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1
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1answer
210 views

Who first introduced the functional definition of symmetry?

Who first introduced the definition of symmetry using functions explicitly? (That is, for instance, a symmetry of a subset $X$ of the plane is a function $F$ from the plane to the plane that preserves ...
32
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2answers
2k views

Category Theoretic Interpretation of Matroids?

Hello everyone! First time poster, long time lurker here. I have a really basic question that has been bugging me for sometime. Specifically, I'm not exactly sure what the 'correct' category ...
2
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0answers
100 views

Definition of Givental $J$-function of cotangent bundle of flag variety

I would like to know the definition of Givental $J$-function of cotangent bundle of flag variety. To state my question more precisely, let us briefly recall the definition of the Givental $J$-function ...
3
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0answers
67 views

How to define Product of Conditional Measures?

I have been wondering how to define the product of conditional measures as defined by Renyi-Popper. I spell the details below. If $(X,\Sigma)$ is a measurable space, then the function $\mu : ...
5
votes
1answer
205 views

Meaning of $g_d^r$ in algebraic geometry

As an editor I often encounter the symbol $g_d^r$ as a noun. I tried googling but I only get papers where the symbol is used without a definition. Can someone supply a reference to a definition? ...
1
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1answer
224 views

Concise definition of subobjects

Higher category theory tells us that it is a bad idea to identify isomorphic things. Rather, the isomorphism should belong to some additional data. Also, categorification tells us that one should, ...
61
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18answers
8k views

Can a mathematical definition be wrong?

This question originates from a bit of history. In the first paper on quantum Turing machines, the authors left a key uniformity condition out of their definition. Three mathematicians subsequently ...
0
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0answers
67 views

A certain Acyclic Partition of a digraph

Has the following object been defined in the literature? What is it called? And what literature studies it? Are there other characterizations of this? What properties are known? Let $G$ be a directed ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

On Severi's definition of the complementary correspondence

In Weil's short note entitled "On the Riemann hypothesis in function-fields" he mentions the notion of the complementary correspondence associated to a given correspondence $T:C\rightarrow C$ where ...
0
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0answers
110 views

Name of Property $t=st \text{ and } s=ts$

What is the name of the property shared by a pair of functions $s,t$ with $$t=st \text{ and } s=ts$$ ( Main example: relation-valued domain and range operations on relations, via ...
3
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0answers
76 views

Non Borel Spaces: Gauge Integral

Question Is there a generalization of the gauge integral to measure spaces that do not necessarily arise out of some topology? I'm wondering since it seems as the gauge crucially uses ...
61
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23answers
22k views

What are the most misleading alternate definitions in taught mathematics?

I suppose this question can be interpreted in two ways. It is often the case that two or more equivalent (but not necessarily semantically equivalent) definitions of the same idea/object are used in ...
3
votes
1answer
285 views

How to define a generating subset for algebra in a category?

As is well known, the definition of an monoid can be generalised to the notion of a monoid $A$ in a monoidal category $C$ (see the n-lab entry here). What I would like to know is if the notion of ...
4
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5answers
285 views

procedure-based (as opposed to definition-based) concepts

Euler's work on divergent series was guided by computational procedures, rather than any definition of the "value" of such a series. E.g., he was happy to have half a dozen procedures that indicated ...
2
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3answers
397 views

Defining the integral of a function using the product measure

Imagine that we're trying to define the expression $$\int_U f(x)dx$$ in a rigorous way. Assume that $f:X \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{\geq 0}$ where $(X,\mu)$ is a measure space, and suppose that $U$ is a ...
2
votes
0answers
144 views

Alternate definition for the torsion tensor

I would be pleased to have some information about an alternate definition for the torsion tensor. Let us consider a smooth manifold $\mathcal{M}$ together with an arbitrary connection $\nabla$. The ...
3
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0answers
90 views

On one class of Euclidean lattices

Let $\Lambda\subset \mathbb Z^3$ be 3D lattice with a basis $$a_1=\left(\begin{smallmatrix} a_{11} \\ a_{21}\\ a_{31} \end{smallmatrix}\right),a_2=\left(\begin{smallmatrix} a_{12} \\ a_{22}\\ a_{32} ...
8
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3answers
796 views

What are Penrose Tilings, and how do they relate to Quasicrystals?

The question is in the title, but let me elaborate a little. Background Penrose Tilings are really pretty and satisfy some remarkable properties. For instance, I believe the following is true: even ...
2
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2answers
189 views

On the definition of ‘smooth vectors’ in Rieffel's “Deformation Quantization for Actions of $ \mathbb{R}^{d} $”.

On the first page of Chapter 1 of Rieffel's Deformation Quantization for Actions of $ \mathbb{R}^{d} $, Rieffel defines a family of seminorms on the space $ A^{\infty} $ of smooth vectors of a Fréchet ...
2
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0answers
241 views

PAC field : Algebraically closed field :: ? : Henselian local ring

I'm wondering if the following exists in the world as a definition. I'll use the word "pseudo-Henselian." I'll restrict to DVRs for simplicity. I'd want to call a DVR $(R,\mathfrak{m})$ ...
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7answers
440 views

Does the notion of graphs with vertex multiplicity exist?

I need to use graphs where each vertex gets a natural number, $b(v)$, its multiplicity. These numbers indicate how many 'replications' of the vertex we have. It is actually a way to write in a ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Geometric picture of invariant differential of an elliptic curve

What is the geometric meaning of $\omega=dx/(2y+a_1x+a_3)$ for an elliptic curve? This question is an adjunct to MO Q1 on formal laws and L-series, which motivated Q2. Q1 (Silverman) and Darmon (pg. ...
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1answer
2k views

What is Serre's condition (S_n) for sheaves?

The Serre's condition $(S_n)$, especially $(S_2)$, has been mentioned in a few MO answers: see here and here for example. I am pretty sure I have seen it in other questions as well, but could not ...
9
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3answers
667 views

What makes a distance?

In the answers to my previous question, I learned that there are different concepts of distance, that is of distance-like functions with the usual metric being only the most popular and important one. ...
7
votes
1answer
298 views

BRST cohomology definition

Is there written anywhere a full definition of BRST cohomology? All I have found so far is BRST cohomology in _______. As far as I can see, BRST cohomology is the ...
5
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1answer
247 views

Canonical differential on Tate curve

I am starting studying the theory of (algebraic) modular forms, and I have some trouble in understanding completely the construction of the Tate curve. My problem is the following: as far as I know ...
12
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2answers
517 views

Is this a vertex algebroid?… What is vertex algebroid?

A couple of day ago, I was lamenting to a friend about the fact that I have no idea what vertex algebroids are. During our discussion, I came up with a guess of what a vertex algebroid might be. I'm ...
3
votes
5answers
347 views

Strings and “co-subsequences”

Let $S$ be a string over some alphabet $\Sigma$. It is well known that a substring of $S$ is commonly defined as a sequence of contiguous elements from $S$, while a subsequence of $S$ is a sequence ...
5
votes
1answer
679 views

Why do mathematicians prefer one definition over the other when they both define the same concept?

Here is a basic, though very important, example: Hilbert takes as primary the notion of “congruence” (or “equal”) between segments. His first axiom of congruence “requires the possibility of ...
1
vote
2answers
153 views

Understanding the left-separated spaces

A space $X$ is called left-separated if it can be well-ordered in such a way that every initial segment is closed in $X$. Could someone post some left-separated space to help me understand such ...
6
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4answers
1k views

On similar concepts in mathematics whose similarity is a non-trivial fact.

Recently, while undertaking a study of commutative algebra, I learned three concepts: (i) a local ring, (ii) a regular local ring and (iii) a regular ring. At the end, I found myself asking this ...
3
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2answers
2k views

Set theory definition of addition, negative numbers, and subtraction? [closed]

Using the definition of natural numbers $0 = \emptyset$ and $S(n) = n \cup \lbrace n \rbrace$ where S is the successor function, what is the definition of addition on natural numbers? Concerning the ...
25
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11answers
5k views

What does the adjective “natural” actually mean?

Terms like "in the natural way" or "the natural X" are used frequently in mathematical writing. While it is certainly clear most of the time what is meant, on occasion, I have been confounded. The ...
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4answers
1k views

Grothendieck Topologies versus Pretopologies

The wikipedia article(s) as well as the nlab article(s) about Grothendieck topologies and Grothendieck pretopologies are careful to differentiate the two very emphatically and to point out that ...
2
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0answers
239 views

What is the analog of “monotonic” for scalar functions on surfaces?

"monotonic" is well defined for functions $f(x)$, where e.g. $x\in[0,1]$ and $f(x)\in\mathbb{R}$. The quality I particularly care about is that if $f(x)$ is monotonic then it will not have any local ...
4
votes
2answers
605 views

A scheme simple over Spec(A)?

What does it mean to say that a scheme $X$ is simple over $Spec(A)$ ? I stumbled on this terminology in a paper of S. Lubkin entitled "On a conjecture of Andre Weil".
0
votes
1answer
273 views

Simple Equivariant homology [no borel-Moore]

Hey. I'm working with Bredon's equivariant cohomology. At some point I need to compute the $4$th equivariant cohomology group of $S^1 \x D^3$ relatively to its boundary for the antipodal action of ...
1
vote
1answer
354 views

equivalence of definitions of Carmichael numbers

I would like to prove the equivalence of the two most common definitions of a composite integer $n > 1$ being a Carmichael number: $a^n \equiv a \mod n $ for all $a$ $\iff a^{n-1} \equiv 1 \mod n$ ...
16
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1answer
823 views

Surreal exponentiation — are the varying definitions equivalent? If not, is there agreement on which ones are better?

The surreal numbers are sometimes introduced as a place where crazy expressions like $(\omega^2+5\omega-13)^{1/3-2/\omega}+\pi$ (to use the nLab's example) make sense. The problem is, there seem to ...
2
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1answer
1k views

What is “augmented algebra”?

Really sorry for this question, but googling for some time did not help me. I was trying to understand the meaning of the following phrase: Let B be an augmented algebra over a semi-simple algebra T. ...
2
votes
2answers
611 views

On figurate numbers

Do you know a text where I can find a definition of polygonal number that is both geometrically and operationally sound? I've basically seen two ways in which this topic is approached in the ...
2
votes
2answers
622 views

Non-split groups

I am looking for a reference with definitions on what it means for an algebraic group to be split, quasi-split, and non-split. I would like to see some examples of the different "types". Thanks, Tom
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2answers
2k views

What are examples of theorems which were once “valid”, then became “invalid” as standard definitions shifted?

That is, results established by correct proofs within some framework, yet the manner in which their author or the general mathematical community at the time would describe these results would, in ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

Locally constant functions with compact support = smooth ?

Hello, I have a trivial question, but I hope that you don't mind helping. I often get confused with basic definitions. Let F be a p-adic field. Then (from what I understand) $C_c^{\infty}(F)$ is the ...
1
vote
4answers
526 views

What is the quantity 2(handles)+crosscaps called?

It is well-known that up to homeomorphism, the complete set of orientable surfaces is $\lbrace S_g : g=0,1,\dots \rbrace$, where $S_g$ is the sphere with $g$ handles. The complete set of ...
5
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2answers
629 views

Unitary groups over number fields

When defining unitary groups over number fields, one usually takes $F$ to be a totally real number field, $E$ a CM quadratic extension of $F$, and $V$ a hermitian space attached to $E/F$. Then $U(V)$ ...
5
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0answers
263 views

Why is Pic^0(C) of a curve C a variety?

Let $C$ be an abstract non-singular curve. I'm having a hard time finding a reference for why $\text{Pic}^0(C)$ is a variety. Any pointers towards a reference would be appreciated.
4
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3answers
818 views

Lattices: why require bilinear form to be integral?

This is a quite localized question, but I hope it won't be closed as unfit to MO. Well, a lattice $\Lambda$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is a discrete subgroup generated by a basis. Such a lattice gets a ...
18
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3answers
2k views

When is a classification problem “wild”?

I hope someone can point me to a quick definition of the following terminology. I keep coming across wild and tame in the context of classification problems, often adorned with quotes, leading me to ...
2
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3answers
643 views

Transitive closure of multigraphs

The transitive closure of a directed graph, is another directed graph which encodes the reachability of nodes from other nodes. If $G$ is a graph, the edge $(v_1,v_2)$ is in it's transitive closure ...