The examples tag has no usage guidance.

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### Proofs without words

Can you give examples of proofs without words? In particular, can you give examples of proofs without words for non-trivial results?
(One could ask if this is of interest to mathematicians, and I ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

193 views

### Bialgebras with Hopf restricted duals

It is known from the general theory that, given a bialgebra (over a field $k$)
\begin{equation}
\mathcal{B}=(B,\mu,1_B,\Delta,\epsilon)
\end{equation}
the Sweedler's dual $\mathcal{B}^0$ (called also ...

**41**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### What is Yoneda's Lemma a generalization of?

What is Yoneda's Lemma a generalization of?
I am looking for examples that were known before category theory entered the stage resp. can be known by students before they start with category theory.
...

**126**

votes

**76**answers

40k views

### Best online mathematics videos?

I know of two good mathematics videos available online, namely:
Sphere inside out (part I and part II)
Moebius transformation revealed
Do you know of any other good math videos? Share.

**139**

votes

**136**answers

30k views

### Fundamental Examples

It is not unusual that a single example or a very few shape an entire mathematical discipline. Can you give examples for such examples? (One example, or few, per post, please)
I'd love to learn about ...

**142**

votes

**27**answers

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### What are some reasonable-sounding statements that are independent of ZFC?

Every now and then, somebody will tell me about a question. When I start thinking about it, they say, "actually, it's undecidable in ZFC."
For example, suppose A is an abelian group such that every ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

164 views

### simple and non nuclear $C^*$-algebra

Is there an example of simple and non-nuclear(non-amenable) $C^*$-algebra?

**8**

votes

**1**answer

558 views

### obstruction to smooth lifting of smooth schemes

According to general theory, for a square zero thickening defined by an ideal I: SpecA -> SpecA', there is an obstruction of lifting a smooth scheme X over A to a smooth scheme over A' living in ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

68 views

### kernel lattice example

Could anyone give an example of the following?
Suppose that $A \in \mathbb{Z}^{m\times n}$, where $m \leq n^{1-\epsilon}$ for some $\epsilon > 0$. The entries of $A$ have size $poly(n)$, meaning ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

355 views

### Vector field on a K3 surface with 24 zeroes

In http://mathoverflow.net/a/44885/4177, Tilman points out that one can use a $K3$ surface minus the zeroes of a generic vector field to build a nullcobordism for $24[SU(2)]$. Given that a) this is a ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

9k views

### Simple bijection between reals and sets of natural numbers

Using the Cantor–Bernstein–Schröder theorem, it is easy to prove that there exists a bijection between the set of reals and the power set of the natural numbers. However, it turns out to be difficult ...

**79**

votes

**41**answers

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### Experimental Mathematics

I would like to ask about examples where experimentation by computers have led to major mathematical advances.
A new look
Now as the question is five years old and there are certainly more examples ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

176 views

### Examples when one can use the the symmetric power $L$-functions to study topics related to the number theory

"The symmetric power $L$-functions are a powerful tool for studying algebraic or geometric objects through analytic methods." I read this sentence in the introduction of a Master thesis. I want to ...

**116**

votes

**58**answers

24k views

### What are your favorite instructional counterexamples?

Related: question #879, Most interesting mathematics mistake. But the intent of this question is more pedagogical.
In many branches of mathematics, it seems to me that a good counterexample can be ...

**18**

votes

**13**answers

2k views

### An example of a proof that is explanatory but not beautiful? (or vice versa)

This question has a philosophical bent, but hopefully it will evoke straightforward, mathematical answers that would be appropriate for this list (like my earlier question about beautiful proofs ...

**49**

votes

**41**answers

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### Examples of theorems with proofs that have dramatically improved over time

I am looking for examples of theorems that may have originally had a clunky, or rather technical, or in some way non-illuminating proof, but that eventually came to have a proof that people consider ...

**16**

votes

**5**answers

877 views

### What are examples when the equality of some invariants is good enough in algebraic topology?

As far as my understanding goes, most of the tools of algebraic topology (homotopy groups, homology groups, cup product, cohomology operations, Hopf invariant, signature, characteristic classes, knot ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

236 views

### Examples of a topological semidirect product

Let $G$ be a compact topological group, and $\operatorname{Aut}(G)$ the group of autohomeomorphisms of $G$. I have proved some (topological) results about the holomorph $G\leftthreetimes ...

**31**

votes

**14**answers

7k views

### Examples of using physical intuition to solve math problems

For the purposes of this question let a "physical intuition" be an intuition
that is derived from your everyday experience of physical reality. Your
intuitions about how the spin of a ball affects ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

90 views

### Examples of value quantales

In his paper "Quantales and continuity spaces" R. C. Flagg gives the following examples of value quantales: the lattice $\bf{2}$ of truth values with usual addition, the lattice $\mathbb{R}_{+}$ of ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

172 views

### Examples of (non-normal) unibranched rings?

For a local integral domain $R$ the following are equivalent:
a) The integral closure of $R$ in its fraction field (i.e., the normalization of $R$) is again local.
b) The henselization of $R$ is ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

58 views

### Actions on spaces with measured walls

In geometric group theory, the question of whether or not a group acts nicely on a CAT(0) cube complex, or equivalently on a median graph, is of interest. The same question for actions on spaces with ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

886 views

### Can integration spoil real-analyticity?

Is there an example of a function $f:(a,b)\times(c,d)\to\mathbb{R}$, which is real analytic in its domain, integrable in the second variable, and such that the function
$$ g:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R},\qquad ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

113 views

### Is a successor to a successor to the trivial group topology on an Abelian group, totally bounded?

Is there an example of an Abelian group $G$ and group topologies $\cal S$ and $\cal T$ on it such that $\cal S$ is an immediate successor to the trivial topology on $G$ (i.e there is no other group ...

**7**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Examples of naturally occurring Quadratic forms or quadrics.

I am always fascinated when a quadratic form (or a quadric) arises naturally. I have
some elementary examples, but most of all, I want to learn more examples. I hope this question isn't considered too ...

**143**

votes

**67**answers

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### Awfully sophisticated proof for simple facts [closed]

It is sometimes the case that one can produce proofs of simple facts that are of disproportionate sophistication which, however, do not involve any circularity. For example, (I think) I gave an ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

74 views

### Roller's problem on median groups

At the end of his dissertation Poc Sets, Median Algebras and Group Actions, Martin Roller asks
A group $G$ is called median if it acts freely and transitively on a median algebra. This is ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Example of 4-manifold with $\pi_1=\mathbb Q$

This might be well known for algebraic topologist. So I am looking for an explicit example of a 4 dimensional manifold with fundamental group isomorphic to the rationals $\mathbb Q$.

**4**

votes

**1**answer

317 views

### Example of a specific manifold

I want to find a example of a manifold that has positive scalar curvature but is not half conformally flat.
Does there exists such manifolds?
Thanks.

**6**

votes

**1**answer

245 views

### Satellite knot example

Can someone provide me with an example of a satellite knot with symmetry group which is neither cyclic nor dihedral?

**16**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Example of fiber bundle that is not a fibration

It is well-known that a fiber bundle under some mild hypothesis is a fibration, but I don't know any examples of fiber bundles which aren't (Hurewicz) fibrations (they should be weird examples, I ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

241 views

### Example of a triangulable topological manifold which does not admit a PL structure

I know there are some examples of manifolds which don't admit a PL structure (combinatorial triangulation), and that it has been recently proven that in dimension $n\geq5$ there are manifold which are ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Good examples of random variables whose image is not a measurable set?

Are their simple/natural examples of real-valued Borel-measurable random variables whose image is not a Borel set? Something that occurs "naturally"?
I am teaching Doob's lemma (for two real-valued ...

**60**

votes

**32**answers

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### What notions are used but not clearly defined in modern mathematics?

"Everyone knows what a curve is, until he has studied enough mathematics to become confused through the countless number of possible exceptions."
Felix Klein
What notions are used but not ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

175 views

### system with solutions $\{x-a:0\leqslant a\leqslant z-1\}$ [closed]

What must be $F$ there where $0=F(1,x,0)=F(x-0,x,z)=F(x-1,x,z)=F(x-2,x,z)=F(x-3,x,z)=$ $\dots$ $=f(x-z-1,x,z)=0$?
Define $F$ in the domain where a continuous function exists that behaves so for ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

276 views

### Non-field example of a commutative, local, dual ring with nilradical $N$ such that $ann(N)\nsubseteq N$

I asked this question on math.stackexchange a month ago with no progress, even after a bounty. I hope to eliminate one if the other receives a satisfactory answer.
For an ideal $I\lhd R$ in a ...

**26**

votes

**3**answers

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### What manifolds are bounded by RP^odd?

Real projective spaces $\mathbb{R}P^n$ have $\mathbb{Z}/2$ cohomology rings $\mathbb{Z}/2[x]/(x^{n+1})$ and total Stiefel-Whitney class $(1+x)^{n+1}$ which is $1$ when $n$ is odd, so it follows that ...

**7**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Is the long line paracompact?

A manifold is usually defined as a second-countable hausdorff topological space which is locally homeomorphic to Rn. My understanding is that the reason "second-countable" is part of the definition is ...

**35**

votes

**22**answers

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### What are examples of good toy models in mathematics?

This post is community wiki.
A comment on another question reminded me of this old post of Terence Tao's about toy models. I really like the idea of using toy models of a difficult object to ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

337 views

### What's the role of $H^{p}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$ in modern (harmonic) analysis?

The classical theory of $H^p$,due to it's heavy dependence on the complex function theory(such as Blaschke products), seemed to have an insurmountable obstacle barrying its extension to several ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

113 views

### Linear vs smooth actions of finite groups on spheres, euclidean spaces and closed disks

I would like to know examples (with references, if possible) of the following:
(1) a finite group $G$ acting effectively and smoothly on a sphere $S^n$ (any $n$) but admitting no effective linear ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

92 views

### Images of interval edge coloring

I found out the definition of interval edge colorings, concept put by Kamalian in various papers but could not find a graph depicting an example. Where can I find pictures of explicit examples of ...

**22**

votes

**6**answers

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### Failure of smoothing theory for topological 4-manifolds

Smoothing theory fails for topological 4-manifolds, in that a smooth structure on a topological 4-manifold $M$ is not equivalent to a vector bundle structure on the tangent microbundle of $M$. Is ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

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### what's the idea behind Carleman estimate

A standard Carleman-type estimate is of the form
$$
\sum_{|\alpha|<m}{\tau^{2(m-|\alpha|-1)}\int{|D^{\alpha}u|^{2}e^{2\tau\phi}}dx}\leq K\int{|Pu|^{2}e^{2\tau\phi}dx},\quad u\in C_{0}^{\infty}
$$
...

**47**

votes

**45**answers

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### An example of a beautiful proof that would be accessible at the high school level?

The background of my question comes from an observation that what we teach in schools does not always reflect what we practice. Beauty is part of what drives mathematicians, but we rarely talk about ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

132 views

### Example of a torsionfree group satisfying a cohomological condition

Let us call a finitely generated group $G$ cohomologically rich if for each $k \geq 0$, we can find a subgroup $G'$ and a prime $p$ such that $H^k(G';\mathbb F_p) \neq 0$. Examples which come to mind ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

175 views

### Examples of TVS with no non-trivial open convex subsets

I give here the classical example of the space $E = L^p([0,1])$ which has no open convex subsets apart from $\emptyset$ and $E$. Consequently, there is no non-trivial continuous linear form on $E$.
...

**71**

votes

**25**answers

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### What are the most misleading alternate definitions in taught mathematics?

I suppose this question can be interpreted in two ways. It is often the case that two or more equivalent (but not necessarily semantically equivalent) definitions of the same idea/object are used in ...

**37**

votes

**26**answers

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### Examples of seemingly elementary problems that are hard to solve?

I'm looking for a list of problems such that
a) any undergraduate student who took multivariable calculus and linear algebra can understand the statements, (Edit: the definition of understanding here ...

**102**

votes

**59**answers

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### Jokes in the sense of Littlewood: examples? [closed]

First, let me make it clear that I do not mean jokes of the
"abelian grape" variety. I take my cue from the following
passage in A Mathematician's Miscellany by J.E. Littlewood
(Methuen 1953, p. 79):
...