The examples tag has no usage guidance.

**18**

votes

**8**answers

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### Cryptomorphisms

I am curious to collect examples of equivalent axiomatizations of mathematical structures. The two examples that I have in mind are
Topological Spaces. These can be defined in terms of open sets, ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

244 views

### Forgetting extra structure inducing Symmetries

This is a major edit of the original post after receiving helpful comments.
It is often the case when one adds additional structure to make a problem more tractable. When one attempts to forget this ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

893 views

### On using field extensions to prove the impossiblity of a straightedge and compass construction

Let $z \in \mathbb{C}$. Consider the following statements:
The point $z$ can be constructed with straightedge and compass starting from the points $\{ 0,1\}$.
There is a field extension $K / ...

**2**

votes

**5**answers

773 views

### Is there a finitely complete category with terminal object but NO subobject classifier?

This came up today while thinking about topoi in seminar, as the title suggests my question is;
Is there a finitely complete category with terminal object but NO subobject classifier?
Hopefully ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Connection between bi-Hamiltonian systems and complete integrability

As I understand, the lack of indication on how to obtain first integrals in Arnol'd-Liouville theory is a reason why we are interested in bi-Hamiltonian systems.
Two Poisson brackets
$\{ \cdot,\cdot ...

**25**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### A finitely generated, locally free module over a domain which is not projective?

This is a followup to a previous question
What is the right definition of the Picard group of a commutative ring?
where I was worried about the distinction between invertible modules and rank one ...

**2**

votes

**4**answers

620 views

### Ternary relations that are not binary functions

By far the most prominent elementary relations that are not functions are binary and the most prominent elementary ternary relations are in fact binary functions.
"Elementary" shall mean "part of the ...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

660 views

### Kähler manifold which is not algebraic

Can someone provide examples of Kähler manifolds which are not algebraic?
This question came to my mind seeing the post of Andrea Ferretti.

**0**

votes

**1**answer

850 views

### Maximal subgroups of abelian groups and Q-algebras

Let $G$ be an abelian group which does not have a maximal subgroup. Does it follow that $G$ is a $\mathbb{Q}$-algebra?
It is easy to see that $\mathbb{Q}$-algebras do not admit any maximal subgroups. ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

750 views

### Example for an integral, rectifiable varifold with unbounded first variation

I'm just looking for an example of an integral, rectifiable varifold, which has no locally bounded first variation.
Recapitulation
for every $m$-rectifiable varifold $\mu$ exists a $m$-rectifiable ...

**42**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### What is Yoneda's Lemma a generalization of?

What is Yoneda's Lemma a generalization of?
I am looking for examples that were known before category theory entered the stage resp. can be known by students before they start with category theory.
...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

564 views

### Examples of Completions and Algebraic Closures

It is widely known that the algebaric closure of the $p$-adic completion $\mathbb{Q}_p$ of $\mathbb{Q}$ isn't complete anymore. It's completion is complete and known as $\mathbb{C}_p$.
I have read ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

200 views

### Motivation for Cosuspended Category Axioms

Today I was wondering about the axioms given by Bernhard Keller for Cosuspended Categories.
The axioms of a triangle feel very much like exactness, but not quite. The last axiom about the large ...

**13**

votes

**8**answers

1k views

### What are examples illustrating the usefulness of Krull (i.e., rank > 1) valuations?

In modern valuation theory, one studies not just absolute values on a field, but also Krull valuations. The motivation is easy enough:
If $k$ is a field, a valuation ring of $k$ is a subring $R$ ...

**85**

votes

**42**answers

11k views

### Experimental Mathematics

I would like to ask about examples where experimentation by computers have led to major mathematical advances.
A new look
Now as the question is five years old and there are certainly more examples ...

**35**

votes

**15**answers

7k views

### Strong induction without a base case

Strong induction proves a sequence of statements $P(0)$, $P(1)$, $\ldots$ by proving the implication
"If $P(m)$ is true for all nonnegative integers $m$ less than $n$, then $P(n)$ is true."
for ...

**35**

votes

**21**answers

7k views

### Nontrivial question about Fibonacci numbers?

I'm looking for a nontrivial, but not super difficult question concerning Fibonacci numbers. It should be at a level suitable for an undergraduate course.
Here is a (not so good) example of the sort ...

**14**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### Simple show cases for the Yoneda lemma

I've been given a very simple motivating and instructive show case for the Yoneda lemma:
Given the category of graphs and a graph object $G$, seen as a quadruple $(V_G,\ E_G,\ S_G:E\rightarrow V,\ ...

**48**

votes

**2**answers

5k views

### Galoisian sets of prime numbers

The question is about characterising the sets $S(K)$ of primes which split completely in a given galoisian extension $K|\mathbb{Q}$. Do recent results such as Serre's modularity conjecture (as proved ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

949 views

### Examples of Poisson Schemes

A Poisson Manifold is a real manifold $M$ along with a Lie bracket $[\cdot,\cdot]$ on $C^\infty(M)$ which is a derivation in each variable. Poisson manifolds are interesting for a few reasons, among ...

**93**

votes

**42**answers

20k views

### What are the most attractive Turing undecidable problems in mathematics?

What are the most attractive Turing undecidable problems in mathematics?
There are thousands of examples, so please post here only the most attractive, best examples. Some examples already appear on ...

**6**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### An example of two elements without a greatest common divisor

Is there an easy example of an integral domain and two elements on it which do not have a greatest common divisor? It will have to be a non-UFD, obviously.
"Easy" means that I can explain it to my ...

**2**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### non-abelian groups of prescribed order

Is there a construction that will give a non-abelian group of order $p^mr$ where $p$ is a prime, $r$ and $p$ are relatively prime and $m$ is an arbitrary non-negative integer? I suspect in this ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

583 views

### obstruction to smooth lifting of smooth schemes

According to general theory, for a square zero thickening defined by an ideal I: SpecA -> SpecA', there is an obstruction of lifting a smooth scheme X over A to a smooth scheme over A' living in ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

2k views

### What are examples of theorems get extensions based on simple observation?

Here are some examples illustrate what I meant:
Bonnet-Myers:Bonnet in 1855 proved n=2 case, Myers in 1941 extended to any dimension using the same idea.
Bishop-Gromov Volume comparison: Bishop knew ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### What are some interesting sequences of functions for thinking about types of convergence?

I'm thinking about the basic types of convergence for sequences of functions: convergence in measure, almost uniform convergence, convergence in Lp and point wise almost everywhere convergence. I'm ...

**49**

votes

**28**answers

32k views

### Applications of the Chinese remainder theorem

As the title suggests I am interested in CRT applications. Wikipedia article on CRT lists some of the well known applications (e.g. used in the RSA algorithm, used to construct an elegant Gödel ...

**21**

votes

**11**answers

3k views

### When does 'positive' imply 'sum of squares'?

Does anyone have examples of when an object is positive, then it has (or does not have) a square root? Or more generally, can be written as a sum of squares?
Example. A positive integer does not ...

**228**

votes

**68**answers

108k views

### Proofs without words

Can you give examples of proofs without words? In particular, can you give examples of proofs without words for non-trivial results?
(One could ask if this is of interest to mathematicians, and I ...

**27**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### What manifolds are bounded by RP^odd?

Real projective spaces $\mathbb{R}P^n$ have $\mathbb{Z}/2$ cohomology rings $\mathbb{Z}/2[x]/(x^{n+1})$ and total Stiefel-Whitney class $(1+x)^{n+1}$ which is $1$ when $n$ is odd, so it follows that ...

**13**

votes

**27**answers

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### Justifying a theory by a seemingly unrelated example

Here is a topic in the vein of Describe a topic in one sentence and Fundamental examples : imagine that you are trying to explain and justify a mathematical theory T to a skeptical mathematician ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

917 views

### Example of non-closed convex hull in a CAT(0) space

this is related to this question but is simpler, and hopefully is well-known. There are a number of references that say that the convex hull of a collection of points in a CAT(0) space need not be ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

472 views

### Can we distinguish the algebraic and continuous duals of a Banach space without choice (or HBT)?

The algebraic dual of a normed vector space is the space of all linear functionals to the ground field (either $\mathbb{R}$ or $\mathbb{C}$ for this question). The continuous dual is the subspace of ...

**3**

votes

**4**answers

805 views

### Examples of divisors on an analytical manifold

I am trying to understand divisors reading through Griffith and Harris but it is difficult to come up with any particular interesting example. I have browsed through Hartshone's book but everything is ...

**62**

votes

**34**answers

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### books well-motivated with explicit examples

It is ultimately a matter of personal taste, but I prefer to see a long explicit example, before jumping into the usual definition-theorem path (hopefully I am not the only one here). My problem is ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

255 views

### Is there a poset with 0 with countable automorphism group?

Is there a poset P with a unique least element, such that every element is covered by finitely many other elements of P (and P is locally finite -- actually, per David Speyer's example, let's say that ...

**23**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Failure of smoothing theory for topological 4-manifolds

Smoothing theory fails for topological 4-manifolds, in that a smooth structure on a topological 4-manifold $M$ is not equivalent to a vector bundle structure on the tangent microbundle of $M$. Is ...

**10**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Is a functor which has a left adjoint which is also its right adjoint an equivalence ?

I am looking for a counter-example of two functors F : C -> D and G : D->C such that
1) F is left adjoint to G
2) F is right adjoint to G
3) F is not an equivalence (ie F is not a quasi-inverse of ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Negative Gromov-Witten invariants

I understand the heuristic reason why Gromov-Witten invariants can be rational; roughly it's because we're doing curve counts in some stacky sense, so each curve $C$ contributes $1/|\text{Aut}(C)|$ to ...

**77**

votes

**26**answers

30k views

### What are the most misleading alternate definitions in taught mathematics?

I suppose this question can be interpreted in two ways. It is often the case that two or more equivalent (but not necessarily semantically equivalent) definitions of the same idea/object are used in ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Algebraic varieties which are topological manifolds

Inspired by this thread, which concludes that a non-singular variety over the complex numbers is naturally a smooth manifold, does anyone know conditions that imply that the topological space ...

**13**

votes

**9**answers

1k views

### Examples of noncommutative analogs outside operator algebras?

Theo's question made me wonder if there are other "noncommutative analogs" outside of operator algebras. Some noncommutative analogs from operator algebras include:
A $C^\ast$-algebra is a ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

743 views

### Gerbes for a cyclic group. (or maybe G_m too)

Let μn be the group scheme of n-th roots of unity. If X is a scheme and L is a line bundle on X, then I can construct a μn-gerbe Y over X by letting the S-points of Y be a S-point of X, a line ...

**38**

votes

**12**answers

6k views

### Combinatorial results without known combinatorial proofs

Stanley likes to keep a list of combinatorial results for which there is no known combinatorial proof. For example, until recently I believe the explicit enumeration of the de Brujin sequences fell ...

**51**

votes

**33**answers

4k views

### Dimension Leaps

Many mathematical areas have a notion of "dimension", either rigorously or naively, and different dimensions can exhibit wildly different behaviour. Often, the behaviour is similar for "nearby" ...

**0**

votes

**3**answers

222 views

### Where to find nice diagrams of trees and other graphs? [closed]

Are there some publicly available, vector format diagrams of trees and other graphs? They aren't hard to make, but they sure do take a lot of time (for me).

**12**

votes

**0**answers

549 views

### Pencils with many completely decomposable fibers

Let $F= \frac{G}{H} : \mathbb P^n \to \mathbb P^1$ be a non-constant rational function ($G$ and $H$ homogenous polynomials of the same degree
in $\mathbb C^{n+1})$.
The fiber over $(\lambda:\mu) \in ...

**144**

votes

**136**answers

31k views

### Fundamental Examples

It is not unusual that a single example or a very few shape an entire mathematical discipline. Can you give examples for such examples? (One example, or few, per post, please)
I'd love to learn about ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

717 views

### Simple applications of Atiyah-Bott localization

I am looking for some simple and concrete -- but still non-trivial and illustrative -- applications of Atiyah-Bott localization in the context of equivariant cohomology.
Do you know any good ones?

**7**

votes

**1**answer

615 views

### “Vector bundle” with non-smoothly varying transition functions

I'm working my way through Lang's Fundamentals of Differential Geometry, and when he introduces vector bundles, he states that for finite dimensional bundles, the third axiom is redundant. I'm hoping ...