# Tagged Questions

**5**

votes

**2**answers

354 views

### Can we define an “empirically generic” real number?

Summary: My question, in a nutshell, is how we should intuitively imagine a generic real number (as opposed to a random one), and whether we can construct numbers which empirically behave like generic ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

413 views

### Does Turing determinacy imply full determinacy?

The axiom of Turing determinacy is a weakening of the full axiom of determinacy, $AD$, in which only games with payoff sets which are $\equiv_T$-invariant are demanded to be determined.
In "Turing ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

298 views

### When is $A$ “$L$-ish” whenever $B$ is “$L$-ish”?

My question is about a kind of relative constructibility in set theory.
Fix a countable transitive model $W\models ZFC$ which is much bigger than $L^W$. There is a natural way within $W$ to compare ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

251 views

### Is $\ell^\infty$ Polishable?

Consider $\ell^\infty$ as a subspace of the Polish space $\mathbb{R}^\omega$. It is easy to check that $\ell^\infty$ is not Polish in the subspace topology, as it is countable union of the compact ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

212 views

### Cofinality of a $\sigma$-ideal of $\mathbb{R}$

The cofinality of a partially ordered set $\left( P,\leq \right)$, written $cof(P)$, is the smallest cardinality of a subset $T$ of $P$ that is [EDIT: cofinal] in $P$, i.e. for every element $p\in P$ ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

108 views

### ($^{\omega}2$,<) is not well-order. [closed]

Let < be a lexicographic order on $^{\omega}2$ or in other words given distinct functions $f,g$ from $\omega$ to 2, let $f<g$ if and only if $f(n)=0$ and $g(n)=1$, where $n$ is the lease ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

222 views

### Sets that are not $\infty$-Borel

I have seen a few techinques for proving that certain sets of real numbers are $\infty$-Borel (definition) but it just occurred to me that I don't know of any way to prove that a set of real numbers ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

171 views

### $\infty$-Borel Determinacy?

An $\infty$-Borel set is a set $X\subseteq\mathbb{R}$ which has an $\infty$-Borel code - a set $r$ coding the construction of $X$ via open sets, complementation, and well-ordered unions (see ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

447 views

### Pathological behavior of Borel sets?

Usually in set theory, Borel sets are much more nicely behaved than arbitrary sets of reals. One reason for this is Borel determinacy, which immediately yields measurability, Baireness, and the ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

196 views

### $\omega$ universally Baire sets, tree representations

I've recently encountered the notion of a universally Baire set, and I've tried to look at the paper by Feng, Magidor and Woodin where this notion is studied. There are several points that confuse me.
...

**5**

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**0**answers

111 views

### A result of Steel on characterizing lightface pointclasses

In the article Projectively wellordered inner models, Steel proves the following theorem (4.12):
Theorem: Let $n < \omega$ and suppose $\mathcal{M}_n^{\sharp}$ exists. Let ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

215 views

### Perfect set property implies $\omega_1$ is a limit cardinal in $L$

Specker proved in 1957 that if in $V$ every set of real numbers has the perfect set property, than in $L$, $\omega_1^V$ is actually a limit cardinal.
The original proof is in German, and I've been ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

214 views

### A model of Krivine

In a paper by J.-L. Krivine, Modèles de ZF+AC dans lesquels tout ensemble de réels définissable en termes d'ordinaux est mesurable-Lebesgue [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sér. A-B 269 (1969), A549–A552, ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

184 views

### Obtaining a lightface pointclass from a boldface one

Define a pointclass to be:
boldface inductive-like if it is $\mathbb{R}$-parameterized, has the scale property, and is closed under $\wedge$, $\vee$, $\forall^\mathbb{R}$, $\exists^\mathbb{R}$, and ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

167 views

### How many Dedekind-finite sets can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into?

Building off Asaf Karagila's answer to my previous question (Can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into dedekind-finite sets?) on partitioning $\mathbb{R}$ into strictly Dedekind-finite sets:
(1) What ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

153 views

### Algebra generated by a tree [Edit] [closed]

Suppose that $(T,\leq)$ is a partially ordered set, we say $T$ is a tree* if for every $i\in T$, $\{s: s\in T, s\leq t\}$ is a well-founded chain.
What I need to know is: Can the algebra ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

239 views

### Can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into dedekind-finite sets?

Assuming $ZF$ itself is consistent, it is consistent that there are sets $D$ which are infinite but cannot be placed in bijection with any of their proper subsets; such sets are called "strictly ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

194 views

### Does there exist an uncountable separable metric space $X$ such that every subset of $X$ is a Borel set?

Is it consistent with ZFC that there exists an uncountable separable metric space $X$ such that every subset of $X$ is a Borel set?
If the continuum hypothesis holds, or more generally ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

176 views

### Strong measure zero sets and selection principles

A set of reals $X$ is strong measure zero if for any sequence of positive real numbers $ ( \epsilon_n ) _{n \in \omega }$ there is a sequence of open intervals $ ( a_n ) _{n \in \omega }$ which ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

381 views

### Is there a suitably generalized Baire property for topological spaces of arbitrary cardinalities?

Is there some suitable generalization to the notion of Baire property for topological spaces of arbitrary cardinalities which satisfies the following condition:
The meager sets are sets which are ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

249 views

### Failure of Shoenfield's Absoluteness

Shoenfield's absoluteness states that if $M \subseteq N$ are models of $ZF$ and $M \supseteq \omega_1^N$, then every $\Sigma^1_2$ formula with parameters in $M$ is absolute between $M$ and $N$. In ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

243 views

### Are there trees for $(\Sigma^2_1)^{\text{uB}}$?

If there is a proper class of Woodin cardinals, then Woodin showed (using stationary towers) that $(\Sigma^2_1)^{\text{uB}}$ statements are generically absolute, where $\text{uB}$ denotes the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

194 views

### Is the consistency of $\mathcal{L}_{\infty\omega}$-sentences absolute?

The question is exactly that of the title. Suppose $\varphi\in V$ is an $\mathcal{L}_{\infty\omega}$-sentence, and $W$ is an inner model of $V$ such that $\varphi\in W$. Is the statement
...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

154 views

### n odd: $\bf\Delta^1_n$ wadge degrees are $< \bf\delta^1_{n+1}$

My adviser is out of town and there is a comment in the Van Wesep paper "wadge degrees and descriptive set theory" that I can't figure out.
Work in ZF+AD throughout.
As stated in the title, the ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

201 views

### Absoluteness of “$\kappa$-homogeneously Suslin” for sets of reals

What is known about the absoluteness, or lack thereof, of the notion of "$\kappa$-homogeneously Suslin" for sets of reals?
For example, if $A$ is $\kappa$-homogeneously Suslin and $\lambda > ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

262 views

### Universal $(\Sigma^2_1)^{\text{Hom}_{\mathord{<}\lambda}}$ set

Does anyone know of a reference for the fact that if $\lambda$ is a limit of Woodin cardinals, then the pointclass $(\Sigma^2_1)^{\text{Hom}_{\mathord{<}\lambda}}$ is $\omega$-parameterized? By ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

279 views

### Concerning Silver's result

Jack Silver proved that if $x$ is a real so that every $x$-admissible ordinal is a cardinal in $L$, then $0^{\sharp}$ exists.
I wonder whether various weaker or stronger versions of Silver's result ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

230 views

### Does the boldface class $\Delta^1_2$ have the uniformization property? (assuming $V=L$)

DISCLAIMER: All pointclasses considered here are boldface.
Most of the time, when doing descriptive set theory, we want the projective sets to "behave well;" for example, maybe we don't want there to ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

221 views

### Analytic uniformization

Suppose I am given a subset of $2^\omega\times\omega^\omega$ of some bounded Borel rank. Can I get an analytic uniformization of this set?

**16**

votes

**1**answer

459 views

### Question about product topology

Suppose $S\subset\mathbb{R}$ is dense without interior point, and for every open interval $I,J\subset\mathbb{R}$, $I\cap S$ is homeomorphic to $J\cap S$.
Is $S\times S$ homeomorphic to $S$?
By Luzin ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

237 views

### Consistency strength of projective determinacy (PD)

Let PD stand for projective determinacy, and consider the two claims:
(1) For each n=1,2,..., Con(ZFC+PD) implies Con(ZFC + there are n Woodin cardinals)
(2) Con(ZFC+PD) implies Con(ZFC + there are ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

210 views

### From universal measurability to measurability

Let $(\Omega,\Sigma)$ be a measurable space and $K$ be a compact
metrizable space endowed with its Borel $\sigma$-algebra
$\mathcal{B}(K)$. Let $A\subseteq\Omega\times K$ be universally
...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

390 views

### Restrictions of null/meager ideal

Let I denote the null (resp. meager) ideal on reals. Is it consistent that for any pair of non null (resp. meager) sets A and B, there is a null (resp. meager) preserving bijection between A and B? In ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

438 views

### How long can it take to generate a $\sigma$-algebra?

I want to know if there is a $\sigma$-algebra such that for every countable ordinal $\alpha$ the $\sigma$-algebra can be generated in more than $\alpha$ steps but less than $\omega_{1}$ steps.
Given ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

289 views

### Models of Determinacy

Today we have that $L(\mathbb{R}) \models AD$ (assuming there are $\omega$ many Woodin cardinals and a measurable above them all). I was wondering what other models of $AD$ might look like and if it ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

374 views

### Definition of HYP in $L_{\omega_1^{CK}}[a]$?

The structure $L_{\omega_1^{CK}}$ consists of only HYP sets (I believe) and HYP in this structure is the same as the actual hyperaritmetic sets. Now if I move to the structure $L_{\omega_1^{CK}}[a]$ ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

167 views

### $\omega$-models of $\mathbf{\Sigma^1_1}-DC$ and $\mathbf{\Delta^1_1}-CA$

So what is needed to demonstrate something (say like $L_{\omega_1^{CK}}[a]$ is a $\omega$-models of $\mathbf{\Sigma^1_1}$-$DC$ or $\mathbf{\Delta^1_1}$-$CA$? It's not like I don't understand what the ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

245 views

### Descriptive set theory on $\mathbb{R}^\mathbb{N}$

The short version of my question is, What is a good source for learning about descriptive set theory on the space $\mathbb{R}^\mathbb{N}$, under the product topology coming from the discrete topology ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

877 views

### Games that never begin

Games that never end play a major role in descriptive set theory. See for example Kechris' GTM.
Question: Does there exist a literature concerning games that never begin?
I have in mind two ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

331 views

### Proof of “AD + every set of reals is Suslin” implies AD$_\mathbb{R}$

Could someone point me toward a proof that "ZF + AD + every set of reals is Suslin" (+ $\mathsf{DC}\_\mathbb{R}$?) implies $\mathsf{AD}\_\mathbb{R}$, either with a reference or a hint?
I am ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

271 views

### Determinacy and definable ultrafilters

It is a simple consequence of AD that there are no non-principal ultrafilters on $\omega$: for $U$ an ultrafilter on $\omega$, consider the game $G_U$ where players I and II play natural numbers $x_0$ ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

223 views

### Which forcings preserve (some) determinacy?

The question is exactly as in the title. I'm interested in general in all questions of the form "which forcings preserve property P?" for any P, but determinacy assumptions occupy a special place in ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

466 views

### Is every $\sigma$-algebra of sets *abstractly* the Borel algebra of a topology on perhps some other set?

Is every sigma-algebra the Borel algebra of a topology?
inspires the present question which asks for less.
Question: Given a $\sigma$-algebra ${\cal A}$ on a set $X$, does there exist a topology ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

304 views

### Closure properties of familes of $G_\delta$ sets.

Given a family of sets $G\subset P(X)$, can one characterize by "closure properties" alone whether or not $G$ arises as the family of all $G_\delta$ for some topology on $X$? some Polish space ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

212 views

### Sets of reals and absoluteness

Schoenfield's absoluteness states that if $\phi$ is $\Sigma^1_2$ then $V\models \phi$ iff $L\models \phi$. The set of reals in $L$ is $\Sigma^1_2$ and it is the largest countable $\Sigma^1_2$ set of ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

123 views

### Theory of (definable) ideals on a multi-dimensional countable set

I'm wondering if there are any results about definable ideals/filters on $\omega\times\omega$, $\omega\times\omega\times\omega$, etc.
To give a sense of the kind of results I might be looking for: ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

193 views

### Infinity-Borel sets in ZFC

The notion of an $\infty$-Borel set of reals is useful in the study of AD. Under ZFC it becomes trivial: every set of reals is $\infty$-Borel. However, the notion of an $\infty$-Borel code is still ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

461 views

### Existence (or non) of “definable” ultrafilters

This is a question which I suspect has an absurdly easy answer, but I'm not seeing it.
Let $\langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle:\omega^2\rightarrow\omega$ be your favorite pairing map (for me, this is the ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

202 views

### Companion of the pointclass of inductive sets

This question is about the notion of a companion for a Spector class, as defined in Moschovakis's book Elementary Induction on Abstract Structures.
I am interested in Spector classes on $\mathbb{R}$, ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

209 views

### sigma-algebra generated by OD sets

Assume $V=L(\mathbb{R})$ and the Axiom of Determinacy. Is every set of reals generated by ordinal-definable sets of reals under the operations of countable union and intersection?
The class of sets ...