Dynamics of differential equations and flows, mechanics, classical few-body problems, iterations, complex dynamics, delayed differential equations.

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22
votes
3answers
2k views

Trapped rays bouncing between two convex bodies

At some point during my research I was confronted with this problem, but I did not dedicate serious time to it. Anyway it stayed in the back of my mind and I'm still interested in hints for it. ...
8
votes
0answers
191 views
+100

Codimension of the range of certain linear operators

Assume that $P(x,y), Q(x,y) \in \mathbb{R}[x,y]$ are two polynomials. We define a linear map $D$ on $\mathbb{R}[x,y]$ with $D(U)=PU_{x}+QU_{y}$. In fact $D$ is the derivational operator correspond ...
4
votes
1answer
171 views

Under what conditions can interval exchanges be approximated by periodic maps?

Under what conditions can an interval exchange be approximated by periodic maps? (in the weak topology for the Lebesgue measure on $[0,1]$ ). Are there non-trivial examples of periodically ...
94
votes
1answer
9k views

What are the shapes of rational functions?

I would like to understand and compute the shapes of rational functions, that is, holomorphic maps of the Riemann sphere to itself, or equivalently, ratios of two polynomials, up to Moebius ...
59
votes
11answers
11k views

What is an integrable system

What is an integrable system, and what is the significance of such systems? (Maybe it is easier to explain what is a non-integrable system.) In particular, is there a dichotomy between "integrable" ...
56
votes
6answers
5k views

Is there an underlying explanation for the magical powers of the Schwarzian derivative?

Given a function $f(z)$ on the complex plane, define the Schwarzian derivative $S(f)$ to be the function $S(f) = \frac{f'''}{f'} - \frac{3}{2} (\frac{f''}{f'})^2$ Here is a somewhat more conceptual ...
40
votes
10answers
6k views

The functional equation $f(f(x))=x+f(x)^2$

I'd like to gather information and references on the following functional equation for power series $$f(f(x))=x+f(x)^2,$$$$f(x)=\sum_{k=1}^\infty c_k x^k$$ (so $c_0=0$ is imposed). First things that ...
21
votes
1answer
1k views

Analogues of Luzin's theorem

If $X$ is a compact metric space and $\mu$ is a Borel probability measure on $X$, then the space $C(X)$ of continuous real-valued functions on $X$ is a closed nowhere dense subset of ...
28
votes
6answers
2k views

Billiard dynamics under gravity

Has the dynamics of billiards in a polygon subject to gravity been studied? What I have in mind is something like this:            Still Snell's ...
18
votes
5answers
795 views

Lightray trapped between two mirror disks: Computation formulation?

I would like to calculate the angle of a ray $r$ from a given point $p$ such that it gets "stuck" reflecting between two congruent mirror-disks. For why there is such a ray, see the (amazing!) answer ...
10
votes
1answer
643 views

Different uses of the word “ergodic”

There appear to be two definitions of the word ergodic. The dynamical systems definition says that a measure space $(X,\mathit B, \mu)$ and measure preserving transformation $T: X \mapsto X$ is ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Is there a categorical treatment of dynamical systems?

Let $X$ be a set and $(T,\cdot)$ an abelian group. Is there a category of $T$-dynamical systems on $X$ which yields useful information about $X$ and $T$? More precisely, is there a category whose ...
5
votes
3answers
876 views

Bertrand theorem - central forces

Here is a version of Bertrand theorem. Let us consider a force $F(r)$ which depends only on the distance to a given point. If all trajectories which remain bounded are closed, then either $F(r)=ar$ ...
20
votes
4answers
987 views

Surfaces filled densely by a geodesic

Which smooth, closed surfaces $S \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ have no single geodesic $\gamma$ that fills $S$ densely? Say a geodesic $\gamma$ "fills $S$ densely" if the closure of the set of points ...
8
votes
0answers
362 views

Parametrisations for Null Temperature Functions: nonuniqueness of solutions to the Heat Equation

Disclaimer I expect this is a highly open problem, but maybe I'm wrong and someone has come up with some answers besides those given here. In any case, all information appreciated, thanks! Definition ...
18
votes
6answers
1k views

Quantitative versions of ergodic theorem

Are there any general theorems similar to Birkhoff's ergodic theorem, but giving quantitative estimates on the rate of convergence or average time of recurrence (perhaps with additional assumptions)? ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Do complex iterates of functions have any meaning?

Using a method explained in this answer it is possible to calculate not only integer and real iterates of functions but also complex ones, for example, the $i$-th iterate, where $i=\sqrt{-1}$. Here ...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Proof of Krylov-Bogoliubov Theorem

Where can I find a proof (in English) of the Krylov-Bogoliubov theorem, which states if $X$ is a compact metric space and $T\colon X \to X$ is continuous, then there is a $T$-invariant Borel ...
5
votes
3answers
591 views

Simultaneous diophantine approximation

Let $r(x)$ be the function $x$ mod $1$, i.e. $x$ minus its floor. Now let $m$ be a given positive integer, and $c$ a vector in $\mathbb{R}^m$ whose components are linearly independent over ...
1
vote
2answers
307 views

Replacing large-dimensional ODE systems with one PDE [closed]

Is it possible to replace a large-dimensional system of differential equations with one partial differential equation?
19
votes
2answers
1k views

How does it End?

A recent project has forced my colleague and me to take a rather abstract approach to dynamical systems, and the following definition arose naturally in that context. Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a category. ...
9
votes
2answers
389 views

How to draw a Zoll surface?

I take into account that lots of questions on Zoll surfaces have already been asked on the forum. But I will stubbornly continue asking. Are there any chances to draw explicitely at least one Zoll ...
9
votes
0answers
359 views

Poincaré recurrence and symplectic packings

Question. Is there any example of a path connected symplectic manifold $(M,\omega)$ that has infinite volume, but which cannot be packed by an infinite number of symplectic balls of a fixed radius ...
6
votes
6answers
537 views

Furstenberg $\times 2 \times 3$ conjecture, bibliography

Furstenberg $\times 2 \times 3$ original conjecture states that the unique continuous invariant probability measure for $2x$ mod $1$ and $3x$ mod $1$ is the Lebesgue measure. I wanted to have a ...
5
votes
1answer
354 views

Conley Theorem (or fundamental theorem of dynamical systems)

Notations: $\mathcal{R}(f)$ denotes the chain recurrent set of $f$ $NW(f)$ denotes the non wandering set of $f$ $R(f)$ denotes the recurrent set of $f$ ($x: x\in \omega(x)$) Given compact ...
11
votes
2answers
306 views

Are rounded rectangle billiard dynamics ergodic?

Bunimovich proved that the billiard-ball dynamics in the Bunimovich stadium is ergodic.            (Image from this link.) Q. Is it known that the ...
9
votes
2answers
428 views

Birkhoff ergodic theorem and the measure of the bad points

In the Birkhoff ergodic theorem we have a PMPS $(X,B,\mu,T)$ and that for any $f\in L^1(X,\mu)$ $\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}f(T^n x)\to \int f \, d\mu,$ in measure, in $L^1$-norm and $\mu$-a.e. My ...
7
votes
4answers
915 views

The non-convergence of f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and labeled rooted trees

This question is closely related to MO f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential. Consider $e^{e^x-1}$, this is the generating function of the Bell ...
6
votes
2answers
313 views

Rotation numbers for amenable group actions on the circle

Given an orientation-preserving homeomorphism $f: S^1 \to S^1$, one can define its rotation number $\rho(f) \in \mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$, as $\rho(f) = (\lim_{n \to \infty} \tilde{f}^n(0)/n) + ...
5
votes
3answers
443 views

Integer dynamics hitting infinitely many primes

I am wondering if there are any rigorous results telling that some dynamical system hits infinitely many primes (except for the case when orbits are just arithmetic progressions). To make it specific, ...
4
votes
1answer
4k views

Calculation of Lyapunov Exponent from Time Series

I am currently doing research in non-linear dynamical systems, and I require to calculate Lyapunov exponents from time series data frequently. I found a MatLab program lyaprosen.m that does this for ...
4
votes
3answers
873 views

Dense orbits in billiards

This should be true in a more general setting, but for simplicity consider billiards that are connected, compact subsets of the plane with boundary $C^2$ except at finitely many points. A ball (or a ...
3
votes
2answers
463 views

$C^n$ And Forcing: Reading a Recent Paper By Kunen

While reading a recent paper by Kunen arxiv.org/abs/0912.3733, which deals with PFA and the existence of certain differentiable functions, (defined on all of $\mathbb{R}$) which map certain ...
9
votes
0answers
212 views

Periodic orbits of a spinning ball in a square

Periodic orbits of a billiard ball bouncing in a square have been well-studied. I am seeking similar analysis of what is sometimes called a rough ball, one whose high friction causes it to pick up ...
9
votes
1answer
345 views

Do quantum “Sure-Shor separators” have a natural Veronese/Segre classification? (question inspired by Gil Kalai and Aram Harrow)

Aram Harrow asked: "Is there any place this is written up?" Update  Partly in answer to Aram's question, the thermodynamical properties of varietal dynamical systems now are written-up in ...
3
votes
2answers
166 views

Nielsen-Thurston classification of homeomorphisms for open surfaces?

In Proposition 3.1. in this article by John Franks, he applies the Nielsen-Thurston classification of surface homeomorphisms to a homeomorphism $ \ f:M \rightarrow M$ of an open surface $M$ which is ...
3
votes
1answer
151 views

Extending the hyperbolic splitting on $\Lambda$ to a neighborhood of $\Lambda$

Let $M$ be a compact Riemannian manifold and let $f:M→M$ a diffeomorphism. Let $\Lambda\subset M$ be a compact invariant subset of $M$. We say that $\Lambda $ is a hyperbolic set for $f$ when there ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Example of non-convergence of iteration of measures

Let $T:X\to X$ be a continuous function on a compact metric space $X.$ Let $\mu$ be a $T$ invariant and ergodic probability measure on $X.$ Let $F:X\to X$ be a continuos transformation that commutes ...
0
votes
0answers
96 views
+50

A derivational approach to the Poincare Bendixson Theorem

Let $X=P\frac{\partial}{\partial x}+Q\frac{\partial}{\partial y}$ be a smooth vector field on the plane. Assume that $K\subset \mathbb{R}^{2}$ is a compact subset (not necessarily invariant under ...