# Tagged Questions

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### Helmholtz equation Poynting vector integral

The Maxwell's equation for harmonic time dependent field in vacuum is \begin{align} \nabla \times B + i\omega E &= 0\\ \nabla \times E - i\omega B &= 0 \\ \nabla \cdot B &= 0 \\ \nabla ...
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### Explicit probability conserving solvers for Pauli equation?

I know that there exist probability conserving explicit solvers for time-dependent Schrödinger's equation, for example, Visscher's one. But when I tried to add spin into account in this scheme, it ...
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### Diffusion equation on mixing of diffusing particles

I am trying to study mixing of diffusing particles like it was done by E. Ben-Naim On the Mixing of Diﬀusing Particles. The picture below shows the idea how permutations and inversion numbers reflect ...
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### Path integrals for stochastic equations

Does there exist a rigorous mathematical proof for path integral representations given in the physics literature? See for example http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9912209v1 For imaginary time rigorous ...
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### Infinitely many planets on a line, with Newtonian gravity

(I previously asked essentially this on physics.stackexchange, but was actually hoping for answers with something closer to a proof than what I got there.) Suppose we have a unit mass planet at each ...
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### conservation law and generalized Symplectic Monge-Ampere equation arising from 3-variables

If we have a Jacobi PDE system with conservation law $\theta \in \Omega^1(M)$ such that $d \theta$ is non-degenerate 2-form , then we know this fact that it can be written as symplectic 2D ...
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### symmetry of generationg function of PDE

We know that for finding the solutions of PDE equations, one of methods is "reduction of PDE", . For nonlinear equation $v_t=(v^{-4/3}v_x)_x+\lambda v$ how can we compute the generators of Lie ...
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### Bessel and Neumann functions:ordering the zeroes

I realize the abundance of the literature on this theme which is a disservice in this case, because there are too many formulas in all the books I've found and no explicit answers. Maybe someone could ...
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### Bessel functions in wave propagation and scattering

Is there a way to scale Bessel J(n,.) (Bessel of first kind) and Bessel H(n,.) (Bessel of third kind or Hankel)? I am having computer problems with higher orders (higher vlaues of n) and small ...
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### A name for PDE systems which are neither under- nor overdetermined?

The concepts of overdetermined and underdetermined PDE systems are well known. However, all sources I have so far looked into appear to avoid giving any name to PDE systems which are neither ...
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### Herpolhode equation

Poinsot’s construction describes the motion of a freely rotating rigid body in terms of an ellipsoid rolling on a plane. (http://www.phys.ttu.edu/~huang24/Teaching/Phys5306/CH5C.pdf), and the path of ...
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### Is there a Poincare-Hopf Index theorem for non compact manifolds?

Does Poincare-Hopf index theorem generalizes in any way to non compact manifolds ? In particular, I am interested in the case of a smooth vector field on a cylinder $\mathbb{T}_1\times\mathbb{R}$? If ...
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### Schrodinger's equation over a randomized grid

I am interested in solutions to $$\frac{d}{dt} \Psi = -iH \Psi$$ for $H$ hermitian and time independent. This boils down to evaluating $$\Psi(t) = e^{-iHt}\Psi_0$$ at points of interest $t_n$. I ...
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### Newton equations, second order equation and (im)possible motions

I am am currently studying Newtonian mechanics from a conceptional and axiomatic point of view. Now, if I am not mistaken, one (but surely not all) statement of Newtons second law about nature is, ...
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### What kind of Lagrangians can we have?

In any physics book I've read the Lagrangian is introuced as as a functional whose critical points govern the dynamics of the system. It is then usually shown that a finite collection of ...
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### 2- and 3-body problems when gravity is not inverse-square

Suppose that gravity did not follow an inverse-square law, but was instead a central force diminishing as $1/d^p$ for distance separation $d$ and some power $p$. Two questions: Presumably the 2-body ...
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### Characterizing the harmonic oscillator creation and annihilation operators in a rotationally invariant way

I am interested in a characterization of the creation and annihilation operators that is in some sense invariant under $O(n)$ rotations of $\mathbb{R}^n$: Background The Harmonic Oscillator on ...
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### Justification for the matching condition for the wave function at potential jumps. Why is it both restrictive enough and sufficiently general?

Consider Schrödinger's time-independent equation $$-\frac{\hbar^2}{2m}\nabla^2\psi+V\psi=E\psi.$$ In typical examples, the potential $V(x)$ has discontinuities, called potential jumps. Outside ...
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### PDEs, boundary conditions, and unique solvability

I'm interested in a criterion that determines whether a linear scalar PDE (arbitrary order) has a unique solution given vanishing boundary conditions at spatial infinity. I'll try to formulate the ...
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### What kind of uniqueness can I conclude for solutions to a simple functional equation?

I'm going to ask a very vague question, and then give specifics for the version I particularly care about. I'm interested in answers at all levels of vagueness. At the most vague version, I am in ...
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### Dropping three bodies

Consider the usual three-body problem with Newtonian $1/r^2$ force between masses. Let the three masses start off at rest, and not collinear. Then they will become collinear a finite time ...
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### Do there exist small neighborhoods in a classical mechanical system without pairs of focal points?

The question I will ask makes sense in much more generality, but I will leave the translation to the experts, since I'm only looking for a special case (and it would not surprise me if the answer does ...
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### Does every ODE comes from something in physics?

Not sure if this is appropriate to Math Overflow, but I think there's some way to make this precise, even if I'm not sure how to do it myself. Say I have a nasty ODE, nonlinear, maybe extremely ...
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### Is there a theory of differential equations for smooth correspondences?

This question is very closely related to another one I just asked. The general question is to what extent there is a theory of differential equations for smooth correspondences (between a smooth ...
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### Is the Hessian of Hamilton's function positive-definite?

Background Consider an electron with mass $1$ moving in $\mathbb R^n$ in under the influence of a static electromagnetic field. Up to identifying vector fields with differential forms, Maxwell's ...
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### What is an integrable system

What is an integrable system, and what is the significance of such systems? (Maybe it is easier to explain what a non-integrable system is.) In particular, is there a dichotomy between "integrable" ...
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### What happens to Newtonian systems as the mass vanishes?

This question is closely related to another one I asked recently, and may be thought of as a warm-up to that one. Consider $\mathbb R^n$ with its usual metric, and pick a one-form $b$ and a function ...
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### What happens to the solutions of a fourth-order boundary-value problem as you turn off the fourth-order coefficient?

Background Lagrangian mechanics on $\mathbb R^n$ is usually defined by picking a Lagrangian function $L: {\rm T}\mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R$, where ${\rm T}\mathbb R^n = \mathbb R^{2n}$ is the tangent ...
In undergraduate differential equations it's usual to deal with the Laplace transform to reduce the differential equation problem to an algebraic problem. The Laplace transform of a function $f(t)$, ...