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2
votes
0answers
37 views

Are there any interesting examples of geometric triangulated categories with the Jordan-Holder property?

In this paper, Kuznetsov mentions that the following triangulated categories have the Jordan-Holder properties $\mathbf{D}(\Bbb P^1)$ and $\mathbf{D}(\Bbb P^1/\Gamma)$ connected Calabi-Yau ...
56
votes
16answers
8k views

Examples of algorithms requiring deep mathematics to prove correctness

I am looking for examples of algorithms for which the proof of correctness requires deep mathematics ( far beyond what is covered in a normal computer science course). I hope this is not too broad.
89
votes
26answers
39k views

What are the most misleading alternate definitions in taught mathematics?

I suppose this question can be interpreted in two ways. It is often the case that two or more equivalent (but not necessarily semantically equivalent) definitions of the same idea/object are used in ...
5
votes
1answer
167 views

Rank versus free-rank of a module

Suppose $M$ is a finitely generated left module over a ring $R.$ We define the rank of $M$ as the minimal number of generators of $M.$ If in addition $M$ is free, then we define the free-rank of $...
121
votes
81answers
96k views

Do good math jokes exist? [closed]

Have a good joke? Share. I know this is subjective, but the principle "should be of interest to mathematicians" trumps. (I hope.)
5
votes
0answers
212 views

Is the field of invariants $k(V)^G$ purely transcendental over $k$?

Reference: http://www.math.u-psud.fr/~colliot/mumbai04.pdf Proposition 4.3. on page 18 in the above reference reads as follows: Assume $k = \overline{k}$. If $V$ is a finite dimensional vector space ...
144
votes
136answers
31k views

Fundamental Examples

It is not unusual that a single example or a very few shape an entire mathematical discipline. Can you give examples for such examples? (One example, or few, per post, please) I'd love to learn about ...
51
votes
47answers
18k views

An example of a beautiful proof that would be accessible at the high school level?

The background of my question comes from an observation that what we teach in schools does not always reflect what we practice. Beauty is part of what drives mathematicians, but we rarely talk about ...
82
votes
8answers
9k views

Mistakes in mathematics, false illusions about conjectures

Since long time ago I have been thinking in two problems that I have not been able to solve. It seems that one of them was recently solved. I have been thinking a lot about the motivation and its ...
235
votes
68answers
110k views

Proofs without words

Can you give examples of proofs without words? In particular, can you give examples of proofs without words for non-trivial results? (One could ask if this is of interest to mathematicians, and I ...
7
votes
1answer
146 views

What are types of coalgebras that are more naturally described by cooperads?

Some background. Let $\mathsf{C}$ be a symmetric monoidal category. An object $X \in \mathsf{C}$ has two operads "naturally" (the two constructions aren't functorial) associated to it: the operad of ...
1
vote
0answers
86 views

Applications of the Weak and Weak$^*$ topologies to PDEs?

Chapter $3$ of Functional Analysis, Sobolev Spaces and Partial Differential Equations by Haim Brezis constructs and explains the Weak and Weak$^*$ topologies over a Banach Space $E$. The most ...
155
votes
67answers
53k views

Awfully sophisticated proof for simple facts [closed]

It is sometimes the case that one can produce proofs of simple facts that are of disproportionate sophistication which, however, do not involve any circularity. For example, (I think) I gave an ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Problems and Algorithms Requiring Non-Bipartite Matching

While the importance of the non-bipartite matching problem itself from an algorithmic and complexity point of view is well known, applications of non-bipartite matching are hard to find. I did an ...
85
votes
42answers
12k views

Experimental Mathematics

I would like to ask about examples where experimentation by computers have led to major mathematical advances. A new look Now as the question is five years old and there are certainly more examples ...
31
votes
12answers
2k views

Interesting conjectures “discovered” by computers and proved by humans?

There are notable examples of computers "proving" results discovered by mathematicians, what about the opposite: Are there interesting conjectures "discovered" by computers and proved by humans? ...
8
votes
2answers
383 views

Densest Graphs with Unique Perfect Matching

Given a graph $G$ with $n$ vertices, that has a perfect matching $M$, what is the maximal number of edges that $G$ can have without contradicting the uniqueness of $M$? Are examples of such extremal ...
10
votes
4answers
964 views

What's the use of Malgrange preparation theorem?

The Malgrange preparation theorem,which is the $C^{\infty}$ version of the classical Weierstrass preparation theorem,says that if $f(t,x)$ is a $C^{\infty}$ function of $(t,x)\in\mathbb{R}^{n+1}$ near ...
8
votes
4answers
2k views

Example of a projective module which is not a direct sum of f.g. submodules?

This semester I am teaching a graduate course in commutative algebra, and I have been taking the occasion to try to look at the proofs of some the results in my basic source material (Matsumura, ...
156
votes
27answers
19k views

What are some reasonable-sounding statements that are independent of ZFC?

Every now and then, somebody will tell me about a question. When I start thinking about it, they say, "actually, it's undecidable in ZFC." For example, suppose A is an abelian group such that every ...
4
votes
0answers
47 views

Looking for a Collection of Examples and Counter Examples for Assumptions about the Properties of Planar Euclidean TSP Instances?

Where can I find example and counter examples to seemingly plausible assumption about the properties of optimal solutions of planar euclidean TSP instances? The reason for asking is that the ...
77
votes
2answers
3k views

$A$ is isomorphic to $A \oplus \mathbb{Z}^2$, but not to $A \oplus \mathbb{Z}$

Are there abelian groups $A$ with $A \cong A \oplus \mathbb{Z}^2$ and $A \not\cong A \oplus \mathbb{Z}$?
1
vote
0answers
185 views

uniqueness of a limit of a pseudo convergent set

Is there an example of valued field in which any pseudo convergent set has a limit and such that this limit is unique?
10
votes
17answers
3k views

Vector spaces without natural bases

Does anyone know any nice examples of vector spaces without a basis that is in some sense "natural". To clarify what I mean, suppose we look at $\mathbb{R}^2$. We define $\mathbb{R}^2$ as pairs of ...
10
votes
1answer
320 views

Examples of étale covers of arithmetic surfaces

Define an arithmetic scheme $X$ to be a separated, integral scheme, flat and finite type over $\mathbb{Z}$. I am interested in obtaining examples of finite étale covers of arithmetic schemes. I am ...
31
votes
8answers
3k views

Does any method of summing divergent series work on the harmonic series?

It's sort of folklore (as exemplified by this old post at The Everything Seminar) that none of the common techniques for summing divergent series work to give a meaningful value to the harmonic series,...
4
votes
1answer
147 views

Uniquely ergodic and strongly mixing transformation

Is there an example of a non-trivial measure preserving transformation that is uniquely ergodic and strongly mixing (in the measure theoretic sense)? This was asked here, but with no answer.
47
votes
7answers
5k views

Riemannian surfaces with an explicit distance function?

I'm looking for explicit examples of Riemannian surfaces (two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds $(M,g)$) for which the distance function d(x,y) can be given explicitly in terms of local coordinates of ...
4
votes
0answers
79 views

Example request: seriously deficient homogeneous spaces

In a previous post, I cite a dimension condition commonly satisfied by homogeneous spaces and claim that a counterexample must have deficiency at least $3$. For convenience, I reproduce the definition ...
23
votes
4answers
2k views

Some intuition behind the five lemma?

Slightly simplified, the five lemma states that if we have a commutative diagram (in, say, an abelian category) $$\require{AMScd} \begin{CD} A_1 @>>> A_2 @>>> A_3 @>>> A_4 @...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Applications of systems with multiple time

A dynamical system with multiple time is an action of a group $\mathbb{Z}^d$ or $\mathbb{R}^d$ on a metric space. I am interested in informative examples and applications of such systems. I know ...
32
votes
14answers
8k views

Examples of using physical intuition to solve math problems

For the purposes of this question let a "physical intuition" be an intuition that is derived from your everyday experience of physical reality. Your intuitions about how the spin of a ball affects ...
48
votes
22answers
9k views

What's a groupoid? What's a good example of a groupoid? [closed]

Or more specifically, why do people get so excited about them? And what's your favorite easy example of one, which illustrates why I should care (and is not a group)?
9
votes
1answer
524 views

Problems which use S₄ → S₃

I need examples of problems which use, directly or indirectly, the homomorphism $S_4\to S_3$ in the solution (its kernel is $\mathbb{Z}_2\oplus\mathbb{Z}_2$). Obvious candidates: Lagrange resolvent ...
57
votes
41answers
9k views

Examples of theorems with proofs that have dramatically improved over time

I am looking for examples of theorems that may have originally had a clunky, or rather technical, or in some way non-illuminating proof, but that eventually came to have a proof that people consider ...
2
votes
0answers
150 views

Groups with probability measures

Are there algebraic structures that integrate groups with probability measures? For instance, can the closure operation on a group be assigned a probability that says "how much" a member belongs to ...
38
votes
3answers
3k views

Difficult examples for Frankl's union-closed conjecture

Frankl's well-known union-closed conjecture states that if F is a finite family of sets that is closed under taking unions (that is, if A and B belong to the family then so does $A\cup B$), then there ...
109
votes
59answers
20k views

Jokes in the sense of Littlewood: examples? [closed]

First, let me make it clear that I do not mean jokes of the "abelian grape" variety. I take my cue from the following passage in A Mathematician's Miscellany by J.E. Littlewood (Methuen 1953, p. 79): ...
85
votes
6answers
6k views

Counterexamples in algebraic topology?

In this thread Books you would like to read (if somebody would just write them...), I expressed my desire for a book with the title "(Counter)examples in Algebraic Topology". My reason for doing so ...
53
votes
1answer
2k views

$R$ is isomorphic to $R[X,Y]$, but not to $R[X]$

Is there a commutative ring $R$ with $R \cong R[X,Y]$ and $R \not\cong R[X]$? This is a ring-theoretic analog of my previous question about abelian groups: In fact, in any algebraic category we may ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Test Instances for Perfect Matchings in Graphs

Are there any graphs with a known set of perfect matchings and other predefined properties, such as vertex connectivity, which can be used for testing the implementation of matching algorithms? ...
22
votes
4answers
6k views

Finite extension of fields with no primitive element

What is an example of a finite field extension which is not generated by a single element? Background: A finite field extension E of F is generated by a primitive element if and only if there are a ...
66
votes
34answers
11k views

What notions are used but not clearly defined in modern mathematics?

"Everyone knows what a curve is, until he has studied enough mathematics to become confused through the countless number of possible exceptions." Felix Klein What notions are used but not ...
8
votes
0answers
214 views

Bialgebras with Hopf restricted duals

It is known from the general theory that, given a bialgebra (over a field $k$) \begin{equation} \mathcal{B}=(B,\mu,1_B,\Delta,\epsilon) \end{equation} the Sweedler's dual $\mathcal{B}^0$ (called also ...
42
votes
6answers
4k views

What is Yoneda's Lemma a generalization of?

What is Yoneda's Lemma a generalization of? I am looking for examples that were known before category theory entered the stage resp. can be known by students before they start with category theory. ...
133
votes
76answers
44k views

Best online mathematics videos?

I know of two good mathematics videos available online, namely: Sphere inside out (part I and part II) Moebius transformation revealed Do you know of any other good math videos? Share.
4
votes
1answer
212 views

simple and non nuclear $C^*$-algebra

Is there an example of simple and non-nuclear(non-amenable) $C^*$-algebra?
8
votes
1answer
593 views

obstruction to smooth lifting of smooth schemes

According to general theory, for a square zero thickening defined by an ideal I: SpecA -> SpecA', there is an obstruction of lifting a smooth scheme X over A to a smooth scheme over A' living in H^2(X,...
17
votes
1answer
389 views

Vector field on a K3 surface with 24 zeroes

In http://mathoverflow.net/a/44885/4177, Tilman points out that one can use a $K3$ surface minus the zeroes of a generic vector field to build a nullcobordism for $24[SU(2)]$. Given that a) this is a ...
6
votes
4answers
10k views

Simple bijection between reals and sets of natural numbers

Using the Cantor–Bernstein–Schröder theorem, it is easy to prove that there exists a bijection between the set of reals and the power set of the natural numbers. However, it turns out to be difficult ...