finding a small factor?

EDIT 2011.05.09
Thanks to Junkie and Tapio Rajala for checking on me. While most of the candidates
referred to below have small factors, the "large" small factors I list below are incorrect. Also, ...

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608 views

### when does a regular graph have a 1-factorization?

Is there a sufficient condition for a regular graph to have a 1-factorization (i.e. being able to pack all of its edges into disjoint perfect matchings, and excluding one vertex if the number of ...

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### “locally” factoring subgroups of Lie groups

I'm not really a math person, and apologize if the question here is too simple. I've ended up with the following type of question for a few Lie groups, but state it for SO(n).
I start with a subgroup ...

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### Density of Irreducible Polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$

Recently I was thinking about some questions concerning $\mathbb{Z}[x]$ and realized that they might be a bit easier if I knew the relative densities of reducible polynomials.
Let $P_d$ denote the ...

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### Second stage of elliptic curve factorization via random walk/Pollard's rho in constant (or low) memory?

The second stage of elliptic curve factorization has the drawback of large memory usage.
Let $n=pq$, $E(\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z})$ is elliptic curve and $P$ point on $E(\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z})$.
On $...

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### Cartesian factorization of a finite set of n-tuples

I'm interested in factoring a finite set of $n$-tuples as the Cartesian product of two "factor sets", of which the first factor is itself the Cartesian product of some of the set's projection images, ...