Banach spaces, function spaces, real functions, integral transforms, theory of distributions, measure theory.

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89
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17answers
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Why do we care about $L^p$ spaces besides $p = 1$, $p = 2$, and $p = \infty$?

I was helping a student study for a functional analysis exam and the question came up as to when, in practice, one needs to consider the Banach space $L^p$ for some value of $p$ other than the obvious ...
64
votes
2answers
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Norms of Commutators

If an $n$ by $n$ complex matrix $A$ has trace zero, then it is a commutator, which means that there are $n$ by $n$ matrices $B$ and $C$ so that $A= BC-CB$. What is the order of the best constant ...
57
votes
1answer
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The mathematical theory of Feynman integrals

It is well known that Feynman integrals are one of the tools that physicists have and mathematicians haven't, sadly. Arguably, they are the most important such tool. Briefly, the question I'd like to ...
54
votes
0answers
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2, 3, and 4 (a possible fixed point result ?)

The question below is related to the classical Browder-Goehde-Kirk fixed point theorem. Let $K$ be the closed unit ball of $\ell^{2}$, and let $T:K\rightarrow K$ be a mapping such that $\Vert ...
53
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2answers
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Barrelled, bornological, ultrabornological, semi-reflexive, … how are these used?

I'm not a functional analyst (though I like to pretend that I am from time to time) but I use it and I think it's a great subject. But whenever I read about locally convex topological vector spaces, ...
52
votes
4answers
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Did Gelfand's theory of commutative Banach algebras influence algebraic geometers?

Guillemin and Sternberg wrote the following in 1987 in a short article called "Some remarks on I.M. Gelfand's works" accompanying Gelfand's Collected Papers, Volume I: The theory of commutative ...
41
votes
15answers
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Is there a nice application of category theory to functional/complex/harmonic analysis?

[Title changed, and wording of question tweaked, by YC, because the original title asked a question which seems different from the one people want to answer.] I've read looked at the examples in ...
40
votes
10answers
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Notions of convergence not corresponding to topologies

This question concerns the ramifications of the following interesting problem that appeared on Ed Nelson's final exam on Functional Analysis some years ago: Exam question: Is there a metric on the ...
38
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6answers
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Can we actually find any fixed points with Brouwer's theorem?

Background At the risk of greatly oversimplifying matters, let me state a heuristic from Granas and Dugundji's beautiful book: fixed point theorems fall into two broad categories. The first class is ...
36
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0answers
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Set-theoretic reformulation of the invariant subspace problem

The invariant subspace problem (ISP) for Hilbert spaces asks whether every bounded linear operator $A$ on $l^2$ (with complex scalars) must have a closed invariant subspace other than $\{0\}$ and ...
35
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7answers
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Why is the Hahn-Banach thorem so important? [closed]

Every time I here it mentioned it is praised in the highest posible terms, and I remember one of my old lecturers saying that it is one of the 3 most important theorems in analysis. Yet the only ...
35
votes
2answers
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Moving one family of commuting self-adjoint operators to another without losing commutativity on the way

This is actually not a question of mine, so I'll be short on motivation and say nothing beyond that if this were true, a few fancy harmonic analysis techniques that a colleague of mine used in proving ...
34
votes
8answers
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Motivation for and history of pseudo-differential operators

Suppose you start from partial differential equations and functional analysis (on $\mathbb R^n$ and on real manifolds). Which prominent example problems lead you to work with pseudo-differential ...
34
votes
5answers
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Is there an “elegant” non-recursive formula for these coefficients? Also, how can one get proofs of these patterns?

Not sure if this is a "good" question for this forum or if it'll get panned, but here goes anyway... Consider this problem. I've been trying to find a formula to expand the "regular iteration" of ...
33
votes
0answers
2k views

Example of a compact set that isn't the spectrum of an operator

This question is somewhat ill-posed (due to the word easy) and is triggered by idle curiosity: Is there an easy example of a (separable, infinite-dimensional) Banach space $X$ and a nonempty ...
32
votes
2answers
4k views

tr(ab) = tr(ba)?

It is well known that given two Hilbert-Schmidt operators $a$ and $b$ on a Hilbert space $H$, their product is trace class and $tr(ab)=tr(ba)$. A similar result holds for $a$ bounded and $b$ trace ...
32
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1answer
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tr(ab)=tr(ba), part 2.

This is a Banach space version of Andre Henriques' question Trace Question for Hilbert spaces. Let $a:X\to Y$ and $b:Y\to X$ be bounded linear operators between Banach spaces s.t. $ba$ and $ab$ ...
31
votes
8answers
3k views

Polish spaces in probability

Probabilist are very often working with Polish spaces, though this is not always very clear where this assumption is needed. question: what can go wrong when doing probability on non-Polish spaces ?
31
votes
1answer
809 views

For which maps $S^1\to S^1$ is the winding number defined?

There are two classes of maps $S^1\to S^1$ for which I know how to define the winding number: • Continuous maps: Using the unique path lifting property of the universal covering map $\mathbb R\to ...
30
votes
9answers
19k views

Is square of Delta function defined somewhere?

Hello, every one. I am wondering whether any one knows that whether the square of Dirac Delta function is defined some where? In the beginning, this question might look strange. But by restricting ...
30
votes
1answer
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What, exactly, has Louis de Branges proved about the Riemann Hypothesis?

Hi, I know this is a dangerous topic which could attract many cranks and nutters, but: According to Wikipedia [and probably his own website, but I have a hard time seeing exactly what he's claiming] ...
30
votes
2answers
446 views

If $A$ is the ring of continuous functions on a genus $g$ surface, can the genus of $X$ be seen by simple algebra in $A$?

I was describing to a friend the result that a compact Hausdorff space is determined up to homeomorphism up to by its ring of continuous functions, and he asked how one could see the genus of a ...
29
votes
4answers
2k views

Which differential equations allow for a variational formulation?

Many ODE's and PDE's arising in nature have a variational formulation. An example of what I mean is the following. Classical motions are solutions $q(t)$ to Lagrange's equation $$ ...
28
votes
7answers
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What's an example of a space that needs the Hahn-Banach Theorem?

The Hahn-Banach theorem is rightly seen as one of the Big Theorems in functional analysis. Indeed, it can be said to be where functional analysis really starts. But as it's one of those "there ...
28
votes
2answers
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Can an operator have Exp(z) as its characteristic “polynomial”?

Let $\mathcal{H}$ be a Hilbert space, and let $T: \mathcal{H} \rightarrow \mathcal{H}$ be a trace-class operator. Define $$ f_T(z) = \sum_{i=0}^\infty \mbox{Tr}(\wedge^k T) \cdot z^k, $$ the ...
27
votes
7answers
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Way to memorize relations between the Sobolev spaces?

Consider the Sobolev spaces $W^{k,p}(\Omega)$ with a bounded domain $\Omega$ in n-dimensional Euclidean space. When facing the different embedding theorems for the first time, one can certainly feel ...
27
votes
2answers
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Are there non-reflexive vector spaces isomorphic to their bi-dual?

Let $V$ be an infinite dimensional topological vector space and consider the natural application $\iota\colon V\to V^{**}$. The space $V$ is said to be reflexive if $\iota$ is an isomorphism. Are ...
27
votes
2answers
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Dynamical properties of injective continuous functions on $\mathbb{R}^d$

Let $\varphi:\mathbb{R}^d\to\mathbb{R}^d$ be an injective continuous function. Denote by $\varphi_n$ the $n$-th iterate of $\varphi$, i.e. $\varphi_n(x)=\varphi_{n-1}(\varphi(x))$ for all ...
27
votes
0answers
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Subalgebras of von Neumann algebras

In the late 70s, Cuntz and Behncke had a paper H. Behncke and J. Cuntz, Local Completeness of Operator Algebras, Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jan., 1977), pp. ...
26
votes
6answers
8k views

Learning roadmap for harmonic analysis

In short, I am interested to know of the various approaches one could take to learn modern harmonic analysis in depth. However, the question deserves additional details. Currently, I am reading Loukas ...
26
votes
2answers
812 views

Origin and first uses of $\ell_p$ norms?

When exactly were $\ell_p$ norms first defined and used? (Here is what I know, or think I know: Lebesgue and/or Riesz had something to do with them, but in some sense they go back to Minkowski, since ...
26
votes
3answers
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Surjectivity of operators on $\ell^\infty$

Can anyone give me an example of an bounded and linear operator $T:\ell^\infty\to \ell^\infty$ (the space of bounded sequences with the usual sup-norm), such that T has dense range, but is not ...
25
votes
7answers
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When is a Banach space a Hilbert space?

Let $\mathcal{X}$ be a Banach space. It is a well known fact that $\mathcal{X}$ is a Hilbert space (i.e. the norm comes from an inner product) if the parallelogram identity holds. Question: Are there ...
25
votes
1answer
768 views

Stone-Weierstrass theorem for holomorphic functions?

The Stone-Weierstrass theorem has an analog for the algebras of smooth functions, called Naсhbin's theorem: An involutive subalgebra $A$ in the algebra ${\mathcal C}^\infty(M)$ of smooth ...
24
votes
18answers
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A good book of functional analysis

I'm a student (I've been studying mathematics 4 years at the university) and I like functional analysis and topology, but I only studied 6 credits of functional analysis and 7 in topology (the ...
24
votes
4answers
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How are infinite-dimensional manifolds most commonly treated?

I originally posted this question on StackExchange, where it was suggested I post here. It was also suggested I read about Hilbert manifolds and Fréchet manifolds. Nevertheless, I am still looking for ...
24
votes
1answer
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Does there exist a measurable function which is not a.e. “strongly” measurable?

More specifically, letting $I=[0,1]$, do there exist $f,E$ with $E$ a (necessarily nonseparable) Banach space and $f$ a bounded Lebesgue measurable function $I\to E$ such that $f$ is not equal almost ...
24
votes
1answer
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Furstenberg's Conjecture on 2-3-invariant continuous probability measures on the circle

Hillel Furstenberg conjectured that the only $2$-$3$-invariant probability measure on the circle without atoms is the Lebesgue measure. More precisely: Question: (Furstenberg) Let $\mu$ be a ...
24
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0answers
686 views

When are two C*-algebras isomorphic as Banach spaces?

We may consider each $C^*$-algebra as a Banach space (by forgetting the multiplication and adjoint). I wonder how drastic this step is, i.e., which properties of the $C^*$-algebra are reflected by its ...
23
votes
7answers
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Intuition for failure of Implicit Function theorem on Frechet Manifolds

When dealing with moduli spaces of, say connections or metrics, I am using the notions of Frechet spaces/manifolds/groups. I have become familiar with Banach manifolds (I think), but Frechet manifolds ...
23
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5answers
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Understanding/Mastering Analysis in Topology, necessary?

I have spoken to one professor so far about this, which of course was helpful, and so I am looking for additional opinions: To work with topological tools that were built via analysis, should I be a ...
23
votes
1answer
572 views

Can nuclearity be determined by tensoring with a single C*-algebra?

A C*-algebra is nuclear if the algebraic tensor product $A\odot B$ ($B$ is any other C*-algebra) admits a unique C*-norm. This definition requires testing the condition for nuclearity with `all' ...
23
votes
3answers
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Can Hölder's Inequality be strengthened for smooth functions?

Is there an $\epsilon>0$ so that for every nonnegative integrable function $f$ on the reals, $$\frac{\| f \ast f \|_\infty \| f \ast f \|_1}{\|f \ast f \|_2^2} > 1+\epsilon?$$ Of course, we ...
23
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1answer
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Szőkefalvi-Nagy's unitarizability theorem in the Calkin algebra?

Here's a research problem, which I think interesting. Suppose that $t$ is an invertible element in the Calkin algebra $\mathcal{Q} = \mathcal{B}(\ell_2)/\mathcal{K}(\ell_2)$ which satisfies $\sup_{n ...
23
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1answer
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Criteria for boundedness of power series

Consider a power series $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_n x^n$ that is convergent for all real x, thus defining a function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$. Can one give necessary and sufficient criteria the ...
23
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0answers
478 views

Do there exist infinite-dimensional Banach spaces in which every bounded linear operator attains its norm?

Let $X$ be a Banach space, $L(X)$ the space of all bounded linear operators on $X$. We say that $A ∈ L(X)$ attains its norm if there exists $x ∈ X$ such that $||x|| = 1$ and $||Ax|| = ||A||$. The ...
22
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15answers
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Important results that use infinite-dimensional manifolds?

Are Banach manifolds (or other types of infinite-dimensional manifolds) just curiosities, or have they been utilized to prove some interesting/important results? Where do they turn up? Important ...
22
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16answers
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functions satisfying “one-one iff onto”

Hello Everybody. I need some more examples for the following really interesting phenomenon: A function from the class ... is one-one iff it is onto. Some ...
22
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4answers
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Product of Borel sigma algebras

If $X$ and $Y$ are separable metric spaces, then the Borel $\sigma$-algebra $B(X \times Y)$ of the product is the the $\sigma$-algebra generated by $B(X)\times B(Y)$. I am embarrassed to admit that ...
22
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4answers
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Elementary applications of Krein-Milman

This is a cross-post from MSE: http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/139754/elementary-applications-of-krein-milman. I'm starting to suspect that the question just doesn't really have a great ...