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48
votes
4answers
5k views

Etale cohomology — Why study it?

I know (at least I think I know) that some of the main motivating problems in the development of etale cohomology were the Weil conjectures. I'd like to know what other problems one can solve using ...
23
votes
2answers
1k views

The category of l-adic sheaves

I'm currently trying to understand the construction of the category of l-adic constructible sheaves as in SGA5, and it seems that quite a lot of machinery (the MLAR condition, localization of the ...
21
votes
3answers
596 views

A hypersurface with many points

Ok, it's time for me to ask my first question on MO. Consider the affine curve $Y+Y^q=X^{q+1}$ over the finite field $\mathbf{F}_q$. It's interesting because it has the largest number of points over ...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

When do two elliptic curves have equivalent small etale toposes?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be elliptic curves over an algebraically closed field $K$. If the characteristic of $K$ is nonzero, assume both curves are ordinary or both are supersingular. Does it follow that $X$ ...
20
votes
2answers
3k views

Intuition behind the Eichler-Shimura relation?

The modular curve $X_0(N)$ has good reduction at all primes $p$ not dividing $N$. At such a prime, the Eichler-Shimura relation expresses the Hecke operator $T_p$ (as an element of the ring of ...
20
votes
3answers
1k views

how to find the varieties whose cohomology realizes certain representations?

The cohomology of Shimura varieties and Drinfeld shtukas is conjectured to realize the representations sought for in the Langlands programme/conjectures, the cohomology of Deligne-Lusztig varieties ...
19
votes
2answers
1k views

How is etale cohomology of integer rings related to Galois cohomology?

In the paper of Bloch and Kato in the Grothendieck Festschrift, and some other papers relating to the Bloch-Kato conjecture and the ETNC, the cohomology groups $H^i_{\mathrm{et}}(\operatorname{Spec} ...
18
votes
7answers
2k views

Etale covers of the affine line

In characteristic p there are nontrivial etale covers of the affine line, such as those obtained by adjoining solutions to x^2 + x + f(t) = 0 for f(t) in k[t]. Using an etale cohomology computation ...
18
votes
2answers
1k views

Comparing cohomology over ${\mathbb C}$ and over ${\mathbb F}_q$

I have the following (probably well-known) question: let $X$ be a regular scheme over $\mathbb Z$. Let $p$ be a prime and Let us denote the reduction of $X$ mod $p$ by $X_p$. Let also $X_{\mathbb ...
17
votes
1answer
982 views

Example of non-projective variety with non-semisimple Frobenius action on etale cohomology?

This question was motivated by a more general question raised by Jan Weidner here. In general one starts with a variety $X$ (say smooth) over an algebraic closure of a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ of ...
17
votes
1answer
1k views

Cohomology of sheaves in different Grothendieck topologies

Suppose I have a sheaf $\mathcal{F}$ on the (small) étale site over $X$. By restriction, $\mathcal{F}$ is also a sheaf on $X$ (with the Zariski topology). When is it that the sheaf cohomologies (i.e. ...
17
votes
0answers
806 views

Is there a Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch type of theorem generalizing Grothendieck's Lefschetz trace formula

Grothendieck deduced that the L-function of a (constructible) $\ell$-adic sheaf on a variety over $\mathbf{F}_p$ is rational from the generalized trace formula. My first question is based on the ...
16
votes
5answers
4k views

Textbook for Etale Cohomology

What is the best textbook (or book) for studying Etale cohomology?
16
votes
1answer
862 views

Etale site is useful - examples of using the small fppf site?

Edit: After the answers and comments, I'm hoping for a little bit of elaboration (in the comment to the answer below.) Also, question 2 was discussed here: Points in sites (etale, fppf, ... ) There, ...
16
votes
0answers
563 views

Can one compare integral structures on de Rham and crystalline cohomology?

Suppose $\mathfrak{X}$ is a smooth projective scheme of finite type over $\mathbb{Z}_p$, with generic fibre $X$. Then there are comparison theorems relating de Rham and crystalline cohomology, ...
15
votes
1answer
825 views

Any algebraic substitute for Morse theory (and homology) in arbitrary characteristic?

As far as I know, Morse theory yields much information on the topology of smooth manifolds; in particular, it can be used to prove Artin's vanishing (that the singular cohomology of smooth complex ...
15
votes
1answer
658 views

Which algebraic surfaces have non-trivial H^1?

Informally, my question is the following: Is there an "inverse theorem" for the first cohomology group $H^1$ of (the projective completion of) an algebraic surface $S$? Namely, can we give a ...
15
votes
1answer
464 views

Does every hyperbolic curve over a finite field have an etale cover with a real Frobenius eigenvalue?

More precisely: let X/F_q be a smooth projective algebraic curve of genus at least 2. Does there always exist a curve Y/F_{q^d} with a finite etale projection Y -> X, such that one of the Frobenius ...
14
votes
4answers
2k views

Etale cohomology and l-adic Tate modules

$\newcommand{\bb}{\mathbb}\DeclareMathOperator{\gal}{Gal}$ Before stating my question I should remark that I know almost nothing about etale cohomology - all that I know, I've gleaned from hearing off ...
14
votes
2answers
927 views

Etale cohomology with coefficients in the integers

Here is a basic question. When does $H^1_{et}(X,\mathbb{Z})$ vanish? Using the exact sequence of constant etale sheaves ...
14
votes
1answer
1k views

Are all Galois cohomology groups also étale cohomology groups?

Let $K$ be a field and $K^s$ a separable closure of $K$, and let $\mathcal{F}$ be a sheaf on $\mathrm{Spec}(K)$ (in the étale topology). By Grothendieck's Galois Theory, we have the isomorphism ...
14
votes
2answers
608 views

Motivic generalisation of Neron-Ogg-Shaferevich criterion

Given a variety $X$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ with good reduction at $p$, proper smooth base change tells us that its $l$-adic cohomology groups are unramified at $p$ (and I'd guess some $p$-adic Hodge theory ...
14
votes
1answer
888 views

Universal homeomorphisms and the étale topology

Let $f:X\to S$ be a universal homeomorphism of schemes. Assume $X(S')\neq\emptyset$ for some étale surjective $S'\to S$. Does $f$ have a section? The answer is yes if $S$ is reduced, by descent. ...
14
votes
1answer
993 views

Serre and Tate's conjectures on étale cohomology

In the appendix of Serre and Tate "Good Reduction of Abelian Varieties" [Annals of Mathematics 88 (1968), 492-517], the authors make the following conjectures. Suppose that $X$ is a smooth proper ...
13
votes
6answers
1k views

weight 4 eigenforms with rational coefficients---is it reasonable to expect they all come from Calabi-Yaus?

A weight 2 modular form which happens to be a normalised cuspidal eigenform with rational coefficients has a natural geometric avatar---namely an elliptic curve over the rationals. It seems to be a ...
13
votes
0answers
500 views

Status of conjectures in Serre's 1969 expose on Galois representations on l-adic cohomology

In [S]: Serre, Jean-Pierre. Facteurs locaux des fonctions zeta des varietes algebriques (definitions et conjectures), Seminaire Delange-Pisot-Poitou, 1969-70 Serre presents nine conjectures ...
12
votes
1answer
878 views

Why does the naive definition of compactly supported étale cohomology give the wrong answer?

Illusie's article about étale cohomology available here (in French) mentions that the standard definition of compactly supported cohomology (and higher direct images with compact support) does not ...
12
votes
1answer
846 views

Analogue of Shimura curves in the symplectic case?

My understanding is this: one can attach 2-d Galois representations to classical modular eigenforms because one can look in the etale cohomology of modular curves. For Hilbert modular forms the naive ...
11
votes
1answer
798 views

Motivation for the étale topology over other possibilities

In the search for a Weil cohomology theory $H$ over a field $K$ (with $\text{char}(K)=0$) for varieties in characteristic $p$, a classical argument by Serre shows that the coefficient field cannot be ...
11
votes
1answer
669 views

Motivic cohomology with finite coefficients for singular varieties

Let $X$ be a smooth variety over a field $K$ whose characteristic does not divide a positive integer $m$. Then the motivic cohomology of $X$ with coefficients in $\mathbb Z/m(j)$ can be computed in ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

comparison of de Rham cohomology and etale cohomology

I have a basic question concerning comparison of different cohomology theories. Let $X$ be a projective smooth (or just proper smooth) variety over a separably closed field $k$ of characteristic $p,$ ...
10
votes
3answers
576 views

Is the Gelfand-Graev character isomorphic to a cohomology group for some sheaf on a Deligne-Lusztig variety?

Deligne-Lusztig theory is awesome. You take a maximal torus $T$, you take a character $\theta$, construct a variety $X_T$$^*$, take etale cohomology, get a virtual character $R_T^\theta$, maybe it's ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Locally constant sheaves for the étale topology, lack of intuition about “étale-localness”

I have started studying some étale cohomology and I am trying to build up some intuition about the concept of local for the étale topology. I can understand some nice examples (like Kummer exact ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Leray-Hirsch principle for étale cohomology

Let $p:E\to B$ be a continuous map of topological spaces and set $F_x=p^{-1}(x)$ for an $x\in B$. Take a commutative ring $A$ and assume for simplicity that each $H^\*(F_x,A)$ is a free $A$-module. ...
10
votes
2answers
444 views

intuition about the “section after base-change” for flat descent and exactness of the Amitsur complex

Suppose $A \rightarrow B$ is a faithfully flat map of rings. Then the Amitsur complex is exact: $0 \rightarrow A \rightarrow B \rightarrow B \otimes_A B \rightarrow \dots$ (the second map is $id ...
10
votes
1answer
594 views

Bad behaviour of perverse sheaves over 'general' bases?

Could one define $\mathbb{Q}_l$-perverse etale sheaves over more or less general (excellent, separated) base scheme by combining the results of Gabber and Ekedahl? Would their functoriality properties ...
10
votes
0answers
153 views

Degeneration of etale Hochschild--Serre exact sequence

Let $k$ be a field, $X$ a smooth $K$-variety and $\ell$ a prime not dividing the characteristic of $K$. Then one can make sense of continuous $\ell$-adic etale cohomology (in the sense of Jannsen), ...
10
votes
0answers
224 views

L-Functions of Varieties, Zeta Functions of Their Models

Let $k$ denote a number field, with algebraic closure $\bar{k}$. Take a smooth, projective variety $X$ over $k$. If $\mathfrak{p}$ is a prime of $k$, and $l$ is a rational prime different to the ...
9
votes
1answer
446 views

Etale homology via étale cosheaves

Can one develop a theory of étale homology via étale cosheaves? The hope is that this would, for example, return the Tate module (and not its dual) for an elliptic curve, and it would return group ...
9
votes
2answers
562 views

Cohomological dimension-doubling

I'm sure this is a question which has been asked many times, if not necessarily on this site: Why does a (smooth, projective) scheme over a field, with dimension d, behave as though it were a ...
8
votes
4answers
1k views

Equivalent Statements of Riemann Hypothesis in the Weil Conjectures

In the cohomological incarnation, the Riemann hypothesis part of the Weil conjectures for a smooth proper scheme of finite type over a finite field with q elements says that: the eigenvalues of ...
8
votes
2answers
360 views

Can one ignore primes lying over $l$ in the Fontaine-Mazur conjecture? Counterexamples?

The Fontaine-Mazur conjecture predicts that an $l$-adic Galois representation of a number field is 'geometric' if it is unramified outside a finite set of primes and is De Rham for primes lying over ...
8
votes
1answer
201 views

Example of a variety over a number field with non-semisimple Galois representation on $\ell$-adic cohomology

This question is inspired by the question: Example of non-projective variety with non-semisimple Frobenius action on etale cohomology? Let $K$ be a number field (or finitely generated field of ...
8
votes
1answer
509 views

Etale cohomology of the completion of a Henselian local ring

Let $\pi: R\to S$ be a local morphism of Henselian local rings. Let $f: R \to \hat{R}$ and $g: S \to \hat{S}$ be their completions. Let $\mathcal F$ be a constructible $l$-adic sheaf on $\operatorname ...
8
votes
1answer
242 views

Which sheaves satisfy cohomological purity?

The absolute cohomological purity theorem in étale cohomology is as follows. Let $X$ be a regular scheme over $\mathbb{Z}[1/n]$, and $i \colon Z \to X$ the inclusion of a regular closed ...
8
votes
0answers
350 views

Comparison of etale and formal etale cohomologies for l=p

Let $K$ be a finite extension of $\mathbb{Q} _p$ with a field of integers $\mathcal{O} _K$. Let $X$ be a semistable proper scheme over $\mathcal{O} _K$, and $\mathcal{X}$ the associated p-adic formal ...
7
votes
1answer
534 views

Points in sites (etale, fppf, … )

I asked a part of this in an earlier question, but that part of my question didn't receive precedence. Etale site is useful - examples of using the small fppf site? Let $X$ be a scheme (assume it ...
7
votes
1answer
348 views

Is the $\ell$-adic cohomology of a non-proper variety unramified at good primes?

Let $X$ be a smooth variety of finite type over a number field $k$. Let $\overline{X} = X \times_{k} \overline{k}$, and let $\ell$ be a prime. It's well known that if $X$ is proper, then the ...
7
votes
1answer
629 views

Is there an integral version of Faltings' isomorphism in p-adic Hodge theory between etale and Hodge cohomologies

Let $K$ be a $p$-adic field, that is a complete discrete valuation ring of characteristic $0$ with a perfect residue field $k$ of characteristic $p > 0$ (to simplify one could also take $K$ to be a ...
7
votes
4answers
967 views

cohomology of moduli spaces

Does anyone know if there's any reference on the $\ell$-adic cohomology of some simple moduli spaces/Shimura varieties, like Siegel moduli varieties $A_{g,N}$ of genus $g$ and level $N,$ for small $g$ ...