# Tagged Questions

Descriptive Set Theory is the study of definable subsets of Polish spaces, where definable is taken to mean from the Borel or projective hierarchies. Other topics include infinite games and determinacy, definable equivalence relations and Borel reductions between them, Polish groups, and effective ...

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### Is every sigma-algebra the Borel algebra of a topology?

This question arises from the excellent question posed on math.SE by Salvo Tringali, namely, Correspondence between Borel algebras and topology. Since the question was not answered there after some ...
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### Non-Borel sets without axiom of choice

This is a simple doubt of mine about the basics of measure theory, which should be easy for the logicians to answer. The example I know of non Borel sets would be a Hamel basis, which needs axiom of ...
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### Concerning the various proofs from the axiom of choice that R^3 admits of surprising geometrical decompositions into circles, skew lines and so on: can we prove in any instance that there are no Borel such decompositions? Or that AC is required?

This question follows up on a comment I made on Joseph O'Rourke's recent question, one of several questions here on mathoverflow concerning surprising geometric partitions of space using the axiom of ...
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### Godel on recursion-theoretic hierarchies

At the end of his excellent article, "The Emergence of Descriptive Set Theory" (http://math.bu.edu/people/aki/2.pdf), Kanamori writes: "Another mathematical eternal return: Toward the end of his ...
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### Do all possible trees arise as orbit trees of some permutation groups?

I.Motivation from descriptive set theory (Contains some quotes from Maciej Malicki's paper.) The classical theorem of Birkhoff-Kakutani implies that every metrizable topological group G admits a ...
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### Image of L^1 under the Fourier Transform

The Fourier Transform $\mathcal{F}:L^1(\mathbb{R})\to C_0(\mathbb{R})$ is an injective, bounded linear map that isn't onto. It is known (if I remember correctly) that the range isn't closed, but is ...
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### Meager subspaces of a Banach space and weak-* convergence

I previously asked a version of this question on Math.SE, but didn't receive an answer. (But there is a bounty there if you want to claim it!) Let $X$ be a Banach space. (If it helps, feel free to ...
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### Application of Fraïssé construction in set theory

As you know Fraïssé limit construction and its generalization, Hrushovski's construction, have many applications in model theory to build models with interesting property. Now I would like to know ...
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### Why does inner model theory need so much descriptive set theory (and vice versa)?

I am curious about how much descriptive set theory is involved in inner model theory. For instance Shoenfield's absoluteness result is based on the construction of the Shoenfield tree which ...
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### Two strengthenings of “strong measure zero”

A set $X\subseteq\mathbb{R}$ is strong measure zero if, for every sequence $(\epsilon_i)_{i\in\mathbb{N}}$ of positive reals, there is a sequence $(I_i)_{i\in\mathbb{N}}$ of open intervals covering ...
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### Three old questions on the Sacks forcing

I came across the two following Qs in 1970. Find reals $a,b$ such that $a$ is Sacks over $L[b]$ and vice versa $b$ is Sacks over $L[a]$. Note that a Sacks $\times$ Sacks generic pair definitely does ...
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Suppose $S\subset\mathbb{R}$ is dense without interior point, and for every open interval $I,J\subset\mathbb{R}$, $I\cap S$ is homeomorphic to $J\cap S$. Is $S\times S$ homeomorphic to $S$? By Luzin ...
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### Continuously selecting elements from unordered pairs

The symmetric square of a topological space $X$ is obtained from the usual square $X^2$ by identifying pairs of symmetric points $(x_1,x_2)$ and $(x_2,x_1)$. Thus, elements of the symmetric square can ...
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### Partitioning $\mathbb{R}$ into $\aleph_1$ Borel sets

I just ran into this deceptively simple looking question. Is it always possible to partition $\mathbb{R}$ (or any other standard Borel space) into precisely $\aleph_1$ Borel sets? On the one ...
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### Parts of Set Theory immune to independence

The motivation for asking this question is a passage (3.2) in an article by Greg Hjorth where he said that "...it is also an attractive feature of the theory of Borel cardinalities and of the theory ...
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### Pathological behavior of Borel sets?

Usually in set theory, Borel sets are much more nicely behaved than arbitrary sets of reals. One reason for this is Borel determinacy, which immediately yields measurability, Baireness, and the ...
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### Decomposing $\mathbf{\Pi}^1_1$ sets into closed sets

It is well known that every $\mathbf{\Pi}^1_1$-set is a union of $\aleph_1$-many Borel sets. I wonder whether it can be improved under certain reasonable set theory axioms assumption. For example, ...
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### Is there a class of mathematical structures with non-isomorphic natural representations as a standard Borel space?

Background. The field of Borel equivalence relation theory provides a robust, unifying theory that organizes most of the classification problems of classical mathematics into a hierarchy, allowing us ...
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### Continuity on a measure one set versus measure one set of points of continuity

In short: If $f$ is continuous on a measure one set, is there a function $g=f$ a.e. such that a.e. point is a point of continuity of $g$? Now more carefully, with some notation: Suppose $(X, d_X)$ ...
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### Games that never begin

Games that never end play a major role in descriptive set theory. See for example Kechris' GTM. Question: Does there exist a literature concerning games that never begin? I have in mind two ...
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### Higher recursion theory and reverse mathematics: What is to $\Pi^1_1-CA_0$ as $RCA_0$ is to $ACA_0$?

There is an extremely rich and well-understood analogy between "recursively enumerable" and "$\Pi^1_1$" - indeed, this is the starting point of metarecursion theory, and $\alpha$-recursion theory in ...
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### Is $\mathbb{Z}^{\omega}$ ever the union of a chain of proper subgroups each isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}^{\omega}$?

Recall that the covering number $cov(B)$ is the least cardinal $\kappa$ such that $\kappa$ meagre sets cover the real line. Andreas Blass and John Irwin http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/~ablass/bb.pdf ...
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### Woodin on Posner-Robinson for the hyperjump and sharp

The Posner-Robinson theorem states that, if $X$ is noncomputable, there is some $G$ such that $X\oplus G=G'$; that is, even though genuine jump inversion only works above $0'$, every (nontrivial) $X$ ...
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### Generalizations of the Tietze extension theorem (and Lusin's theorem)

I am reasking a year-old math.stackexchange.com question asked by someone else. (For my needs every space $X$ and $Y$ will be Polish---that is a completely separably metrizable space.) The Tietze ...
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### 2-colorings of the reals

It's easy to prove that, if $\mathbb{R}$ is well-orderable, then there is a 2-coloring of pairs of reals with no uncountable homogeneous set, i.e., there is an $m: [\mathbb{R}]^2\rightarrow 2$ such ...
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### The Practical Impact of Set-Theoretic Axioms on Measure Theory

The set-theoretic evidence is that we could probably safely add axioms to make many more sets measurable. For example, we could add axioms that would make projective sets measurable. I'm curious ...
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### Reverse-engineer forcing: am I reinventing the wheel?

In the course of a project I’m working on, I’ve started playing around with a sort of “reverse-engineering” forcing. It seems interesting, but I have a sinking feeling I’m reinventing the wheel; does ...
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### Does there exist an uncountable separable metric space $X$ such that every subset of $X$ is a Borel set?

Is it consistent with ZFC that there exists an uncountable separable metric space $X$ such that every subset of $X$ is a Borel set? If the continuum hypothesis holds, or more generally ...
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### How badly does compactness fail in $\mathcal{L}_{\omega_1\omega}$?

I would like to get a better idea of how badly compactness fails in $\mathcal{L}_{\omega_1\omega}$. Let $\Gamma$ be an arbitrary set of sentences from $\mathcal{L}_{\omega_1\omega}$. Let the ...
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### Non meager rectangle

Suppose $G \subseteq \mathbb{R}^2$ is dense $G_\delta$. Must there (in ZFC) exist non meager sets of reals $A, B$ such that $A \times B \subseteq G$?
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### Sets that are not $\infty$-Borel

I have seen a few techinques for proving that certain sets of real numbers are $\infty$-Borel (definition) but it just occurred to me that I don't know of any way to prove that a set of real numbers ...
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### A classic cardinal characteristic of the continuum in disguise?

We believe the answer to the following question, that is relevant to a joint research project with Piotr Szewczak, should be known. We would appreciate any help or pointer. Needed definitions may be ...