# Tagged Questions

**22**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Trapped rays bouncing between two convex bodies

At some point during my research I was confronted with this problem, but I did not dedicate serious time to it. Anyway it stayed in the back of my mind and I'm still interested in hints for it. ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

270 views

### Codimension of the range of certain linear operators

Assume that $P(x,y), Q(x,y) \in \mathbb{R}[x,y]$ are two polynomials. We define a linear map
$D$ on $\mathbb{R}[x,y]$ with $D(U)=PU_{x}+QU_{y}$. In fact $D$ is the derivational operator correspond ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

171 views

### Under what conditions can interval exchanges be approximated by periodic maps?

Under what conditions can an interval exchange be approximated by periodic maps? (in the weak topology for the Lebesgue measure on $[0,1]$ ).
Are there non-trivial examples of periodically ...

**94**

votes

**1**answer

9k views

### What are the shapes of rational functions?

I would like to understand and compute the shapes of rational functions, that is, holomorphic maps of the Riemann sphere to itself, or equivalently, ratios of two polynomials, up to Moebius ...

**59**

votes

**11**answers

11k views

### What is an integrable system

What is an integrable system, and what is the significance of such systems? (Maybe it is easier to explain what is a non-integrable system.) In particular, is there a dichotomy between "integrable" ...

**56**

votes

**6**answers

5k views

### Is there an underlying explanation for the magical powers of the Schwarzian derivative?

Given a function $f(z)$ on the complex plane, define the Schwarzian derivative $S(f)$ to be the function
$S(f) = \frac{f'''}{f'} - \frac{3}{2} (\frac{f''}{f'})^2$
Here is a somewhat more conceptual ...

**40**

votes

**10**answers

6k views

### The functional equation $f(f(x))=x+f(x)^2$

I'd like to gather information and references on the following functional equation for power series $$f(f(x))=x+f(x)^2,$$$$f(x)=\sum_{k=1}^\infty c_k x^k$$
(so $c_0=0$ is imposed).
First things that ...

**21**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Analogues of Luzin's theorem

If $X$ is a compact metric space and $\mu$ is a Borel probability measure on $X$, then the space $C(X)$ of continuous real-valued functions on $X$ is a closed nowhere dense subset of ...

**28**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Billiard dynamics under gravity

Has the dynamics of billiards in a polygon subject to gravity been
studied?
What I have in mind is something like this:
Still Snell's ...

**18**

votes

**5**answers

796 views

### Lightray trapped between two mirror disks: Computation formulation?

I would like to calculate the angle of a ray $r$ from a given
point $p$ such that it gets "stuck" reflecting between
two congruent mirror-disks.
For why there is such a ray, see the (amazing!) answer
...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

644 views

### Different uses of the word “ergodic”

There appear to be two definitions of the word ergodic.
The dynamical systems definition says that a measure space $(X,\mathit B, \mu)$ and measure preserving transformation $T: X \mapsto X$ is ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Is there a categorical treatment of dynamical systems?

Let $X$ be a set and $(T,\cdot)$ an abelian group. Is there a category of $T$-dynamical systems on $X$ which yields useful information about $X$ and $T$?
More precisely, is there a category whose ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

876 views

### Bertrand theorem - central forces

Here is a version of Bertrand theorem. Let us consider a force $F(r)$ which depends only on the distance to a given point. If all trajectories which remain bounded are closed, then either $F(r)=ar$ ...

**21**

votes

**4**answers

991 views

### Surfaces filled densely by a geodesic

Which smooth, closed surfaces $S \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ have no
single geodesic $\gamma$ that fills $S$ densely?
Say a geodesic $\gamma$ "fills $S$ densely" if the closure of the set of points
...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

687 views

### If there is a dense geodesic, are almost all geodesics equidistributed? Dense?

Let $M$ be a complete finite volume Riemannian manifold and $\gamma : \mathbb{R}^{\geq 0} \to M$ a geodesic. Suppose that $\mathrm{im}(\gamma)$ is dense. Is it equidistributed in the Riemannian ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

362 views

### Parametrisations for Null Temperature Functions: nonuniqueness of solutions to the Heat Equation

Disclaimer I expect this is a highly open problem, but maybe I'm wrong and someone has come up with some answers besides those given here. In any case, all information appreciated, thanks!
Definition ...

**18**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### Quantitative versions of ergodic theorem

Are there any general theorems similar to Birkhoff's ergodic theorem, but giving quantitative estimates on the rate of convergence or average time of recurrence (perhaps with additional assumptions)? ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Do complex iterates of functions have any meaning?

Using a method explained in this answer it is possible to calculate not only integer and real iterates of functions but also complex ones, for example, the $i$-th iterate, where $i=\sqrt{-1}$. Here ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

849 views

### Not-lonely runners

The lonely runner conjecture
has several formulations.
They all involve a number $n$ runners running on a circular track,
each with a different speeds, and the conjecture is that each runner is ...

**12**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Proof of Krylov-Bogoliubov Theorem

Where can I find a proof (in English) of the Krylov-Bogoliubov theorem, which states if $X$ is a compact metric space and $T\colon X \to X$ is continuous, then there is a $T$-invariant Borel ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

595 views

### Simultaneous diophantine approximation

Let $r(x)$ be the function $x$ mod $1$, i.e. $x$ minus its floor.
Now let $m$ be a given positive integer, and $c$ a vector in $\mathbb{R}^m$ whose components are linearly independent over ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

308 views

### Replacing large-dimensional ODE systems with one PDE [closed]

Is it possible to replace a large-dimensional system of differential equations with one partial differential equation?

**19**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### How does it End?

A recent project has forced my colleague and me to take a rather abstract approach to dynamical systems, and the following definition arose naturally in that context.
Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a category. ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

390 views

### How to draw a Zoll surface?

I take into account that lots of questions on Zoll surfaces have already been asked on the forum. But I will stubbornly continue asking. Are there any chances to draw explicitely at least one Zoll ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

359 views

### Poincaré recurrence and symplectic packings

Question. Is there any example of a path connected symplectic manifold $(M,\omega)$ that has infinite volume, but which cannot be packed by an infinite number of symplectic balls of a fixed radius ...

**6**

votes

**6**answers

537 views

### Furstenberg $\times 2 \times 3$ conjecture, bibliography

Furstenberg $\times 2 \times 3$ original conjecture states that the unique continuous invariant probability measure for $2x$ mod $1$ and $3x$ mod $1$ is the Lebesgue measure.
I wanted to have a ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

357 views

### Conley Theorem (or fundamental theorem of dynamical systems)

Notations:
$\mathcal{R}(f)$ denotes the chain recurrent set of $f$
$NW(f)$ denotes the non wandering set of $f$
$R(f)$ denotes the recurrent set of $f$ ($x: x\in \omega(x)$)
Given compact ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

308 views

### Are rounded rectangle billiard dynamics ergodic?

Bunimovich proved that the billiard-ball dynamics in the Bunimovich stadium is ergodic.
(Image from this link.)
Q. Is it known that the ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

428 views

### Birkhoff ergodic theorem and the measure of the bad points

In the Birkhoff ergodic theorem we have a PMPS $(X,B,\mu,T)$ and that for any $f\in L^1(X,\mu)$ $\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}f(T^n x)\to \int f \, d\mu,$ in measure, in $L^1$-norm and $\mu$-a.e.
My ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

916 views

### The non-convergence of f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and labeled rooted trees

This question is closely related to MO f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential. Consider $e^{e^x-1}$, this is the generating function of the Bell ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

314 views

### Rotation numbers for amenable group actions on the circle

Given an orientation-preserving homeomorphism $f: S^1 \to S^1$, one can define its rotation number $\rho(f) \in \mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$, as $\rho(f) = (\lim_{n \to \infty} \tilde{f}^n(0)/n) + ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

444 views

### Integer dynamics hitting infinitely many primes

I am wondering if there are any rigorous results telling that some dynamical system hits infinitely many primes (except for the case when orbits are just arithmetic progressions). To make it specific, ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

4k views

### Calculation of Lyapunov Exponent from Time Series

I am currently doing research in non-linear dynamical systems, and I require to calculate Lyapunov exponents from time series data frequently. I found a MatLab program lyaprosen.m that does this for ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

875 views

### Dense orbits in billiards

This should be true in a more general setting, but for simplicity consider billiards that are connected, compact subsets of the plane with boundary $C^2$ except at finitely many points. A ball (or a ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

464 views

### $C^n$ And Forcing: Reading a Recent Paper By Kunen

While reading a recent paper by Kunen arxiv.org/abs/0912.3733, which deals with PFA and the existence of certain differentiable functions, (defined on all of $\mathbb{R}$) which map certain ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

212 views

### Periodic orbits of a spinning ball in a square

Periodic orbits of a billiard ball bouncing in a square have been well-studied.
I am seeking similar analysis of what is sometimes called a rough ball, one
whose high friction causes it to pick up ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

347 views

### Do quantum “Sure-Shor separators” have a natural Veronese/Segre classification? (question inspired by Gil Kalai and Aram Harrow)

Aram Harrow asked: "Is there any place this is written up?"
Update Partly in answer to Aram's question, the thermodynamical properties of varietal dynamical systems now are written-up in ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

166 views

### Nielsen-Thurston classification of homeomorphisms for open surfaces?

In Proposition 3.1. in this article by John Franks, he applies the Nielsen-Thurston classification of surface homeomorphisms to a homeomorphism $ \ f:M \rightarrow M$ of an open surface $M$ which is ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

152 views

### Extending the hyperbolic splitting on $\Lambda$ to a neighborhood of $\Lambda$

Let $M$ be a compact Riemannian manifold and let $f:M→M$ a diffeomorphism. Let $\Lambda\subset M$ be a compact invariant subset of $M$. We say that $\Lambda $ is a hyperbolic set for $f$ when there ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

72 views

### Example of non-convergence of iteration of measures

Let $T:X\to X$ be a continuous function on a compact metric space $X.$ Let $\mu$ be a $T$ invariant and ergodic probability measure on $X.$ Let $F:X\to X$ be a continuos transformation that commutes ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

104 views

### A derivational approach to the Poincare Bendixson Theorem

Let $X=P\frac{\partial}{\partial x}+Q\frac{\partial}{\partial y}$ be a smooth vector field on the plane. Assume that $K\subset \mathbb{R}^{2}$ is a compact subset (not necessarily invariant under ...