# Tagged Questions

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**1**answer

97 views

### The space of loops as a Banach space [closed]

Let $S$ be the space of all loops in $\mathbb{R}^2$, i.e. all continuous mappings $\gamma:[0,1]\to \mathbb{R}^2$ such that $\gamma(0)=\gamma(1)$. Is there any canonical interpretation of $S$ as a ...

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**1**answer

124 views

### p-summable sequence

Let Y be a closed linear subspace of X and suppose that Y does not have copy of l1 .Does each weakly p-summable sequence in X/Y has a subsequence that's the image of a weakly p-summable sequence in X ...

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76 views

### Weak convergence in $L^2(0,T;X)$

In the book Navier Stokes Equations by Constantin and Foias, the folloiwng argument is made:
Let $u_m$ converges weakly to $u$ in $L^2(0,T;V)$ where
$$
V=\overline{\{f\in ...

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79 views

### Does bounded and closed equal compact for sets of Borel probability measures?

Equip the space of Borel probability measures on a fixed closed subset X of the s-dimensional Euclidean space with the topology induced by weak convergence of probability measures. In this setting, ...

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**1**answer

135 views

### reference request: simple facts about vector-valued $L^p$ spaces [closed]

I learned basic results (regarding weak convergence) about Banach-space valued functions of a single real variable when learning PDE. (See e.g. Appendix E in Evans's Partial Differential Equations) I ...

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52 views

### Some problems about symmetric convolution semigroup on the unit circle

These are problems from Example 1.4.2 of Fukushima's book "Dirichlet forms and symmetric Markov processes".
Let $\Lambda$ be the set of all real sequences $\left\{\lambda_n\right\}_{n\in\mathbf{Z}}$ ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

112 views

### The inverse of Laplacian operator for different orders

I post this question in MSE couple of days before and get no response. So I repost it here for better luck. Thank you!
Let $u,v\in C_c^\infty(\Omega)$ and $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^N$ is open ...

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**3**answers

317 views

### Description of $\big(\ell^\infty(\mathbb N)\big)^{\!*}$ via ultrafilters

Let $\beta\mathbb N$ is the set of ultrafilters on $\mathbb N$ and $\mathscr F\in\beta\mathbb N$. Assume that $l_{\mathscr F}\in\big(\ell^\infty(\mathbb N)\big)^{\!*}$ is the functional which assigns ...

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**1**answer

113 views

### When is a homogeneous polynomial an inner function on the unit torus?

What is the necessary and sufficient condition(s) for a homogeneous polynomial on torus(bidisk) to be an inner function? More precisely I want to know when absolute value of a homogeneous polynomial ...

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74 views

### Multiplier operators on anisotropic weighted $L^2$ spaces

Suppose $\mathcal{M}$ is a multiplier operator on $L^2(\mathbb{R})$, in the sense that, for any $u(x)\in L^2(\mathbb{R})$,
$\widehat{\mathcal{M}u}(k)=m(k)\hat{u}(k),$
where the scalar complex function ...

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89 views

### Strong Lebesgue regularity lemma

I have troubles in understanding how the Strong Lebesgue regularity lemma implies the Rademacher differentiation theorem. An informal proof was given by Tao on his blog: ...

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190 views

### Heat kernel asymptotics for small distances

I heard a talk where the speaker said that on a Riemannian manifold, for small values of $\text{dist }(x, y)$, the heat kernel $p_t(x, y)$ satisfies
$$p_t(x, y) = \frac{1}{(4\pi ...

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76 views

### Can Gradient be controlled by Curl and Divergence in Morrey spaces

In $L^p(\mathbb{R}^3)$, it holds for $1< p< \infty$ and $\mu\in C^\infty_0(\mathbb{R}^3)$,
$$\|\nabla\mu\|_p\leq C \left( \|\operatorname{div} \mu\|_p + \|\nabla\times\mu\|_p \right).$$
So, how ...

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**1**answer

269 views

### Decoupling in mixed norm spaces

Bourgain and Demeter's proof of the $L^2$ decoupling conjecture decouples $\|f\|_{L^p}$ into an $L^2$ sum of $\|f_\theta\|_{L^p}$, where $\hat f$ is supported on a curved hypersurface $S$, where ...

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200 views

### Can $C^*$-algebra of continuous functions on $R^n$ ($S^n$) be characterized alternatively?

Dictionary between algebra and geometry is somewhat one of the main concepts in modern mathematics. So commutative $C^*$ algebras are one-to-one with locally compact Hausdorff spaces.
So it is ...

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57 views

### Kirillov orbit Method for Complex nilpotent groups

Let $G$ be a nilpotent simply connected real Lie group. From the classical work of Kirillov, it is well-known that the irreducible unitary representations of $G$ are in a canonical bijective ...

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424 views

### Pointwise convergence of Fourier series, Fefferman's article

This is the first time I ask a question here, so sorry if I make any mistake in the way I ask it. I'm studing Fefferman's article Pointwise Convergence of Fourier Series, and I have two questions:
...

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**1**answer

371 views

### Who gave the generalized Stone-Weierstrass Theorem?

Let $X$ be a compact Hausdorff space and $\mathcal{A}$ be a closed self-adjoint subalgebra of $C(X)$ which contains the constants. Then $\mathcal{A}$ is the collection of continuous functions on ...

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48 views

### Approx the jump point of a $BV$ function from both hand side

Let $I=(-1,1)$ be an interval in one dimension. Let $u\in BV(I)$ be defined as
$$
u(x)=
\begin{cases}
0,&\text{ if }x\in(-1,0)\\
1,&\text{ if }x\in(0,1)
\end{cases}
$$
Clearly, we have $u\in ...

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84 views

### Dirichlet-to-Neumann Map is selfadjoint

Let $\Omega$ be a compact, riemannian manifold with non-empty smooth boundary $\partial \Omega = \Gamma$.
For a smooth function $u \in C^\infty(\Gamma)$ we define the harmonic extension $\hat{u}$ as ...

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**1**answer

115 views

### Representation of the elements of $c_0^\perp$ as integrals over ultrafilters

Let
$$
X=\big\{\varphi\in\ell_\infty^{\,*}(\mathbb N) : \varphi(\{a_n\})=0\,\,\text{whenever $a_n\to 0$}\big\}.
$$
If $\varphi_{\mathscr F}(\{a_n\})$ is the limit of $\{a_n\}$ with respect to the ...

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**1**answer

144 views

### Orthonormal bases on Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces

Recall that a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$ is a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) if the elements of $\mathcal{H}$ are functions on a certain set $X$ and for any $a\in X$, the linear functional ...

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205 views

### Inverse problem for negative moments

Let $D$ be a bounded simply connected domain in the plane, bounded by a smooth closed curve $\partial D$. Moreover$D$ contains the origin. Assume that all negative complex moments w.r.t arc-length ...

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69 views

### The real method of interpolation and operator ideals,

Let $\overline{A} \mbox{ and } \overline{B}$ be n+1-tuples of Banach spaces and $T:\overline{A}\rightarrow \overline{B}$ be an interpolation operator; let $J(\overline{A})$ and (the corresponding) ...

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413 views

### States in C*-algebras and their origin in physics?

in $C^*-$algebras with unit element, there is the definition of a state, as a functional $\omega$ with $\omega(e)=||\omega||=1.$
Now, of course there is also in classical physics and quantum ...

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234 views

### Interpolation between $H^1$ and $H^1\cap L^1$

Suppose that $T:H^1(\mathbb{R}^3)\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is a linear bounded operator, with operator norm $M_2$. In particular, given $1\leq p\leq2$, there exist optimal constants $M_p\leq M_2$ such ...

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191 views

### Weak convergence implies norm convergence for trace class operators?

It is known that weak convergence implies norm convergence in $\ell^1(\mathbb{N})$, see e.g. here.
Because of the typical analogies of the Schatten ideals $C_p \subset B(H)$ (where $H$ is a Hilbert ...

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155 views

### Dense subspaces of $L^p(0,T;X)$

Given a Banach space $X$ and $1\leq p<\infty$, let's define the space $L^p(0,T;X)$ as the set of all strongly measurable functions $f:(0,T)\mapsto X$ such that
$$\int_0^T\Vert ...

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**1**answer

431 views

### An inequality for the spectral radius of matrices used by J. Bochi

I am interested in the history of an inequality for the spectral radius of a $d\times d$ real or complex matrix, which occurs in Jairo Bochi's 2002 article Inequalities for numerical invariants of ...

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279 views

### Complemented subspaces in the dual of James' space $J$

James' space $J$ is subprojective; i.e., every infinite dimensional (closed) subspace of $J$ contains an infinite dimensional subspace which is complemented in $J$. This fact can be found in Corollary ...

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106 views

### Does the Abel transform preserve analyticity?

Let $I=(0,1]$ and $T=\{(x,y)\in I^2;x\geq y\}$.
If functions $f:I\to\mathbb R$ and $w:T\to\mathbb R$ are analytic, is the function $A_wf:I\to\mathbb R$,
$$
...

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142 views

### Hermitian Projections on $C[0,1]$

If $X$ is a normed linear space and $S(X)$ its unit sphere, $X′$ its dual space and $Π=\{(x,f)∈S(X)×S(X′) \ | \ f(x)=1\}$, then for an operator $T$ on $X$, the numerical range $V(T)$ is defined by ...

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114 views

### Integral-like concepts

I am looking for interesting concepts (I guess you could say functionals from the function space $[a;b]\to\mathbb R$) that are like integrals in some respect.
The background is that I have proven a ...

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**2**answers

134 views

### Antiproximanal subspace of $L_1[0,1]$

Could someone give a reference or construct an example of closed subspace of $Y\subset L_1[0,1]$ such that $\operatorname{dist}(x,Y)$ is not attained of for any $x\notin Y$.
I read somewhere that $Y$ ...

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54 views

### Definiteness and infinite divisibility of kernels including heat semigroup

Let $P_{t}$ be the usual heat semigroup. Can one show (preferably) or disprove that for arbitrary $k \in \mathbb{R}_{>0}$ and $n \in \mathbb{N}$
we have
\begin{equation}
...

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60 views

### Partial trace with spectral measure

I'm a physicist who needs mathematical advice:
Let $A= \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} a_i P_{\phi_i}$ be a self-adjoint operator with projectors $P_{\phi_i}$ on the orthonormal eigenbasis $(\phi_i).$ Let $$B= ...

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**1**answer

142 views

### Spectrum of unitary elements of a Banach algebra

Unitary elements of a Banach space have been defined in this paper as follows:
Let $A$ be a Banach space and $a\in A, \|a\|=1$. Let $S_{a}=\{f\in A':\|f\|=1=f(a)\}$. Then $a$ is said to be ...

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97 views

### Completion of $C_{0,rad}^{\infty}(\Omega)$ with respect to the norm $\|u\|= \Bigg(\int_{\Omega} |\Delta u |^2 \, \mathrm{d}x \Bigg)^{\frac{1}{2}}. $

I have a question that it seems simple but I can not solve it.
Let $\Omega$ be the unit ball centered at zero in $\mathbb{R}^N$, $N>4$. Assume that $C_{0,rad}^{\infty}(\Omega)$ is the space of all ...

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115 views

### Concentration compactness on a compact setting

Consider a compact Riemannian manifold $M$ of dimension $n$ and a sequence of positive functions $\varphi_k \in C^\infty(M)$ such that $\varphi_k$ satisfy the basic concentration compactness ...

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446 views

### If $A$ is the ring of continuous functions on a genus $g$ surface, can the genus of $X$ be seen by simple algebra in $A$?

I was describing to a friend the result that a compact Hausdorff space is determined up to homeomorphism up to by its ring of continuous functions, and he asked how one could see the genus of a ...

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120 views

### $L^\infty-L^1$ smoothing effect for the heat equation

Let $\Omega$ be a bounded domain in $\mathbb{R}^n$.
Let $u \in L^2(0,T;V)$ be the weak solution of the heat equation
$$u_t - \Delta u = 0$$
$$u(0) = u_0$$
where $u_0$ is bounded initial data. Here ...

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**1**answer

193 views

### Are Sobolev spaces on non-compact manifolds separable?

If $M$ is a Riemannian manifold that is not compact, is it true that the Sobolev spaces on $M$, $W^{k,p}(M)$, still be separable (for $p < \infty$)?

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126 views

### Relation between two different definitions for relative sequential compactness

Building upon this question in Math.SE, I think the following might be rather of interest for MO.
In the literature on measure theory, probability and functional analysis the definition of a subset ...

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**1**answer

494 views

### $\int\limits_{\Omega}{uvdx}<\infty,\forall v\in H_0^1(\Omega)$ implies $u\in L^{6/5}(\Omega)$

I posted this question first in Math.StackExchange one week ago here, but I didn't get an answer or a helpful comment so I repost it here:
Let $d=3$ and $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^d$ is a bounded ...

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46 views

### Coersivity of a bilinear form [closed]

I need to proof the coersivity of the following bilinear form. a,b and c are scalars, u is the velocity vector field and p is the pressure. Any help is much appreciated!
$$ B(\textbf{u},\textbf{v}) = ...

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50 views

### Doubts regarding pre-compactness of bounded sequence of measure valued functions

Given:
$\phi(x,\lambda) : \Omega$X$\mathbb R \to \mathbb R^{n}$ be a Caratheodory vector such that for each $M \gt 0 $, $\alpha_{M}(x) = max_{|u| \leq M} |\phi(x,u)| \in L^{2}_{loc} (\Omega)$ .
...

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75 views

### Gaussian heat kernel bounds on Riemannian manifolds

I wish to know if we have Gaussian lower and upper bounds for the heat kernel,i.e. $$
t^{-n/2}e^{-\frac{\rho(x,y)^2}{C_1t}} \lesssim p_t(x,y) \lesssim t^{-n/2}e^{-\frac{\rho(x,y)^2}{C_2t}},
$$
on a ...

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votes

**2**answers

234 views

### The space $L^p(\partial\Omega)$ in cited references

The space $L^p(\partial\Omega)$ where $\Omega$ is an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ appears in a lot of PDE textbooks without being given any definitions, not even in those with a detailed appendix ...

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77 views

### Heat semigroup ultracontractive?

Let $g(x,t)= \frac{1}{(4 \pi t)^{\frac{n}{2}}}e^{\frac{-|x|^2}{4t}}$ be the heat kernel on $\mathbb{R}^{n}.$ Is the standard definition now to say that this heat-semigroup $T(t)(f):=g *f(.,t)$ is ...

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97 views

### Monotonicity of the Hellinger integral/distance

Let $p$ and $q$ be probability densities on $\mathbb R$, with respect to the Lebesgue measure $dx$. The corresponding Hellinger integral and distance are
$H(p,q):=\int_{\mathbb R}\sqrt{pq}\,dx$ and ...