Banach spaces, function spaces, real functions, integral transforms, theory of distributions, measure theory.

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3
votes
1answer
47 views

Is the module action $M\times M^*\to M^*$ jointly continuous?

Let $M$ be a W*-algebra and consider the following map: $$\gamma: M\times M^*\to M^*: (a,f)\to af$$ where $af(b)=f(ba)$. Let us consider $M$ under the weak topology $\sigma(M,M^*)$ and $M^*$ under ...
2
votes
0answers
171 views

Number of connected components of a $C^{*}$ algebra

Inspired by the concept in the following post What are these compact sets called? We introduce the following concept: Let $A$ be a unital $C^{*}$ algebra. We consider the unitary equivalent ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Normed space between $H^{0+}$ and $L^2$

In the space $\in L^2(\mathbb{R}^3)$, consider the following condition. $$\int_{\mathbb{R}^3}\frac{|\widehat{f}(x)|}{1+|x|^{3/2}}dx<+\infty\qquad\mbox{(*)}$$ Of course if $f\in H^s(\mathbb{R}^3)$ ...
2
votes
1answer
234 views

Is there any way to compare between diagonals of a resolvent and a Cauchy transform?

Say $A$ is a symmetric matrix of $n$ dimensions. Then let the ``resolvent" of $A$ be the matrix valued function $R_A(z) = \frac{1}{z-A}$ and its Cauchy transform be the real valued function $C_A(z) = ...
3
votes
0answers
176 views

Inverse problem for negative moments

Let $D$ be a bounded simply connected domain in the plane, bounded by a smooth closed curve $\partial D$. Moreover$D$ contains the origin. Assume that all negative complex moments w.r.t arc-length ...
29
votes
4answers
2k views

Which differential equations allow for a variational formulation?

Many ODE's and PDE's arising in nature have a variational formulation. An example of what I mean is the following. Classical motions are solutions $q(t)$ to Lagrange's equation $$ ...
3
votes
0answers
151 views

Uniqueness of the reduced free product of unital completely positive maps

For $1\leq i\leq n$, let $\psi_i$ be a faithful state on the C$^*$-algebra $A_i$ and $\phi_i$ be a faithful state on the C$^*$-algebra $B_i$. Let $(A,\psi) = *_{i=1}^n (A_i,\psi_i)$ and $(B, \phi) = ...
0
votes
1answer
313 views

Condition to obtain a not compact embedding

I have the two spaces $W_0^{1,p}$ with the norme $$||u||^p=||u||^p_{L^p}+||\nabla u||^p_{L^p}$$ and $$L^{p^*}_{\alpha}=\{ u~\text{measurable}, \int_{\Omega} (|x|^{\alpha} u(x)|)^{p^*} dx<\infty\}$$ ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

Matrix inequality between a traceless matrix and identity

Given a traceless matrix $C\in M_n(\mathbb{F})$, i.e., tr$(C)=0$, what is the relationship between tr$|\mathbb{I}+C|$ and tr$|C|$? The two matrices are of dimension $n$.
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Invertibility of group Laplacian in $\ell^1$

Let $G$ be a discrete group and let $S$ be a generating set for $G$; assume that $S$ is symmetric (i.e., $g\in S$ iff $g^{-1}\in S$). Let $L=L_S=\frac{1}{|S|}(\sum_{g\in S} g-1)$ be an element of the ...
2
votes
0answers
79 views

To determine if a 2 variable symmetric function is addition formula of one variable function or not?

Since $$f(x+y)=f(y+x)$$, So an addition formula must be symmetric. $$f(x+y)=U(f(x),f(y))=U(f(y),f(x))$$ $$f(f^{-1}(x)+f^{-1}(y))=U(x,y)=U(y,x)$$ An example: $$f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)(f(x)+f(y))$$ ...
0
votes
1answer
166 views

The total variation of a complex measure

Let $\Omega$ be a locally compact and Hausdorff topological space. The Riesz representation theorem says that $C_0(\Omega)^*$ , dual of the commutative C*-algebra $C_0(\Omega)$, is just the space of ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Can a semigroup be defined on a Banach algebra? [on hold]

I simply need to know that how a semigroup of operators (say $\{T(t)\}_{t\geq 0}$) is defined on any Banach algebra (say $X$)? For $(f,g\in X)$ now the so called product is also there i.e. $f.g\in X$. ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

p-summable sequence

Let Y be a closed linear subspace of X and suppose that Y does not have copy of l1 .Does each weakly p-summable sequence in X/Y has a subsequence that's the image of a weakly p-summable sequence in X ...
9
votes
1answer
158 views

Optimal exponent in the Lojasiewicz-Simon gradient inequality

Lojasiewicz's theorem asserts that if $F: \mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ is a real-analytic function in a neighborhood of its critical point $0$, then there exist constants $\theta\in (0,1/2]$, ...
6
votes
1answer
137 views

Travelling waves for nonlinear Schrödinger equation

Consider the following nonlinear Schrödinger equation: $$ -\Delta \Phi - i\frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial t} = f(|\Phi|^2)\Phi, $$ where $\Delta$ is the Laplacian on $\mathbb{R}^n$, $f$ gives the ...
1
vote
1answer
94 views

The space of loops as a Banach space [on hold]

Let $S$ be the space of all loops in $\mathbb{R}^2$, i.e. all continuous mappings $\gamma:[0,1]\to \mathbb{R}^2$ such that $\gamma(0)=\gamma(1)$. Is there any canonical interpretation of $S$ as a ...
25
votes
1answer
698 views

Stone-Weierstrass theorem for holomorphic functions?

The Stone-Weierstrass theorem has an analog for the algebras of smooth functions, called Naсhbin's theorem: An involutive subalgebra $A$ in the algebra ${\mathcal C}^\infty(M)$ of smooth ...
8
votes
3answers
276 views

Description of $\big(\ell^\infty(\mathbb N)\big)^{\!*}$ via ultrafilters

Let $\beta\mathbb N$ is the set of ultrafilters on $\mathbb N$ and $\mathscr F\in\beta\mathbb N$. Assume that $l_{\mathscr F}\in\big(\ell^\infty(\mathbb N)\big)^{\!*}$ is the functional which assigns ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

Total measure and Riesz theorem [migrated]

As I specified in the other question I asked, analysis is not my field, so I'm sorry if my question is trivial. Riesz representation theorem states the following: Given $X$ a locally compact ...
2
votes
1answer
121 views

reference request: simple facts about vector-valued $L^p$ spaces [on hold]

I learned basic results (regarding weak convergence) about Banach-space valued functions of a single real variable when learning PDE. (See e.g. Appendix E in Evans's Partial Differential Equations) I ...
6
votes
2answers
230 views

2-Wasserstein (optimal transport) and extension to the set of all signed measures

Consider the 2-Wasserstein distance between probability measures $\mu$ and $\nu$ (on $\mathbb{R}^d$), defined as $$ d_{W_2}(\mu,\nu) = \inf_{\gamma} \Big[\int \|x-y\|^2 d\gamma(x,y)\Big]^{1/2} $$ ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

Weak convergence in $L^2(0,T;X)$

In the book Navier Stokes Equations by Constantin and Foias, the folloiwng argument is made: Let $u_m$ converges weakly to $u$ in $L^2(0,T;V)$ where $$ V=\overline{\{f\in ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Does bounded and closed equal compact for sets of Borel probability measures?

Equip the space of Borel probability measures on a fixed closed subset X of the s-dimensional Euclidean space with the topology induced by weak convergence of probability measures. In this setting, ...
5
votes
2answers
180 views

Can $C^*$-algebra of continuous functions on $R^n$ ($S^n$) be characterized alternatively?

Dictionary between algebra and geometry is somewhat one of the main concepts in modern mathematics. So commutative $C^*$ algebras are one-to-one with locally compact Hausdorff spaces. So it is ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Some problems about symmetric convolution semigroup on the unit circle

These are problems from Example 1.4.2 of Fukushima's book "Dirichlet forms and symmetric Markov processes". Let $\Lambda$ be the set of all real sequences $\left\{\lambda_n\right\}_{n\in\mathbf{Z}}$ ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

The inverse of Laplacian operator for different orders

I post this question in MSE couple of days before and get no response. So I repost it here for better luck. Thank you! Let $u,v\in C_c^\infty(\Omega)$ and $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^N$ is open ...
1
vote
1answer
102 views

When is a homogeneous polynomial an inner function on the unit torus?

What is the necessary and sufficient condition(s) for a homogeneous polynomial on torus(bidisk) to be an inner function? More precisely I want to know when absolute value of a homogeneous polynomial ...
1
vote
0answers
70 views

Can Gradient be controlled by Curl and Divergence in Morrey spaces

In $L^p(\mathbb{R}^3)$, it holds for $1< p< \infty$ and $\mu\in C^\infty_0(\mathbb{R}^3)$, $$\|\nabla\mu\|_p\leq C \left( \|\operatorname{div} \mu\|_p + \|\nabla\times\mu\|_p \right).$$ So, how ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

Multiplier operators on anisotropic weighted $L^2$ spaces

Suppose $\mathcal{M}$ is a multiplier operator on $L^2(\mathbb{R})$, in the sense that, for any $u(x)\in L^2(\mathbb{R})$, $\widehat{\mathcal{M}u}(k)=m(k)\hat{u}(k),$ where the scalar complex function ...
3
votes
1answer
295 views

On the embedding of a function space $X$ into $L^2\cap L^4$

It is well-known that if $\Omega\in \mathbb{R}^n$ is a bounded domain, then we have the embedding $$ L^4({\Omega})\subset L^2({\Omega}) $$ since $||f||_{L^2(\Omega)}\leq C(\Omega) ||f||_{L^4(\Omega)}$ ...
4
votes
2answers
179 views

Heat kernel asymptotics for small distances

I heard a talk where the speaker said that on a Riemannian manifold, for small values of $\text{dist }(x, y)$, the heat kernel $p_t(x, y)$ satisfies $$p_t(x, y) = \frac{1}{(4\pi ...
-4
votes
0answers
51 views

Fourier transform of $|x|^{-\alpha}$ [closed]

Let $k(x)=|x|^{-\alpha}$ ,$x\in\mathbb{R}^d, \,0<\alpha<d $. Why the Fourier transforms of $k$ is $\hat{k}(\xi)=C|\xi|^{d-\alpha}$ with $C=C(d,\alpha)$ ? Thank you .
0
votes
0answers
97 views

Fourier transform [closed]

Let $k(x)=|x|^{-\alpha}$ ,$x\in\mathbb{R}^d, \,0<\alpha<d $. Why the Fourier transforms of $k$ is $\hat{k}(\xi)=C|\xi|^{d-\alpha}$ with $C=C(d,\alpha)$ ? Thank you .
2
votes
1answer
188 views

Decoupling in mixed norm spaces

Bourgain and Demeter's proof of the $L^2$ decoupling conjecture decouples $\|f\|_{L^p}$ into an $L^2$ sum of $\|f_\theta\|_{L^p}$, where $\hat f$ is supported on a curved hypersurface $S$, where ...
3
votes
0answers
155 views

Finding density of Haar measure relative to the Liouville volume measure on $\frac{G^{\mathbb{C}}}{P}$

Let $G$ be a connected compact Lie group and $G^{\mathbb{C}}$ be the complexification of the Lie group $G$ then we know that by polar decomposition we can write $G^{\mathbb{C}}\cong G\times ...
28
votes
2answers
391 views

If $A$ is the ring of continuous functions on a genus $g$ surface, can the genus of $X$ be seen by simple algebra in $A$?

I was describing to a friend the result that a compact Hausdorff space is determined up to homeomorphism up to by its ring of continuous functions, and he asked how one could see the genus of a ...
4
votes
1answer
253 views

Rank of a sequence of covariance matrices

Let $X_i$ ($i=1, \dots$) be an orthonormal basis for $L^2(\Omega, \mathbb P)$. In particular, it holds that $$\mathbb E[X_iX_j] = \delta_{ij}.$$ Now take $Z\in L^2(\Omega, \mathbb P)$ and define ...
2
votes
1answer
273 views

Pointwise convergence of Fourier series, Fefferman's article

This is the first time I ask a question here, so sorry if I make any mistake in the way I ask it. I'm studing Fefferman's article Pointwise Convergence of Fourier Series, and I have two questions: ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Is there a “natural” way to interpolate between a set of bound state wave functions?

Consider for example the Coulomb potential, $-Z/r$, for which there exist a set of bound states with energy $\epsilon_n := {-Z^2 \over 2 n^2}$ (in Hartree). If I want the "wavefunctions" for some ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Kirillov orbit Method for Complex nilpotent groups

Let $G$ be a nilpotent simply connected real Lie group. From the classical work of Kirillov, it is well-known that the irreducible unitary representations of $G$ are in a canonical bijective ...
6
votes
0answers
218 views

Interpolation between $H^1$ and $H^1\cap L^1$

Suppose that $T:H^1(\mathbb{R}^3)\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is a linear bounded operator, with operator norm $M_2$. In particular, given $1\leq p\leq2$, there exist optimal constants $M_p\leq M_2$ such ...
5
votes
1answer
199 views

Chain rule for weakly differentiable functions

Given are $f\in L^1(\mathbb R^n)$, $f>0$, such that $\log f\in L^1_{\mathrm{loc}}(\mathbb R^n)$ and $\nabla \log f = g$ in the sense of distributions, with $g\in L^1_{\mathrm{loc}}(\mathbb R^n)\cap ...
8
votes
1answer
336 views

Closure of $L(\ell^2,\ell^2)$ in $L(\ell^2,\ell^\infty)$

Let $\ell^2$, $\ell^\infty$ denote the usual sequence spaces and let $L(\ell^2,\ell^2)$ the Banach space of bounded linear operators from $\ell^2$ to $\ell^2$ as well as $L(\ell^2,\ell^\infty)$ the ...
-1
votes
0answers
46 views

The closed support of νν is a set of infinite 1-dimensional Hausdorff measure

if $\nu$ is non-zero measure,and $\sum\limits_{|n|\neq 0}\frac{|\hat{\nu(n)}|^2}{|n|}<\infty$,$\hat\nu(n)$ is the Fourier transform of the measure $\nu$. why the closed support of $\nu$ is a set ...
6
votes
1answer
280 views

Is $L_q(X^*)$ complemented in $(L_p(X))^*$?

Let $X$ be a Banach space and let $p\in (1,\infty)$. If $q$ denotes the conjugate exponent to $p$, then $L_q(X^*)$ is easily seen to be isometric to a subspace of $(L_p(X))^*$ via the map $$f\mapsto ...
2
votes
2answers
228 views

The space $L^p(\partial\Omega)$ in cited references

The space $L^p(\partial\Omega)$ where $\Omega$ is an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ appears in a lot of PDE textbooks without being given any definitions, not even in those with a detailed appendix ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

Approx the jump point of a $BV$ function from both hand side

Let $I=(-1,1)$ be an interval in one dimension. Let $u\in BV(I)$ be defined as $$ u(x)= \begin{cases} 0,&\text{ if }x\in(-1,0)\\ 1,&\text{ if }x\in(0,1) \end{cases} $$ Clearly, we have $u\in ...
6
votes
1answer
342 views

Who gave the generalized Stone-Weierstrass Theorem?

Let $X$ be a compact Hausdorff space and $\mathcal{A}$ be a closed self-adjoint subalgebra of $C(X)$ which contains the constants. Then $\mathcal{A}$ is the collection of continuous functions on ...
2
votes
0answers
55 views

Dirichlet-to-Neumann Map is selfadjoint

Let $\Omega$ be a compact, riemannian manifold with non-empty smooth boundary $\partial \Omega = \Gamma$. For a smooth function $u \in C^\infty(\Gamma)$ we define the harmonic extension $\hat{u}$ as ...