# Tagged Questions

**12**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### On equation f(z+1)-f(z)=f'(z)

Original Problem
If $f$ is an entire function such that
$$ f(z+1)-f(z)=f'(z) $$
for all $z$.
Is there a non-trivial solution? ($f(z)=az+b$ is trivial)
And here is something uncertainty
If we use ...

**80**

votes

**41**answers

27k views

### Ways to prove the fundamental theorem of algebra

This seems to be a favorite question everywhere, including Princeton quals. How many ways are there?
Please give a new way in each answer, and if possible give reference. I start by giving two:
...

**228**

votes

**15**answers

32k views

### Why do roots of polynomials tend to have absolute value close to 1?

While playing around with Mathematica I noticed that most polynomials with real coefficients seem to have most complex zeroes very near the unit circle. For instance, if we plot all the roots of a ...

**45**

votes

**16**answers

10k views

### f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential

The question is about the function f(x) so that f(f(x))=exp (x)-1.
The question is open ended and it was discussed quite recently in the comment thread in Aaronson's blog here ...

**34**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Behaviour of power series on their circle of convergence

I asked myself the following question while preparing a course on power series for 2nd year students. Let F be the set of power series with convergence radius equal to 1. What subsets S of the unit ...

**18**

votes

**10**answers

4k views

### Uniformization theorem for Riemann surfaces

How does one prove that every simply connected Riemann surface is conformally equivalent to the open unit disk, the complex plane, or the Riemann sphere, and these are not conformally equivalent to ...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Conformal maps in higher dimensions

In dimension 2 we know by the Riemann mapping theorem that any simply connected domain ( $\neq \mathbb{R}^{2}$) can be mapped bijectively to the unit disk with a function that preserves angles between ...

**21**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Distribution of roots of complex polynomials

I generated random quadratic and cubic polynomials with coefficients in $\mathbb{C}$
uniformly distributed in the unit disk $|z| \le 1$. The distribution of the roots of 10000
of these polynomials are ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

633 views

### Seeking a Geometric Proof of a Generalized Alternating Series' Convergence

Let $z \in \mathbb{C} \backslash \lbrace 1 \rbrace$ with $|z| = 1$. We consider the following infinite series, which necessarily converges:
$$S(z) := \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}\frac{z^n}{n}$$
Note that ...

**5**

votes

**4**answers

598 views

### Visualizing functions with a number of independant variables

I need to graph real valued functions ( for exposition and analysis)
the issue is the independent variables are more so that the conventional graphing method cant be used and further i don't want to ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

467 views

### $ 2|f^{'}(0)| = \sup_{z, w \in D} |f(z)-f(w)|$ if and only if $f$ is linear

I know the following is a well-known result.
Let $D = B(0,1) \subset \mathbb{C} $ a disc, $f$ holomorphic on $D$. Show that $$ 2|f^{'}(0)| \le \sup_{z, w \in D} |f(z)-f(w)|$$
Furthermore, there is ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

228 views

### Explicit form for hermitian structure $h$ with respect to $\omega$

Let $(M,\omega)$ be a symplectic manifold. and $\pi:L\to M$ be a complex line bundle , we denote $h$ as hermitian structure,i.e. if $s,s'$ are smooth sections of $L$ and if $X$ is a vector field on ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

277 views

### Basic questions on the Hilbert scheme/ Douady space

Let $X$ be a complex projective scheme (resp. complex analytic space). The Hilbert scheme (resp. Douady space) parameterizes closed subschemes (resp. complex analytic subspaces) of $X$. More ...

**97**

votes

**1**answer

9k views

### What are the shapes of rational functions?

I would like to understand and compute the shapes of rational functions, that is, holomorphic maps of the Riemann sphere to itself, or equivalently, ratios of two polynomials, up to Moebius ...

**39**

votes

**9**answers

7k views

### Why do functions in complex analysis behave so well? (as opposed to functions in real analysis)

Complex analytic functions show rigid behavior while real-valued smooth functions are flexible. Why is this the case?

**35**

votes

**8**answers

5k views

### Why does the Gamma-function complete the Riemann Zeta function?

Defining $$\xi(s) := \pi^{-s/2}\ \Gamma\left(\frac{s}{2}\right)\ \zeta(s)$$ yields $\xi(s) = \xi(1 - s)$ (where $\zeta$ is the Riemann Zeta function).
Is there any conceptual explanation - or ...

**47**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Does a power series converging everywhere on its circle of convergence define a continuous function?

Consider a complex power series $\sum a_n z^n \in \mathbb C[[z]]$ with radius of convergence $0\lt r\lt\infty$ and suppose that for every $w$ with $\mid w\mid =r$ the series $\sum a_n w^n $ converges ...

**26**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Liouville's theorem with your bare hands

Liouville's theorem from complex analysis states that a holomorphic function $f(z)$ on the plane that is bounded in magnitude is constant. The usual proof uses the Cauchy integral formula. But this ...

**29**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Must the set of lines through the origin on which a nonconstant entire function is bounded be finite?

If an entire function is bounded for all $z \in \mathbb{C}$, than it's a constant by Liouville's theorem. Of course an entire function can be bounded on lines through the origin $z=r \exp(i \phi), ...

**10**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### References for complex analytic geometry?

I'm looking for references on the "algebraic geometry" side of complex analytis, i.e. on complex spaces, morphisms of those spaces, coherent sheaves, flat morphisms, direct image sheaves etc. A ...

**28**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Zeros of polynomials with real positive coefficients

The following problem arose in collaborative work with Subhro Ghosh:
Question: To any polynomial $P_n(z)=\sum_{i=0}^n a_i z^i =a_n \prod_{i=1}^n(z-z_i)$, attach the empirical measure of zeros
...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

843 views

### Maximum of a function of one variable

Let $D$ be a circular quadrilateral (that is a Jordan region whose boundary consists of 4 arcs
of circles all orthogonal to the unit circle) whose interior angles are all equal to 0, the vertices lie ...

**30**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Absolute value inequality for complex numbers

I asked this question on stackexchange, but despite much effort on my part have been unsuccesful in finding a solution.
Does the inequality
$$2(|a|+|b|+|c|) \leq |a+b+c|+|a+b-c|+|a+c-b|+|b+c-a|$$
...

**27**

votes

**1**answer

6k views

### What, exactly, has Louis de Branges proved about the Riemann Hypothesis?

Hi,
I know this is a dangerous topic which could attract many cranks and nutters, but:
According to Wikipedia [and probably his own website, but I have a hard time seeing exactly what he's claiming] ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

954 views

### When is a holomorphic submersion with isomorphic fibers locally trivial?

A justly celebrated theorem by Ehresmann states that a proper smooth submersion $\pi: X\to S$ between smooth manifolds is locally trivial in the sense that every point $s\in S$ downstairs has a ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

865 views

### Determining rational functions by their critical points

Fix an integer $d > 1$ and $2d-2$ points $P_1, \ldots, P_{2d-2}$ in the Riemann sphere (not necessarily distinct). Thanks to the work of Eisenbud and Harris on limit linear series (Inventiones, ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Does Riemann map depend continuously on the domain?

I've always taken this for granted until recently:
In the simplest case, given Jordan curve $C \subseteq \mathbb{C}$ containing a neighborhood of $\bar{0}$ in its interior. Given parametrizations ...

**20**

votes

**0**answers

367 views

### Decidability of equality of elementary expressions

In the following definition the term expression is to be understood as a finite tree built from formal symbols without any predefined meaning assigned to them.
Define the set $\mathcal{E}$ of ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Continuous + holomorphic on a dense open => holomorphic?

Let D ⊂ ℂ be the closed unit disc in the complex plane, and let C be a continuously embedded path in D between the points -1 and 1. The curve C splits D into two halfs $D_1$ and $D_2$.
Let ...

**12**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### Elementary solutions to f(z+1)-f(z)=g(z) in entire functions

Let g(z) be an entire function of a complex variable z. Does there exist an entire function f(z) such that f(z+1)-f(z)=g(z)? As I learned several years back, the answer to this is apparently 'yes', ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

377 views

### Parametrisations for Null Temperature Functions: nonuniqueness of solutions to the Heat Equation

Disclaimer I expect this is a highly open problem, but maybe I'm wrong and someone has come up with some answers besides those given here. In any case, all information appreciated, thanks!
Definition ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

758 views

### Characterize where the Dirichlet Problem for the Laplacian is always solvable

Conway's 1978 textbook Functions of One Complex Variable I gives an unsatisfying characterization of the regions for which the Dirichlet Problem can always be solved, and then comments no cleaner ...

**3**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Minimizing the modulus of a polynomial around a circle

I'm probably missing something elementary here, but I guess the only way to be sure is to ask here.
Now, I have encountered a situation where given an nth-degree polynomial $p_n(z)$ with complex ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

390 views

### Relation between entire function of exponential type and exponential polynomials

Is it true in general that the theory of entire function of exponential type and and that of exponential polynomials (with purely imaginary exponents) are analogous ?
Can one derive results about ...

**13**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Is the Euler product formula always divergent for 0<Re(s)<1?

It is known that the Euler product formula converges for Re(s)>1.
(which represents the Riemann zeta function.)
My question: Is the Euler product formula always divergent for
0 < Re(s) < 1 ?
...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

456 views

### How can one “see” the Hopf fibration in the space of lattices in the plane?

This question is inspired from Etienne Ghys's talk on Knots and Dynamics from ICM 2006.
The map $L \mapsto (G_4(L), G_6(L))$ gives a bijection between all lattices $L\subset \mathbb{C}$ (including ...

**10**

votes

**6**answers

633 views

### Functions holomorphic on a region minus a Cantor set

Let $X$ and $Y$ be simply connected open regions of $\mathbb{C}$, and let $Z \subset X$ be a Cantor set. Assume we have a homeomorphism $f$ from $X$ to $Y$, which is holomorphic on $X \setminus Z$. Is ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

769 views

### Dirichlet series expansion of an analytic function

Let $F(s)=\sum_{n\geq 1}\frac{a_n}{n^s}$ be a Dirichlet series with (finite) abscissa of absolute convergence $\sigma_a$. It can be shown that $\forall \sigma >\sigma_a:$
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### The Paley-Wiener theorem and exponential decay.

Consider a function whose Fourier transform is supported on a half-ray:
$$
A(t)=\int_0^\infty \omega(E) e^{-iEt}d E,
$$
where I can suppose $\omega(E)\geq 0$ and any suitable regularity conditions on ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

334 views

### Defining holomorphic functions in terms of Banach algebras, and similarly for C*-algebras

Let $C$ be the category of commutative Banach algebras and let $U : C \to \text{Set}$ be the usual forgetful functor. The holomorphic functional calculus guarantees that every holomorphic function $f ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

674 views

### Are there cusp forms for the full modular group Sp(2,Z) and representations det^3 \otimes Sym^2j(\rho_standard)

What are modular forms or cusps forms, resp. ?
We start with defining their common domains $\mathbb{H}_g$ as the set of symmetric $g \times g$ matrices with positive definite imaginary parts.
The ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

274 views

### Normal form for a holomorphic Morse function

Similarly to Morse lemma, a holomorphic Morse function can be written, near a critical point, as $W_1^2+W_2^2+...+W_n^2+C$ , for well chosen coordinates $W_1,W_2,...,W_n$. I want to cite this result ...

**3**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Analytic implicit function theorem

I'm looking for a proof of the analytic implicit function theorem (IFT). The only related proof I could find was the holomorphic inverse function theorem (by Henri Cartan). On Wikipedia, the analytic ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

90 views

### Periodicities of a Complex Dynamical System

Consider A function $f:\mathbf{C}^2\rightarrow \mathbf{C}$ defined as $$f_{\alpha, \beta}(z,w)=\frac{\alpha}{z}+\frac{\beta}{w}$$ where $\alpha$ and $\beta$ both are complex number.
It is easy to ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

190 views

### The dual space of the Dirac measures on an Abelian group

Let $G$ be a Hausdorff locally-compact Abelian group and $L^2(G)$ the Hilbert space of two-integrable complex functions on the group.
Question. What would be natural vector space $\mathcal{R}$ ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

181 views

### Is there a effective computational criterion to all periodic points of a rational function are repelling.

I came up with a question to know the fatou component of of some types of rational function. In some sense, I may need to give a computational criterion to existence of attracting periodic basin for a ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

383 views

### Universal covering map from $\mathcal{H}$ to $\mathbb{C}\setminus \mathbb{Z}\oplus i\mathbb{Z}$ (the countably punctured complex plane)

It's a consequence of the uniformization theorem for simply connected Riemann surfaces that the universal cover of $\mathbb{C}\setminus(\mathbb{Z}\oplus i\mathbb{Z})$ ($\mathbb{C}$ punctured at all ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

524 views

### Extending an assignment property from Q to R (or C)

Property of any odd number of nonnegative integers:
Given $x_1 \leq \ldots \leq x_{2n + 1}$ with each $x_i \in \mathbb{Z}_{\geq 0}$, suppose that for any $x_i$ we remove, the remaining numbers can be ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

752 views

### Real integral which cannot be evaluated without complex analysis?

One motivation for studying contour integrals in complex analysis is that they can be used to give elegant evaluations of certain real integrals, which tend to have more direct physical and ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

209 views

### What can be said about a function given its asymptotic expansion?

This is probably not a research level question but I honestly don't know how/where to look for techniques to reconstruct a function from its asymptotic expansion.
The expansion I want to know about ...