The examples tag has no usage guidance.

**6**

votes

**2**answers

541 views

### Examples of Completions and Algebraic Closures

It is widely known that the algebaric closure of the $p$-adic completion $\mathbb{Q}_p$ of $\mathbb{Q}$ isn't complete anymore. It's completion is complete and known as $\mathbb{C}_p$.
I have read ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

200 views

### Motivation for Cosuspended Category Axioms

Today I was wondering about the axioms given by Bernhard Keller for Cosuspended Categories.
The axioms of a triangle feel very much like exactness, but not quite. The last axiom about the large ...

**13**

votes

**8**answers

1k views

### What are examples illustrating the usefulness of Krull (i.e., rank > 1) valuations?

In modern valuation theory, one studies not just absolute values on a field, but also Krull valuations. The motivation is easy enough:
If $k$ is a field, a valuation ring of $k$ is a subring $R$ ...

**79**

votes

**41**answers

10k views

### Experimental Mathematics

I would like to ask about examples where experimentation by computers have led to major mathematical advances.
A new look
Now as the question is five years old and there are certainly more examples ...

**35**

votes

**15**answers

7k views

### Strong induction without a base case

Strong induction proves a sequence of statements $P(0)$, $P(1)$, $\ldots$ by proving the implication
"If $P(m)$ is true for all nonnegative integers $m$ less than $n$, then $P(n)$ is true."
for ...

**33**

votes

**21**answers

7k views

### Nontrivial question about Fibonacci numbers?

I'm looking for a nontrivial, but not super difficult question concerning Fibonacci numbers. It should be at a level suitable for an undergraduate course.
Here is a (not so good) example of the sort ...

**12**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### Simple show cases for the Yoneda lemma

I've been given a very simple motivating and instructive show case for the Yoneda lemma:
Given the category of graphs and a graph object $G$, seen as a quadruple $(V_G,\ E_G,\ S_G:E\rightarrow V,\ ...

**47**

votes

**2**answers

5k views

### Galoisian sets of prime numbers

The question is about characterising the sets $S(K)$ of primes which split completely in a given galoisian extension $K|\mathbb{Q}$. Do recent results such as Serre's modularity conjecture (as proved ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

902 views

### Examples of Poisson Schemes

A Poisson Manifold is a real manifold $M$ along with a Lie bracket $[\cdot,\cdot]$ on $C^\infty(M)$ which is a derivation in each variable. Poisson manifolds are interesting for a few reasons, among ...

**88**

votes

**42**answers

19k views

### What are the most attractive Turing undecidable problems in mathematics?

What are the most attractive Turing undecidable problems in mathematics?
There are thousands of examples, so please post here only the most attractive, best examples. Some examples already appear on ...

**6**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### An example of two elements without a greatest common divisor

Is there an easy example of an integral domain and two elements on it which do not have a greatest common divisor? It will have to be a non-UFD, obviously.
"Easy" means that I can explain it to my ...

**2**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### non-abelian groups of prescribed order

Is there a construction that will give a non-abelian group of order $p^mr$ where $p$ is a prime, $r$ and $p$ are relatively prime and $m$ is an arbitrary non-negative integer? I suspect in this ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

558 views

### obstruction to smooth lifting of smooth schemes

According to general theory, for a square zero thickening defined by an ideal I: SpecA -> SpecA', there is an obstruction of lifting a smooth scheme X over A to a smooth scheme over A' living in ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

2k views

### What are examples of theorems get extensions based on simple observation?

Here are some examples illustrate what I meant:
Bonnet-Myers:Bonnet in 1855 proved n=2 case, Myers in 1941 extended to any dimension using the same idea.
Bishop-Gromov Volume comparison: Bishop knew ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### What are some interesting sequences of functions for thinking about types of convergence?

I'm thinking about the basic types of convergence for sequences of functions: convergence in measure, almost uniform convergence, convergence in Lp and point wise almost everywhere convergence. I'm ...

**46**

votes

**28**answers

29k views

### Applications of the Chinese remainder theorem

As the title suggests I am interested in CRT applications. Wikipedia article on CRT lists some of the well known applications (e.g. used in the RSA algorithm, used to construct an elegant Gödel ...

**20**

votes

**11**answers

3k views

### When does 'positive' imply 'sum of squares'?

Does anyone have examples of when an object is positive, then it has (or does not have) a square root? Or more generally, can be written as a sum of squares?
Example. A positive integer does not ...

**216**

votes

**68**answers

102k views

### Proofs without words

Can you give examples of proofs without words? In particular, can you give examples of proofs without words for non-trivial results?
(One could ask if this is of interest to mathematicians, and I ...

**25**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### What manifolds are bounded by RP^odd?

Real projective spaces $\mathbb{R}P^n$ have $\mathbb{Z}/2$ cohomology rings $\mathbb{Z}/2[x]/(x^{n+1})$ and total Stiefel-Whitney class $(1+x)^{n+1}$ which is $1$ when $n$ is odd, so it follows that ...

**13**

votes

**27**answers

3k views

### Justifying a theory by a seemingly unrelated example

Here is a topic in the vein of Describe a topic in one sentence and Fundamental examples : imagine that you are trying to explain and justify a mathematical theory T to a skeptical mathematician ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

902 views

### Example of non-closed convex hull in a CAT(0) space

this is related to this question but is simpler, and hopefully is well-known. There are a number of references that say that the convex hull of a collection of points in a CAT(0) space need not be ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

455 views

### Can we distinguish the algebraic and continuous duals of a Banach space without choice (or HBT)?

The algebraic dual of a normed vector space is the space of all linear functionals to the ground field (either $\mathbb{R}$ or $\mathbb{C}$ for this question). The continuous dual is the subspace of ...

**3**

votes

**4**answers

774 views

### Examples of divisors on an analytical manifold

I am trying to understand divisors reading through Griffith and Harris but it is difficult to come up with any particular interesting example. I have browsed through Hartshone's book but everything is ...

**62**

votes

**34**answers

6k views

### books well-motivated with explicit examples

It is ultimately a matter of personal taste, but I prefer to see a long explicit example, before jumping into the usual definition-theorem path (hopefully I am not the only one here). My problem is ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

253 views

### Is there a poset with 0 with countable automorphism group?

Is there a poset P with a unique least element, such that every element is covered by finitely many other elements of P (and P is locally finite -- actually, per David Speyer's example, let's say that ...

**22**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Failure of smoothing theory for topological 4-manifolds

Smoothing theory fails for topological 4-manifolds, in that a smooth structure on a topological 4-manifold $M$ is not equivalent to a vector bundle structure on the tangent microbundle of $M$. Is ...

**10**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Is a functor which has a left adjoint which is also its right adjoint an equivalence ?

I am looking for a counter-example of two functors F : C -> D and G : D->C such that
1) F is left adjoint to G
2) F is right adjoint to G
3) F is not an equivalence (ie F is not a quasi-inverse of ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Negative Gromov-Witten invariants

I understand the heuristic reason why Gromov-Witten invariants can be rational; roughly it's because we're doing curve counts in some stacky sense, so each curve $C$ contributes $1/|\text{Aut}(C)|$ to ...

**71**

votes

**25**answers

27k views

### What are the most misleading alternate definitions in taught mathematics?

I suppose this question can be interpreted in two ways. It is often the case that two or more equivalent (but not necessarily semantically equivalent) definitions of the same idea/object are used in ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Algebraic varieties which are topological manifolds

Inspired by this thread, which concludes that a non-singular variety over the complex numbers is naturally a smooth manifold, does anyone know conditions that imply that the topological space ...

**13**

votes

**9**answers

1k views

### Examples of noncommutative analogs outside operator algebras?

Theo's question made me wonder if there are other "noncommutative analogs" outside of operator algebras. Some noncommutative analogs from operator algebras include:
A $C^\ast$-algebra is a ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

696 views

### Gerbes for a cyclic group. (or maybe G_m too)

Let μn be the group scheme of n-th roots of unity. If X is a scheme and L is a line bundle on X, then I can construct a μn-gerbe Y over X by letting the S-points of Y be a S-point of X, a line ...

**37**

votes

**12**answers

5k views

### Combinatorial results without known combinatorial proofs

Stanley likes to keep a list of combinatorial results for which there is no known combinatorial proof. For example, until recently I believe the explicit enumeration of the de Brujin sequences fell ...

**49**

votes

**33**answers

4k views

### Dimension Leaps

Many mathematical areas have a notion of "dimension", either rigorously or naively, and different dimensions can exhibit wildly different behaviour. Often, the behaviour is similar for "nearby" ...

**0**

votes

**3**answers

220 views

### Where to find nice diagrams of trees and other graphs? [closed]

Are there some publicly available, vector format diagrams of trees and other graphs? They aren't hard to make, but they sure do take a lot of time (for me).

**12**

votes

**0**answers

546 views

### Pencils with many completely decomposable fibers

Let $F= \frac{G}{H} : \mathbb P^n \to \mathbb P^1$ be a non-constant rational function ($G$ and $H$ homogenous polynomials of the same degree
in $\mathbb C^{n+1})$.
The fiber over $(\lambda:\mu) \in ...

**139**

votes

**136**answers

30k views

### Fundamental Examples

It is not unusual that a single example or a very few shape an entire mathematical discipline. Can you give examples for such examples? (One example, or few, per post, please)
I'd love to learn about ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

710 views

### Simple applications of Atiyah-Bott localization

I am looking for some simple and concrete -- but still non-trivial and illustrative -- applications of Atiyah-Bott localization in the context of equivariant cohomology.
Do you know any good ones?

**7**

votes

**1**answer

589 views

### “Vector bundle” with non-smoothly varying transition functions

I'm working my way through Lang's Fundamentals of Differential Geometry, and when he introduces vector bundles, he states that for finite dimensional bundles, the third axiom is redundant. I'm hoping ...

**8**

votes

**5**answers

912 views

### Examples of left reversible semigroups

I am looking for concrete examples of cancellative, left reversible semigroups. Left reversible semigroups are also called "Ore semigroups". See this wikipedia page for the definition of a left ...

**30**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Are there pairs of highly connected finite CW-complexes with the same homotopy groups?

Fix an integer n. Can you find two finite CW-complexes X and Y which
* are both n connected,
* are not homotopy equivalent, yet
* $\pi_q X \approx \pi_q Y$ for all $q$.
In Are there two ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

242 views

### Hausdorff Derived Series

There is a short section in the book Locally Compact Groups by Markus Stroppel (Chapter B7) on the notion of a "Hausdorff Solvable Group", which he defines as a topological group with a descending ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

361 views

### Can an algebraic space fail to have a unviersal map to a scheme?

Let $\mathcal{X}$ be an algebraic space. Can it happen that there does not exist a map $\mathcal{X} \to X$ with $X$ a scheme that is initial for maps from $\mathcal{X}$ to schemes? Are there ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

831 views

### Examples of birational equivalence of a variety and a hypersurface

There's an algebraic geometry theorem (I.4.9 in Hartshorne) that says: any variety of dimension r (over an algebraically closed field) is birationally equivalent to a hypersurface in projective space ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

556 views

### Constructing a degeneration (as a group scheme) of G_m to G_a

SGA 3, expose 12, remark 1.6 says that one can easily construct a group scheme over a discrete valuation ring with generic fiber Gm and special fiber Ga.
What is such an example?

**8**

votes

**2**answers

848 views

### Folding by Automorphisms

Background reading: John Stembridge's webpage.
The idea is that when you want to prove a theorem for all root systems, sometimes it suffices to prove the result for the simply laced case, and then ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

992 views

### Nonprojective Surface

Let k be an algebraically closed field. It's well known that every complete curve, period, is projective. Also, that every smooth surface is, and that there are smooth 3-folds which are not, and ...

**32**

votes

**6**answers

5k views

### Algebraically closed fields of positive characteristic

I'm taking introductory algebraic geometry this term, so a lot of the theorems we see in class start with "Let k be an algebraically closed field." One of the things that's annoyed me is that as far ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

5k views

### Why does the power series expressing e^x have the form of a constant raised to x ? [closed]

This question is probably very basic, but I've been away from school for a while and the answer eludes me.
I was tempted to prove that d/dx(e^x) = (e^x) for old times sake and that was easy enough. I ...

**32**

votes

**17**answers

5k views

### Canonical examples of algebraic structures

Please list some examples of common examples of algebraic structures. I was thinking answers of the following form.
"When I read about a [insert structure here], I immediately think of [example]."
...