**57**

votes

**4**answers

7k views

### Etale cohomology — Why study it?

I know (at least I think I know) that some of the main motivating problems in the development of etale cohomology were the Weil conjectures. I'd like to know what other problems one can solve using ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

791 views

### Steenrod operations in etale cohomology?

For $X$ a topological space, from the short exact sequence
$$ 0 \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}/2 \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}/4 \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}/2 \rightarrow 0 $$
we get a Bockstein homomorphism
...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### The category of l-adic sheaves

I'm currently trying to understand the construction of the category of l-adic constructible sheaves as in SGA5, and it seems that quite a lot of machinery (the MLAR condition, localization of the ...

**22**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Intuition behind the Eichler-Shimura relation?

The modular curve $X_0(N)$ has good reduction at all primes $p$ not dividing $N$. At such a prime, the Eichler-Shimura relation expresses the Hecke operator $T_p$ (as an element of the ring of ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### How is etale cohomology of integer rings related to Galois cohomology?

In the paper of Bloch and Kato in the Grothendieck Festschrift, and some other papers relating to the Bloch-Kato conjecture and the ETNC, the cohomology groups
$H^i_{\mathrm{et}}(\operatorname{Spec} ...

**21**

votes

**5**answers

6k views

**21**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### how to find the varieties whose cohomology realizes certain representations?

The cohomology of Shimura varieties and Drinfeld shtukas is conjectured to realize the representations sought for in the Langlands programme/conjectures, the cohomology of Deligne-Lusztig varieties ...

**21**

votes

**3**answers

639 views

### A hypersurface with many points

Ok, it's time for me to ask my first question on MO.
Consider the affine curve $Y+Y^q=X^{q+1}$ over the finite field $\mathbf{F}_q$. It's interesting because it has the largest number of points over ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### When do two elliptic curves have equivalent small etale toposes?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be elliptic curves over an algebraically closed field $K$. If the characteristic of $K$ is nonzero, assume both curves are ordinary or both are supersingular. Does it follow that $X$ ...

**20**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### Etale covers of the affine line

In characteristic p there are nontrivial etale covers of the affine line, such as those obtained by adjoining solutions to x^2 + x + f(t) = 0 for f(t) in k[t]. Using an etale cohomology computation ...

**20**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Is there a Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch type of theorem generalizing Grothendieck's Lefschetz trace formula

Grothendieck deduced that the L-function of a (constructible) $\ell$-adic sheaf on a variety over $\mathbf{F}_p$ is rational from the generalized trace formula.
My first question is based on the ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

931 views

### When is “independence of l” known?

My question is for which varieties over local fields is "independence of l" known for
etale cohomology. Say $X/{\mathbb Q}_p$ is a complete non-singular variety and $W_l$ is the (complex) ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

708 views

### Status of conjectures in Serre's 1969 expose on Galois representations on l-adic cohomology

In
[S]: Serre, Jean-Pierre. Facteurs locaux des fonctions zeta des varietes algebriques (definitions et conjectures), Seminaire Delange-Pisot-Poitou, 1969-70
Serre presents nine conjectures ...

**18**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Etale cohomology and l-adic Tate modules

$\newcommand{\bb}{\mathbb}\DeclareMathOperator{\gal}{Gal}$
Before stating my question I should remark that I know almost nothing about etale cohomology - all that I know, I've gleaned from hearing off ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Example of non-projective variety with non-semisimple Frobenius action on etale cohomology?

This question was motivated by a more general question raised by Jan Weidner here. In general one starts with a variety $X$ (say smooth) over an algebraic closure of a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ of ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Comparing cohomology over ${\mathbb C}$ and over ${\mathbb F}_q$

I have the following (probably well-known) question: let $X$ be a regular scheme over
$\mathbb Z$. Let $p$ be a prime and Let us denote the reduction of $X$ mod $p$ by $X_p$.
Let also $X_{\mathbb ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Which algebraic surfaces have non-trivial H^1?

Informally, my question is the following:
Is there an "inverse theorem" for the first cohomology group $H^1$ of (the projective completion of) an algebraic surface $S$? Namely, can we give a ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

458 views

### Flat versus etale cohomology

Although the definition of etale ($\ell$-adic) cohomology is scary, I have at least some intuition for how it should behave: for instance, when it makes sense, I expect that it should be ``similar'' ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Cohomology of sheaves in different Grothendieck topologies

Suppose I have a sheaf $\mathcal{F}$ on the (small) étale site over $X$. By restriction, $\mathcal{F}$ is also a sheaf on $X$ (with the Zariski topology). When is it that the sheaf cohomologies (i.e. ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Any algebraic substitute for Morse theory (and homology) in arbitrary characteristic?

As far as I know, Morse theory yields much information on the topology of smooth manifolds; in particular, it can be used to prove Artin's vanishing (that the singular cohomology of smooth complex ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Etale cohomology with coefficients in the integers

Here is a basic question. When does $H^1_{et}(X,\mathbb{Z})$ vanish? Using the exact sequence of constant etale sheaves ...

**16**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### weight 4 eigenforms with rational coefficients---is it reasonable to expect they all come from Calabi-Yaus?

A weight 2 modular form which happens to be a normalised cuspidal eigenform with rational coefficients has a natural geometric avatar---namely an elliptic curve over the rationals. It seems to be a ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Etale site is useful - examples of using the small fppf site?

Edit: After the answers and comments, I'm hoping for a little bit of elaboration (in the comment to the answer below.) Also, question 2 was discussed here:
Points in sites (etale, fppf, ... )
There, ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

500 views

### Does every hyperbolic curve over a finite field have an etale cover with a real Frobenius eigenvalue?

More precisely: let X/F_q be a smooth projective algebraic curve of genus at least 2. Does there always exist a curve Y/F_{q^d} with a finite etale projection Y -> X, such that one of the Frobenius ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

674 views

### Can one compare integral structures on de Rham and crystalline cohomology?

Suppose $\mathfrak{X}$ is a smooth projective scheme of finite type over $\mathbb{Z}_p$, with generic fibre $X$. Then there are comparison theorems relating de Rham and crystalline cohomology,
...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

734 views

### Motivic generalisation of Neron-Ogg-Shaferevich criterion

Given a variety $X$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ with good reduction at $p$, proper smooth base change tells us that its $l$-adic cohomology groups are unramified at $p$ (and I'd guess some $p$-adic Hodge theory ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Universal homeomorphisms and the étale topology

Let $f:X\to S$ be a universal homeomorphism of schemes. Assume $X(S')\neq\emptyset$ for some étale surjective $S'\to S$. Does $f$ have a section?
The answer is yes if $S$ is reduced, by descent. ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Serre and Tate's conjectures on étale cohomology

In the appendix of Serre and Tate "Good Reduction of Abelian Varieties" [Annals of Mathematics 88 (1968), 492-517], the authors make the following conjectures.
Suppose that $X$ is a smooth proper ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Are all Galois cohomology groups also étale cohomology groups?

Let $K$ be a field and $K^s$ a separable closure of $K$, and let $\mathcal{F}$ be a sheaf on $\mathrm{Spec}(K)$ (in the étale topology).
By Grothendieck's Galois Theory, we have the isomorphism
...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Why does the naive definition of compactly supported étale cohomology give the wrong answer?

Illusie's article about étale cohomology available here (in French) mentions that the standard definition of compactly supported cohomology (and higher direct images with compact support) does not ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

865 views

### Cohomological dimension-doubling

I'm sure this is a question which has been asked many times, if not necessarily on this site:
Why does a (smooth, projective) scheme over a field, with dimension d, behave as though it were a ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

813 views

### Motivic cohomology with finite coefficients for singular varieties

Let $X$ be a smooth variety over a field $K$ whose characteristic does not divide a positive integer $m$. Then the motivic cohomology of $X$ with coefficients in $\mathbb Z/m(j)$ can be computed in ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### comparison of de Rham cohomology and etale cohomology

I have a basic question concerning comparison of different cohomology theories. Let $X$ be a projective smooth (or just proper smooth) variety over a separably closed field $k$ of characteristic $p,$ ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

530 views

### Resolution of singularities in étale cohomology

The lack of a suitable resolution of singularities comes up often in work on étale cohomology from the 1960s and 70s, And I think even the latest version of Milne's lecture notes says "It is likely ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

632 views

### Are there known cases of the Mumford–Tate conjecture that do not use Abelian varieties?

(For a formulation of the Mumford–Tate conjecture, see below.)
The question
As far as I know, all non-trivial known cases of the Mumford–Tate conjecture more or less depend on the Mumford–Tate ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Locally constant sheaves for the étale topology, lack of intuition about “étale-localness”

I have started studying some étale cohomology and I am trying to build up some intuition about the concept of local for the étale topology. I can understand some nice examples (like Kummer exact ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

888 views

### Motivation for the étale topology over other possibilities

In the search for a Weil cohomology theory $H$ over a field $K$ (with $\text{char}(K)=0$) for varieties in characteristic $p$, a classical argument by Serre shows that the coefficient field cannot be ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

274 views

### Independence of $\ell$ of Betti numbers

When $X$ is a smooth proper variety over $\mathbb F_q$, we know by Deligne's theory of weights that the dimension of $H^i_{\operatorname{\acute et}}(\bar X, \mathbb Q_\ell)$ does not depend on $\ell$. ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

879 views

### Analogue of Shimura curves in the symplectic case?

My understanding is this: one can attach 2-d Galois representations to classical modular eigenforms because one can look in the etale cohomology of modular curves. For Hilbert modular forms the naive ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

678 views

### Is the Gelfand-Graev character isomorphic to a cohomology group for some sheaf on a Deligne-Lusztig variety?

Deligne-Lusztig theory
is awesome. You take a maximal torus $T$, you take a character $\theta$, construct a variety $X_T$$^*$, take etale cohomology, get a virtual character $R_T^\theta$, maybe it's ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Leray-Hirsch principle for étale cohomology

Let $p:E\to B$ be a continuous map of topological spaces and set $F_x=p^{-1}(x)$ for an $x\in B$. Take a commutative ring $A$ and assume for simplicity that each $H^\*(F_x,A)$ is a free $A$-module. ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

501 views

### intuition about the “section after base-change” for flat descent and exactness of the Amitsur complex

Suppose $A \rightarrow B$ is a faithfully flat map of rings. Then the Amitsur complex is exact:
$0 \rightarrow A \rightarrow B \rightarrow B \otimes_A B \rightarrow \dots$
(the second map is $id ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

683 views

### Bad behaviour of perverse sheaves over 'general' bases?

Could one define $\mathbb{Q}_l$-perverse etale sheaves over more or less general (excellent, separated) base scheme by combining the results of Gabber and Ekedahl? Would their functoriality properties ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

225 views

### Degeneration of etale Hochschild--Serre exact sequence

Let $k$ be a field, $X$ a smooth $K$-variety and $\ell$ a prime not dividing the characteristic of $K$.
Then one can make sense of continuous $\ell$-adic etale cohomology (in the sense of Jannsen), ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

313 views

### L-Functions of Varieties, Zeta Functions of Their Models

Let $k$ denote a number field, with algebraic closure $\bar{k}$. Take a smooth, projective variety $X$ over $k$. If $\mathfrak{p}$ is a prime of $k$, and $l$ is a rational prime different to the ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

586 views

### Etale homology via étale cosheaves

Can one develop a theory of étale homology via étale cosheaves? The hope is that this would, for example, return the Tate module (and not its dual) for an elliptic curve, and it would return group ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

387 views

### Can one ignore primes lying over $l$ in the Fontaine-Mazur conjecture? Counterexamples?

The Fontaine-Mazur conjecture predicts that an $l$-adic Galois representation of a number field is 'geometric' if it is unramified outside a finite set of primes and is De Rham for primes lying over ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### A nice explanation of what is a smooth (l-adic) sheaf?

I would like to understand this concept. It seems to be important (for the theory of perverse sheaves), yet I don't know any nice exposition of the properties of smooth sheaves.

**8**

votes

**1**answer

815 views

### Semisimplicity of Frobenius operation on etale cohomology?

Let $X_0$ be a variety defined over a finite field of characteristic $p \neq l$.
Is it true, that the action of the frobenius on the l-adic cohomology $H_l^*(X)$ is semisimple (say for smooth $X_0$)? ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

259 views

### Etale cohomology of $\mathrm{Spec}(k\{X,Y\})\backslash\langle0,0\rangle$

Illusie in "Grothendieck et la cohomologie étale" says Artin's Harvard notes on Grothendieck Topologies prove: The étale cohomology with coefficients in $Z/nZ$ of the variety ...