The euclidean-geometry tag has no usage guidance.

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### Successive Inner or Outer Approximation of Simple Polygons with Hierarchies of Implicit Functions

The problem I want to solve, is to quickly decide, whether a point $p=(x^*,y^*)$ is inside or outside of a polygon $P := (p_1, p_2,..., p_n=p_1), p_i := (x_i,y_i)$, with $n$ potentially very large.
...

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### Characterization of Angles Trisectable with Straightedge and Compass

Lindemann's prove of the transcendence of $\pi$ has settled the question, whether an arbitrary angle can be trisected, using straightedge and compass alone, to the negative.
In the following, ...

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### Number of small projections

Suppose $X$ is a finite subset of the plane and for $0\leq \theta<\pi$, let $l_\theta$ denote the line through the origin having angle $\theta$ with the positive $x$-axis. For how many values of ...

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### The intersection of $n$ cylinders in $3$-dimensional space

A standard question in vector calculus is to calculate the volume of the shape carved out by the intersection of $2$ or $3$ perpendicular cylinders of radius $1$ in three dimensional space. Such ...

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### Right triangle with edge lengths equal to regular unit polygon edge lengths

This question came up naturally recently from a blog post of John Baez. There is an observation of Euclid that edges of a pentagon, hexagon, and decagon inscribed in a unit circle form the edges of a ...

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### Heronian triangle with two sides that are prime

Can any prime number form a Heronian triangle with a second prime as another side? I cannot find a second prime to form a Heronian triangle with either 23 or 167. I have checked up to the 10^7th prime ...

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### Equipartition of the circle [closed]

Browsing an old technical studies pupil's school book, I have found the description of a method to place at equal distance $N$ points on the circumference of a circle. I am looking for a proof of this ...

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### Is Euclid dead? [closed]

Apparently Euclid died about 2,300 years ago (actually 2,288 to be more precise), but the title of the question refers to the rallying cry of Dieudonné, "A bas Euclide! Mort aux triangles!" ...

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### The Eyeball Theorem generalized

I have not seen the 2D Eyeball Theorem—that tangents from the centers of two circles, each encompassing the other, intersect each circle in the same segment length—generalized to higher ...

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### Inequality involving the side lengths of a quadrilateral

If $a$, $b$, $c$ and $d$ are the four sides of a quadrilateral, the problem is to show that $ab^2(b-c)+bc^2(c-d)+cd^2(d-a)+da^2(a-b)\ge 0$. I've verified it to be true for quite a large number of ...

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### Shrink polygon to a specific area by offsetting

I have a 2D polygon that I want to shrink by a specific offset (A) to match a certain area ratio (R) of the original polygon. Is there a formula or algorithm for such a problem? I am interested in a ...

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### Is the perimeter of an ellipse with integer axes irrational?

Let $Q$ be an ellipse with integer-length axes $a$ and $b$:
$$ \frac{x^2}{a^2} + \frac{y^2}{b^2} = 1 \;.$$
The perimeter of $Q$ is given by the complete elliptic integral of the 2nd kind, $E(\;)$:
$4 ...

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### Largest inscribed rectangle inside a convex polygon

It has been proved by Radziszewski in this paper
K. Radziszewski. Sur une probleme extremal relatif aux gures inscrites et circonscrites aux gures convexes. Ann. Univ. Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, Sect. ...

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### Repeating an operation infinitely makes any convex $n$-gon a regular $n$-gon?

For any convex $n$-gon $P_{0,1}P_{0,2}\cdots P_{0,n}$, let us consider the following operation :
Operation : Let $k=0,1,\cdots$. Take $n$ points $P_{k+1,i}\ (i=1,2,\cdots,n)$ outside of $n$-gon ...

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### About the 'minimum triangle' which includes a convex bounded closed set

Question : Is the following true?
"Letting $K$ be a convex bounded closed set on a plane, then there exists a triangle $M$, which includes $K$, such that $|M|\le 2|K|$. Here, $|M|,|K|$ is the area of ...

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### Finding the probability that $n$ points which are randomly selected from $d-1$ dimensional spherical surface are 'semi-spherical'

Let $S^{d-1}=\{(x_1,\cdots,x_{d})\in {\mathbb R}^{d}|{x_1}^2+\cdots+{x_d}^2=1\}$, and let us call the intersection of any $d-1$ dimensional subset which passes through the origin and $S^{d-1}$ 'a ...

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### Tetrahedron insphere iteration

I know that iterating the following incircle construction approaches an equilateral triangle in the limit:
Starting with any triangle $T$, one forms $T'$ by connecting ...

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### Generalising Euler's formula to ellipses and three dimensions

Let $D$ be the closed unit disk, $T$ a triangle and $E$ an ellipse with $E\subset T \subset D$. Without loss of generality say that $E$ is centred at Cartesian coordinates $(c, 0)$ with $0\leq c \leq ...

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### Soddy-type relation for Steiner chains

For Steiner $n$-chains of circles of radii $r_1,\dots,r_n$ tangent to an inner circle of radius $r_-$ and an outer circle of radius $r_+$, is there a Soddy-type relation between the $n+2$ quantities ...

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### About the ratio of the areas of a convex pentagon and the inner pentagon made by the five diagonals

Question : Letting $S{^\prime}$ be the area of the inner pentagon made by the five diagonals of a convex pentagon whose area is $S$, then find the max of $\frac{S^\prime}{S}$.
...

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### Equidissection of square [duplicate]

Monsky's Theorem states:
One cannot dissect a square into an uneven number of triangles with equal area.
I was wondering how close one could get to a equidissection, i.e.
For $n$ an uneven ...

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### About the area of the region where the paper is twofold when you double a piece of paper in the shape of a triangle

Suppose that you have a piece of paper in the shape of a triangle $ABC$ whose area is $S_0$ and that the area of the region where the paper is twofold when you double the paper in two along a line is ...

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### Probability that a stick randomly broken in five places can form a tetrahedron

Edit (June 2015): Addressing this problem is a brief project report from the Illinois Geometry Lab (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), dated May 2015, that appears here along with a ...

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### Can Tarski decide constructibility in elementary geometry?

Can the decision routine for Tarski's Elementary geometry be extended to decide when an existence claim in that theory can be instantiated by a compass and straightedge construction?
The answer does ...

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### Finding an invisible circle by drawing another line

A friend of mine taught me the following question. He said he found it on a book a few years ago. Though I've tried to solve it, I'm facing difficulty.
Question: You know on a plane there is an ...

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### Conditions for when an off-centre ellipsoid fits inside the unit ball

An ellipsoid $E$ has centre $\vec{c}=(c_1,c_2,c_3)$ and semiaxes $t_1$, $t_2$ and $t_3$ aligned with the $x$, $y$ and $z$ axes. What are the necessary and sufficient conditions on $\vec{c}$, $t_1$, ...

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### 2-layer tilings with a center-of-gravity constraint

I've encountered a tiling problem with a physical constraint that
might place it outside the literature on tiling.
"Tiling" is a bit of a misnomer; it is a special type of cover.
All the tiles are ...

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### Embedding of Two Objects Into Higher Dimensions With Their Sum

Given two vector sets, $\vec x_i$ and $\vec y_i$ (for $i$=1,2,...N, but the dimensionality of each vector can be more than N), let their sum set be $\vec z_i = \vec x_i + \vec y_i$. It's easy to ...

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### Symmetric black-hole curves

Is there a curve $C$ that connects $(0,1)$ to $(a,0)$ for some $a>0$, and, when reflected
to $C'$ in the $x$-axis, the shape $S=C \cup C'$ has the property that each horizontal
light ray entering ...

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### Smallest regular simplex containing the unit cube in $R^n$

What is the length $e_n$ of the edge of the smallest $n$-dimensional regular simplex $S_n$ containing the $n$-dimensional unit cube $Q_n$?
In particular, is there $n$ such that ...

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### Tetrahedra passing through a hole

Assume a plane $P\subset\mathbb R^3$ has a hole $H$, and that the hole is topologically a compact disc. Being so, $P\setminus H$ does not separate the space. A regular tetrahedron $\sigma^3$ (of ...

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### On maximal regular polyhedra inscribed in a regular polyhedron

Let T, C, O, D, or I be regular tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron, respectively. Suppose that the outer polyhedron have edge-length 1.
For example, it's easy to prove that ...

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### Metrics for lines in $\mathbb{R}^3$?

I seek a metric $d(\cdot,\cdot)$ between pairs of (infinite) lines in $\mathbb{R}^3$.
Let $s$ be the minimum distance between a pair of lines $L_1$ and $L_2$.
Ideally, I would like these properties:
...

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### Angles and projective metric

Unless I am very wrong, the following seems to be true:
If the angle between two vectors in $\mathbb{R}^{n}_{++}$ is small, then the
value of the Hilbert projective metric between them is also ...

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### Which values can attain the minimum solid angle in a simplex

Given a simplex $S$ with a vertex $v$ by the solid angle at this vertex I mean the value $\hbox{vol}(B \cap S)/\hbox{vol}(B)$ where $B$ is a small enough ball centered at $v$ (for example, in the ...

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### Components of Intersection of Ellipsoids

Let $\Sigma$ be an $n-1$ dimensional ellipsoid in $\textbf{R}^{n}$ and $S$ the unit sphere.
I would like to understand the connected components $C$ of the intersection of $\Sigma$ and $S$.
In my ...

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### Does an origin-centered ellipse in the plane intersect each $L^p$-circle at most 8 times?

The question is in the title: Let $E$ be an origin-centered ellipse in ${\mathbb R}^2$ and let $S$ be an "$L^p$-circle": $S = \{(x,y) : |x|^p + |y|^p = \text{const}\}$, where $1 \leq p \leq \infty$. ...

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### Biggest ball included in an intersection of balls

I would like to prove that for any family of balls $\{B(c_i,r_i)\}_i \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ such that $\{c_1, \dots, c_n\} \subset \bigcap_i B(c_i,r_i) $ and $\forall i, r_i \geq 1$, there exists a ...

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### Straight Line Passing Through a Convex Region

Is there any test to tell me whether a straight line in a 3D euclidean space passes through a bounded closed convex region? To focus on a more specialised version of the problem, you can assume that ...

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### Boundary surfaces in a 3d Voronoi tessellation with obstacles

Let $x_1,\dots,x_n$ be a set of points in $\mathbb{R}^3$ and let $\mathcal{O}_1 ,\dots, \mathcal{O}_m$ denote a set of polyhedral obstacles. What is the name for the surfaces that describe the ...

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### What is the best *general triangle*?

During courses on geometry it is sometimes necessary to draw a triangle on the blackboard that can easily be recognized as a general triangle. It must not be rectangular and must not have two or more ...

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### Symmetry group for the frame bundle of a G-space

Let $Q$ be a smooth manifold, and let $G$ be a Lie group which acts smoothly on $Q$ on the left.
Question 1: does the group $G$ act naturally on the tangent bundle $TQ \to Q$?
My motivation here ...

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### Applications of n-dimensional crystallographic groups

I would like to know what are the applications of the theory of $n$-dimensional crystallographic groups (aka space groups)
1) in mathematics
2) outside of mathematics,
besides the applications to ...

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### Orthogonality between vectors whose components increase

This is a cross-posting of a MSE question (which did not receive any feedback there so far).
Say that a vector $x=(x_1,x_2, \ldots ,x_n)\in {\mathbb R}^n$ is nondecreasing if $x_1 \leq x_2\leq \ldots ...

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### A little question on certain parallel-lines-preserving maps

Let $\alpha:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^n$, $n\geq 2$, be a $\mathbb{Q}$-linear bijection with the following properties:
1) $\alpha$ sends straight affine $\mathbb{R}$-lines to straight affine ...

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### Find minimum-area ellipse enclosing a set of ellipses, all centered at the origin

Given a set of N > 2 (two-dimensional and coplanar) ellipses, all centered at the origin, how do I find the ellipse with the minimum area which encloses all of them?
Background:
Thanks to Will Jagy ...

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### Find minimum-area ellipse which encloses two ellipses

I need an efficient algorithm to find the ellipse with the smallest possible area which encloses two given ellipses. The given ellipses are constrained to have coincident centers at the origin but can ...

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### How well do random projections preserve the distance between a point and a linear subspace?

Let $x_1,\ldots,x_k \in \mathbb{R}^d$ be $k$ unit vectors in $d$ dimensional Euclidean space, and let $S = \mathrm{span}(x_1,\ldots,x_k)$ be a linear subspace defined by these points. Let $P \in ...

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### Does every connected set that is not a line segment cross some dyadic square?

A dyadic square is a subset of $R^2$ of the form $x + 2^{-n} [0,1]^2$ with $x \in 2^{-m} Z^2$, for integers $m,n \geq 0$. We say that a set $A$ crosses a square $S$ if there exists a connected subset ...

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### Definition of area

I am looking for an attractive, but rigorous definition of area;
say in Euclidean plane. Probably there is no short definition. It is OK to make it even longer, but can it be built from useful parts ...