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### Possible Regularity of “non- Platonic solid” Polygons

I present the question Most Regularity of a Polygon. Some readers have discussion about its informality. A formal version of this question is presented here:
Let P be a polygon with the following ...

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### Geometry of the triangle: from the centroid to the orthocenter and beyond [on hold]

Let A', B', C' be points on the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle ABC so that the angles A'BC, B'CA and C'AB are equal. The lines AA', BB' and CC' concur.
Which is the locus? Do you ...

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### Hexagon Formed by connecting Trisections of triangle sides [on hold]

Is there a theorem for the area of the hexagon formed by connecting the points formed when the sides of a triangle are trisected? It appears that the ratio of the area of the triangle to the area of ...

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### Tools for Removing Radicals from Equations

I am currently doing some investigations on Sylvester's 4 Point Problem Probability of 4 Points being in Convex Configuration
and repeatedly face the problem of solving equations between sums of ...

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### Geometric proof of the Vandermonde determinant?

The Vandermonde matrix is the $n\times n$ matrix whose $(i,j)$-th component is $x_j^{i-1}$, where the $x_j$ are indeterminates. It is well known that the determinant of this matrix is $$\prod_{1\leq ...

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### On maximal regular polyhedra inscribed in a regular polyhedron

Let T, C, O, D, or I be regular tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron, respectively. Suppose that the outer polyhedron have edge-length 1.
For example, it's easy to prove that ...

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### A conjecture about cross sections of a pyramid [closed]

Show that for $n\ge 5$, a cross-section of a pyramid whose base is a regular $n$-gon cannot be a regular $(n + 1)$-gon.
This is a conjecture I came across while trying to solve this problem.
I was ...

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### Angle of a regular simplex

I find the following question embarrassing, but I have not been able to either resolve it, or to find a reference.
What is the vertex angle of a regular $n$-simplex?
Background: For a vertex $v$ ...

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### Continuity of minimizers to distance function from point to convex set

Suppose I am minimizing the Euclidean distance in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$ between a point $y$ and compact convex set $U$ (where $y\notin U$):
$\min_{x\in U}\|x-y\|$.
I believe the minimizer $x_{U}^{*}$ is ...

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### Conditions for a parametric curve to avoid self-intersection?

Suppose a planar curve $C$ is defined by parametric
equations in $t$: $x(t)$ and $y(t)$.
Are there conditions on these two functions that guarantee
that $C$ does not self-intersect?
For example,
the ...

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### Generalising Euler's formula to ellipses and three dimensions

Let $D$ be the closed unit disk, $T$ a triangle and $E$ an ellipse with $E\subset T \subset D$. Without loss of generality say that $E$ is centred at Cartesian coordinates $(c, 0)$ with $0\leq c \leq ...

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### Probability of 4 Points being in Convex Configuration

Background of my question is, that I would like to implement a parallel preprocessing for a constructing the convex hull of very huge number of points in the euclidean plane;
the idea is to process ...

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### Reference request: a differential equation in elementary geometry

15 hours and four up-votes but not a word from anybody. That's the result of this question to stackexchange.
My question is where the following differential equation arises naturally and where it ...

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### spiral of Theodorus

A long time ago when I was in college I read about making a spiral out of right triangles with sides 1 and $\sqrt{N}$. (A google search seems to indicate that this is called the Spiral of Theodorus.)
...

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### Quadrilateral from 4 random points

Given 4 random points in 2D, how do I compute the area of the quadrilateral formed by the points?
I'm aware of formulae giving the area when I know the sides a,b,c,d and the diagonals p & q.
But ...

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### Points contained in a disk [closed]

I have a question, but not sure how to prove this.
We are given $n$ points in the Euclidean plane such that there exists no disk of radius $a$ which contains all of the points.
Conjecture: There ...

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### Neusis constructions

Is there some simple description of which complex numbers are "constructible" with straightedge and compass and neusis?
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructible_number and ...

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### Approximation of a convex body by a contained polytope

This question deals with approximating a convex body (a compact convex set of $\mathbb{R}^d$ with non-empty interior) by convex polytopes.
For a given $\delta$, let $n_\delta$ be the number of faces ...

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### How to find a tetrahedron that covers four points?

I’m looking for an explicit formula for the vertices of a regular tetrahedron that covers four given points. In particular:
Given four distinct real numbers $a_1$, $a_2$, $a_3$, $a_4$, is there a ...

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### Determine if circle is covered by some set of other circles

Suppose you have a set of circles $\mathcal{C} = \{ C_1, \ldots, C_n \}$ each with a fixed radius $r$ but varying centre coordinates. Next, you are given a new circle $C_{n+1}$ with the same radius ...

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### What is the correct preposition? (And is there one?)

I just stumbled upon a linguistic problem I wasn't able to resolve via web search. Suppose we're given some geometric set $A$ and subset $B\subset A$. Isn't there a compact way of saying that there ...

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### Successive Inner or Outer Approximation of Simple Polygons with Hierarchies of Implicit Functions

The problem I want to solve, is to quickly decide, whether a point $p=(x^*,y^*)$ is inside or outside of a polygon $P := (p_1, p_2,..., p_n=p_1), p_i := (x_i,y_i)$, with $n$ potentially very large.
...

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### Number of not self-intersecting closed paths spanning $n$ iid uniform points

Let $X_1,X_2,\dots,X_n$ be independent uniform variables in the square. What is the number of piece-wise linear paths which vertices are all the $X_i$ and that do not self-intersect? In other words, ...

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### Characterization of Angles Trisectable with Straightedge and Compass

Lindemann's prove of the transcendence of $\pi$ has settled the question, whether an arbitrary angle can be trisected, using straightedge and compass alone, to the negative.
In the following, ...

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### Number of small projections

Suppose $X$ is a finite subset of the plane and for $0\leq \theta<\pi$, let $l_\theta$ denote the line through the origin having angle $\theta$ with the positive $x$-axis. For how many values of ...

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### The intersection of $n$ cylinders in $3$-dimensional space

A standard question in vector calculus is to calculate the volume of the shape carved out by the intersection of $2$ or $3$ perpendicular cylinders of radius $1$ in three dimensional space. Such ...

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### Right triangle with edge lengths equal to regular unit polygon edge lengths

This question came up naturally recently from a blog post of John Baez. There is an observation of Euclid that edges of a pentagon, hexagon, and decagon inscribed in a unit circle form the edges of a ...

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### Probability that a stick randomly broken in five places can form a tetrahedron

The following problem was brought to my attention by a doctoral dissertation on Mathematics Education, but - as far as I know - the solution remains unknown.
I have already asked this question on ...

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### Heronian triangle with two sides that are prime

Can any prime number form a Heronian triangle with a second prime as another side? I cannot find a second prime to form a Heronian triangle with either 23 or 167. I have checked up to the 10^7th prime ...

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### Efficient visibility blockers in Polya's orchard problem

Polya's orchard problem asks for which radius $\rho$ of trees at each lattice point within a distance $R$ of the origin block all lines of sight to the exterior of the orchard.
...

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### Equipartition of the circle [closed]

Browsing an old technical studies pupil's school book, I have found the description of a method to place at equal distance $N$ points on the circumference of a circle. I am looking for a proof of this ...

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### Is Euclid dead? [closed]

Apparently Euclid died about 2,300 years ago (actually 2,288 to be more precise), but the title of the question refers to the rallying cry of Dieudonné, "A bas Euclide! Mort aux triangles!" ...

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### The Eyeball Theorem generalized

I have not seen the 2D Eyeball Theorem—that tangents from the centers of two circles, each encompassing the other, intersect each circle in the same segment length—generalized to higher ...

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### About the ratio of the areas of a convex pentagon and the inner pentagon made by the five diagonals

Question : Letting $S{^\prime}$ be the area of the inner pentagon made by the five diagonals of a convex pentagon whose area is $S$, then find the max of $\frac{S^\prime}{S}$.
...

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### College (Euclidean) geometry textbook recommendations

I will be teaching a mid-level undergraduate course in Euclidean geometry this fall. Has anyone taught such a course, who can recommend a good textbook?
My students will mostly be future high school ...

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### Inequality involving the side lengths of a quadrilateral

If $a$, $b$, $c$ and $d$ are the four sides of a quadrilateral, the problem is to show that $ab^2(b-c)+bc^2(c-d)+cd^2(d-a)+da^2(a-b)\ge 0$. I've verified it to be true for quite a large number of ...

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### Is the perimeter of an ellipse with integer axes irrational?

Let $Q$ be an ellipse with integer-length axes $a$ and $b$:
$$ \frac{x^2}{a^2} + \frac{y^2}{b^2} = 1 \;.$$
The perimeter of $Q$ is given by the complete elliptic integral of the 2nd kind, $E(\;)$:
$4 ...

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### Shrink polygon to a specific area by offsetting

I have a 2D polygon that I want to shrink by a specific offset (A) to match a certain area ratio (R) of the original polygon. Is there a formula or algorithm for such a problem? I am interested in a ...

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### Smallest regular simplex containing the unit cube in $R^n$

What is the length $e_n$ of the edge of the smallest $n$-dimensional regular simplex $S_n$ containing the $n$-dimensional unit cube $Q_n$?
In particular, is there $n$ such that ...

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### Largest inscribed rectangle inside a convex polygon

It has been proved by Radziszewski in this paper
K. Radziszewski. Sur une probleme extremal relatif aux gures inscrites et circonscrites aux gures convexes. Ann. Univ. Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, Sect. ...

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### Random projections and subspace preservation

Consider a set of points $\{\mathbf{x}_i\}_{i=1}^N$ in a $d$-dimensional linear subspace of $\mathbb{R}^n$ (assume $\{\mathbf{x}_i\}$ span the subspace). The points are projected to a $k$-dimensional ...

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### Repeating an operation infinitely makes any convex $n$-gon a regular $n$-gon?

For any convex $n$-gon $P_{0,1}P_{0,2}\cdots P_{0,n}$, let us consider the following operation :
Operation : Let $k=0,1,\cdots$. Take $n$ points $P_{k+1,i}\ (i=1,2,\cdots,n)$ outside of $n$-gon ...

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### About the 'minimum triangle' which includes a convex bounded closed set

Question : Is the following true?
"Letting $K$ be a convex bounded closed set on a plane, then there exists a triangle $M$, which includes $K$, such that $|M|\le 2|K|$. Here, $|M|,|K|$ is the area of ...

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### Finding the probability that $n$ points which are randomly selected from $d-1$ dimensional spherical surface are 'semi-spherical'

Let $S^{d-1}=\{(x_1,\cdots,x_{d})\in {\mathbb R}^{d}|{x_1}^2+\cdots+{x_d}^2=1\}$, and let us call the intersection of any $d-1$ dimensional subset which passes through the origin and $S^{d-1}$ 'a ...

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### Tetrahedron insphere iteration

I know that iterating the following incircle construction approaches an equilateral triangle in the limit:
Starting with any triangle $T$, one forms $T'$ by connecting ...

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### Soddy-type relation for Steiner chains

For Steiner $n$-chains of circles of radii $r_1,\dots,r_n$ tangent to an inner circle of radius $r_-$ and an outer circle of radius $r_+$, is there a Soddy-type relation between the $n+2$ quantities ...

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### Embedding of Two Objects Into Higher Dimensions With Their Sum

Given two vector sets, $\vec x_i$ and $\vec y_i$ (for $i$=1,2,...N, but the dimensionality of each vector can be more than N), let their sum set be $\vec z_i = \vec x_i + \vec y_i$. It's easy to ...

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### Equidissection of square [duplicate]

Monsky's Theorem states:
One cannot dissect a square into an uneven number of triangles with equal area.
I was wondering how close one could get to a equidissection, i.e.
For $n$ an uneven ...

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### About the area of the region where the paper is twofold when you double a piece of paper in the shape of a triangle

Suppose that you have a piece of paper in the shape of a triangle $ABC$ whose area is $S_0$ and that the area of the region where the paper is twofold when you double the paper in two along a line is ...

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### Can Tarski decide constructibility in elementary geometry?

Can the decision routine for Tarski's Elementary geometry be extended to decide when an existence claim in that theory can be instantiated by a compass and straightedge construction?
The answer does ...