31
votes
2answers
729 views

Does iterating a certain function related to the sums of divisors eventually always result in a prime value?

Let define the following function for integers (from 2): $f(x)=\sigma(x)-1$, where $\sigma$ is the sum of the divisors of $x$. For example $f(6)=6+3+2=11$, $f(5)=5$. Note that $x$ is a fixed point for ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

square tiled surfaces: Counting Saddle Connections vs Counting Square-Tiled Surfaces

I am reading Prime arithmetic Teichmuller discs in H(2) where they discuss the Siegel-Veech constant in a stratum $\mathcal{H}(2)$ of surfaces. However I see two definitions of Siegel-Veech constant: ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Prime factorization “demoted” leads to function whose fixed points are primes?

Let $n$ be a natural number whose prime factorization is $$n=\prod_{i=1}^{k}p_i^{\alpha_i} \; .$$ Define a function $g(n)$ as follows $$g(n)=\sum_{i=1}^{k}p_i {\alpha_i} \,$$ i.e., exponentiation is ...
11
votes
1answer
254 views

A strengthening of base 2 Fermat pseudoprime

If $n$ is a prime then for all $k$ with $1 \le k \le [n/2]$, $k$ divides ${n-1 \choose 2k-1}$ because of the identity ${n-1 \choose 2k-1} \frac{n}{k}=2{n \choose 2k}$. My question is whether an ...
15
votes
0answers
427 views

The lonely molecule

Suppose $n$ air molecules (infinitesimal points) are bouncing around in a unit $d$-dimensional cube, with perfectly elastic wall collisions. Let $k=n^{\frac{1}{d}}$. For example, in 3D, $d=3$, with ...
14
votes
3answers
956 views

Not-lonely runners

The lonely runner conjecture has several formulations. They all involve a number $n$ runners running on a circular track, each with a different speeds, and the conjecture is that each runner is ...
18
votes
0answers
523 views

Base change for $\sqrt{2}.$

This is a direct follow-up to Conjecture on irrational algebraic numbers. Take the decimal expansion for $\sqrt{2},$ but now think of it as the base $11$ expansion of some number $\theta_{11}.$ Is ...
25
votes
2answers
1k views

Fractal-like structures arising from the action of a group on $\mathbb{Z}^2$

Let $G := \langle a, b, c \rangle < {\rm Sym}(\mathbb{Z}^2)$ be the group generated by the permutation $$ a: \ (m,n) \ \mapsto \ (m-n,m) $$ of order $6$ and the involutions $$ b: \ (m,n) \ ...
2
votes
0answers
85 views

random maass waveforms

Let $H$ be the upper half complex plane and $\Gamma$ a discrete subgroup of $SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ such that the volume of of $\Gamma \backslash H$ is finite. There is a conjecture of Berry that Maass ...
5
votes
1answer
920 views

Beyond Collatz: A $5n+1$ conjecture? [closed]

Let $$x_{n+1} = \begin{cases} x_n/2 &;\text{if } x_n \equiv 0 \pmod{2}\\ k\,x_n+1 &; \text{if } x_n\equiv 1 \pmod{2} \end{cases}$$ and $k=3$ and $x_n\in\Bbb N$. Collatz conjectured for this ...
5
votes
3answers
457 views

Integer dynamics hitting infinitely many primes

I am wondering if there are any rigorous results telling that some dynamical system hits infinitely many primes (except for the case when orbits are just arithmetic progressions). To make it specific, ...
17
votes
1answer
526 views

Can the expansion of a large integer in all bases consist of almost all zeroes?

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Given an integer base $b\ge 2$, let $C_b(n)$ be the number of non-zero digits in the expansion of $N$ in base $b$. Further, let $M(n)=\max\{C_b(n):b\ge 2\}$ be the ...
4
votes
2answers
346 views

Algebraicity of the “outer” boundary of the Mandelbrot set

Let $M$ be the Mandelbrot set and let $\lambda\in M, \mu\in \mathbb C$ be algebraic numbers. Let $t_{\lambda,\mu}$ be defined as $$ t_{\lambda,\mu} = \sup \lbrace t\in \mathbb R\colon \lambda +t\mu ...
6
votes
1answer
486 views

“Explicit” examples of Irrational numbers very well approximated by rationnal numbers

This question relates to this one and that one. Some background In the setting of discrete holomorphic dynamics (say, Julia sets) an irrational $\lambda$ is said to be well approximated by rational ...
21
votes
3answers
4k views

Status of the 196 conjecture?

A palindrome is a number which remains the same when reversing it, for instance 34143. Now pick an arbitrary number, say 26: then 26+62=88 is a palindrome. If the number was 57, then 57+75=132 is not ...
3
votes
0answers
249 views

A Dedekind Eta trajectory / horocyclic flow (Reference request)

I've been exploring the composition of essentially the Dedekind $\eta$-function with parabolic Möbius transformations, ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

The Dedekind Eta Function in Physics

This interesting little fellow popped up in some operator algebra (Witt / Virasoro Lie algebra) I was exploring, so I've been curious about where else the Dedekind $\eta$-function makes a cameo ...
2
votes
1answer
302 views

Bohr sets, Coin-flip sets and Roth's theorem

I have been learning about Roth's theorem, trying to understand how Fourier series and dynamical systems (or even graph theory and binary sequences)are involved in counting arithmetic sequences in ...
46
votes
1answer
2k views

A function whose fixed points are the primes

If $a(n) = (\text{largest proper divisor of } n)$, let $f:\mathbb{N} \setminus \{ 0,1\} \to \mathbb{N}$ be defined by $f(n) = n+a(n)-1$. For instance, $f(100)=100+50-1=149$. Clearly the fixed points ...
9
votes
3answers
240 views

The identity element of a compact group is a limit point of any “polynomial sequence”

Is there an "elementary" (say ultrafilter-free) proof of the following fact: if $G$ is a compact (Hausdorff) topological group, if $g \in G$ is any element from this group, and if $P$ is a polynomial ...
5
votes
3answers
613 views

Simultaneous diophantine approximation

Let $r(x)$ be the function $x$ mod $1$, i.e. $x$ minus its floor. Now let $m$ be a given positive integer, and $c$ a vector in $\mathbb{R}^m$ whose components are linearly independent over ...
4
votes
0answers
244 views

Limits of $p/\ln p - q /\ln q$, $p, q$ prime

Is there any $\alpha>0$ for which there are known to exist two sequences of primes, $(p_i), (q_i)$ such that $$\alpha = \lim_{i\to\infty} \left(p_i/\ln p_i - q_i /\ln q_i\right)\ ?$$ The ...
13
votes
3answers
701 views

Branches of the Fibonacci Word Tree

The Fibonacci word starts from $0$ subject to the rules $0 \mapsto 1, 1 \mapsto 01$ (or some variant thereof). The come from cutting sequences of the torus of a line of golden ratio slope. It is a ...
8
votes
4answers
835 views

Centers of Apollonian Circle Packings

The radii of an Apollonian circle packing are computed from the initial curvatures e.g. (-1, 28, 27, 23) solving Descartes equation $2(a^2+b^2+c^2+d^2)=(a+b+c+d)^2$ and using the four matrices to ...
-1
votes
1answer
758 views

Implication for m-cycles in Collatz-type problems.

Background Consider Collatz-type problems of the form $an + 1$, where $a > 2$ is a positive, odd integer (e.g., $3n + 1$, $5n +1 $, $7n + 1$, etc.). For convenience, automatically divide by two. ...
4
votes
0answers
561 views

Riemann hypothesis and action principle [closed]

Hello, I would like to know whether the Riemann hypothesis could be a consequence of some kind of action principle: in other words, can the equation $\zeta(s)=0$ be interpreted as the formulation of ...
6
votes
1answer
290 views

Are gaps in $n^2\sqrt{2}$ poissonian?

I would like to know gaps about the sequence $n^2 \sqrt{2} \mod 1$. Van der Corput's trick shows that $n^2 \sqrt{2}$ is equidistributed on the circle. For large $N$, the fraction $$ \frac{\# \{ 1 ...
53
votes
4answers
2k views

Perron number distribution

A Perron number is a real algebraic integer $\lambda$ that is larger than the absolute value of any of its Galois conjugates. The Perron-Frobenius theorem says that any non-negative integer matrix $M$ ...
2
votes
1answer
709 views

Are all Nilmanifolds quotients of Heisenberg Group

I've been reading some wonderful blog entries where Terry Tao and Ben Green prove some generalizations of Weyl Equidstribution using a "higher" Fourier Analysis. Unfortunately, all the information I ...
4
votes
3answers
735 views

How can one express the Dedekind eta function as a sum over the lattice?

The Dedekind eta function $\eta(\tau)$ can be regarded as a formula which assigns a number to a lattice $L \subset \mathbb{C}$. The algorithm is: rotate the lattice so that one of its basis vectors ...
9
votes
3answers
472 views

subtracting greatest possible prime

Given an infinite set $A$ of positive integers, $\min A:=a_0$. For $x\geq a_0$ define $f(x)=x-a$, where $a\leq x$, $a\in A$ is greatest possible. Then for positive integer $x$ iterations $x$, $f(x)$, ...
9
votes
1answer
647 views

Conjectures on iterated polynomial maps on finite fields

Let $p$ be a prime, and consider the sequence $x_0, x_1, \dots$ of elements of the finite field $\mathbf F_p$ given by $x_0 = 0$ and $x_{i+1} = x_i^2 + 1$ for all $i \ge 0$. This sequence must ...
12
votes
1answer
697 views

Polygonal billards programs

I'm looking for software that will give billiard trajectories in arbitrary plane polygons. After much work I was able to produce this figure. It was a good exercise, but at this point I wonder if ...
25
votes
1answer
776 views

A question of Erdős on equidistribution

In his book Metric Number Theory, Glyn Harman mentions the following problem he attributes to Erdős: Let $f(\alpha)$ be a bounded measurable function with period 1. Is it true that ...
3
votes
2answers
475 views

Gaps in nx (mod 1)

It is known that if you choose n point at random on S1 = [0,1], the nearest neighbor spacings between the points are exponentially distributed with mean 1. For example, two of our n points could be ...