The diophantine-approximation tag has no wiki summary.

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### Source and context of $\frac{22}{7} - \pi = \int_0^1 (x-x^2)^4 dx/(1+x^2)$?

Possibly the most striking proof of Archimedes's inequality $\pi < 22/7$ is an integral formula for the difference:
$$
\frac{22}{7} - \pi = \int_0^1 (x-x^2)^4 \frac{dx}{1+x^2},
$$
where the ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

842 views

### The diophantine equation X^2 - Y^2 - Z^2 = +- 1

Hi everybody. I'd like to know if the diophantine equation
(1) $$X^2 - Y^2 - Z^2 = \pm 1$$
has been studied and if the set of its solutions $(X,Y,Z)$ is known. I appreciate any reference. Thank you ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

391 views

### On the irrationality measure of $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a^{-b^n}$

Pick integers $a, b \ge 2$ and let $\xi_{a,b}$ be the sum of the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a^{-b^n}$. It is known that $\xi_{2,2}$ is transcendental: I learned a proof of this from notes by M. ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

445 views

### Generalizations of the Rayleigh(-Beatty) theorem

For a given irrational number $\alpha>0$ and a real number $\beta$,
the inhomogeneous Beatty sequence
sequence $S_{\alpha,\beta}$ is the set $\lbrace\lfloor n\alpha+\beta\rfloor:n=1,2,\dots\rbrace$
...

**11**

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**2**answers

497 views

### For what real $t$ is $\{n^t : n \geq 1\}$ linearly independent over $\mathbb{Q}$?

It's straightforward that $t$ must be irrational. I have googled many variations of this question and browsed through some books on transcendental number theory. There is much that is said about when ...

**8**

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**1**answer

349 views

### Do simple, multi-dimensional generalizations of this continued fraction formula exist?

Background
Let $x\in [0,1)\setminus \mathbb{Q}$ have regular continued fraction expansion given by
$$
x = [a_1, a_2, a_3, \dots] = \cfrac{1}{a_1+\cfrac{1}{a_2+\dots}}, \qquad a_i \in \mathbb{N}.
$$
...

**6**

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**0**answers

666 views

### Can you get Siegel's theorem “for free” from modularity and Mazur's Eisenstein Ideal paper?

There is a well-known theorem of Shafarevich that given a finite set $S$ of primes the number of isomorphism classes of elliptic curves over $\Bbb Q$ with everywhere good reduction outside $S$ is ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

745 views

### Simultaneous diophantine approximation

Let $r(x)$ be the function $x$ mod $1$, i.e. $x$ minus its floor.
Now let $m$ be a given positive integer, and $c$ a vector in $\mathbb{R}^m$ whose components are linearly independent over ...

**13**

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**1**answer

369 views

### Small quotients of smooth numbers

Assume that $N=2^k$, and let $\{n_1, \dots, n_N\}$ denote the set of square-free positive integers which are generated by the first $k$ primes, sorted in increasing order. Question: what is a good ...

**8**

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**1**answer

1k views

### A question related to the abc conjecture

The abc conjecture asserts that whenever $a,b,c$ are pairwise coprime positive integers such that $a + b = c$ and $\epsilon > 0$, there exists a constant $C_\epsilon > 0$ (which depends on ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

392 views

### Siegel's theorem with real coefficients

Let $h(x,y)$ be a polynomial with real coefficients. Suppose there are infinitely many integer solutions to $|h(x,y)|<1$. What can I say about $h$?
When $h$ itself has integer coefficients, a ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

799 views

### Searching for an inhomogeneous diophantine approximation algorithm

Given two nonzero real numbers $x$ and $y$ such that $y/x$ is irrational, a real number $z$ to be approximated, and a tolerance $\epsilon$, what is an algorithm that will provide coprime integers $a$ ...

**7**

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**1**answer

206 views

### Expected symmetry in the diophantine approximations of an irrational number

Given $x \in \mathbb{R}$ we will write $\{x\}$ for the fractional part of $x$ and $\|x\|$ for the distance of $x$ from the nearest integer, in such a way that $\{x\} = x - \lfloor x \rfloor$ and ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

182 views

### Approximating rational values in ]0,1[ by a sum or difference of unit fractions

Let $U=\{\frac{1}{n}: n\in\mathbb{N}\} \cup \{-\frac{1}{n}: n\in\mathbb{N}\}$ be the set of positive and negative unit fractions.
Are there positive integers $m<n \in \mathbb{N}$, such that for ...

**4**

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**1**answer

171 views

### Hermite Lindemann and transcendental reals

This is about compass and straightedge constructions, although I suspect nothing changes if we expand to real numbers algebraic over the rationals.
Anyway, let $E$ be the "constructible numbers," ...

**2**

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**2**answers

366 views

### Rate of convergence of an irrational rotation

Let $\alpha, \beta \in \mathbb{R}$. Let $\{x\}$ denote the fractional part of $x$ and let $\|x\| = \min(\{x\}, 1-\{x\})$.
If we assume that $\alpha$ is irrational, then there exists an increasing ...

**0**

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**0**answers

169 views

### On the irrationality measure of generalized Stoneham numbers

Pick non-zero integers $a,b,c$ with $a,b \ge 2$ and let $\xi_{a,b,c}$ be the sum of the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a^{-b^n} c^{-n}$ (no restriction is made on the sign of $c$); when $b = c$ and ...