**120**

votes

**46**answers

40k views

### Ways to prove the fundamental theorem of algebra

This seems to be a favorite question everywhere, including Princeton quals. How many ways are there?
Please give a new way in each answer, and if possible give reference. I start by giving two:
...

**276**

votes

**15**answers

39k views

### Why do roots of polynomials tend to have absolute value close to 1?

While playing around with Mathematica I noticed that most polynomials with real coefficients seem to have most complex zeroes very near the unit circle. For instance, if we plot all the roots of a ...

**15**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Is the Euler product formula always divergent for 0<Re(s)<1?

It is known that the Euler product formula converges for Re(s)>1.
(which represents the Riemann zeta function.)
My question: Is the Euler product formula always divergent for
0 < Re(s) < 1 ?
...

**57**

votes

**16**answers

11k views

### f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential

The question is about the function f(x) so that f(f(x))=exp (x)-1.
The question is open ended and it was discussed quite recently in the comment thread in Aaronson's blog here http://scottaaronson....

**17**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### On equation f(z+1)-f(z)=f'(z)

Original Problem
If $f$ is an entire function such that
$$ f(z+1)-f(z)=f'(z) $$
for all $z$.
Is there a non-trivial solution? ($f(z)=az+b$ is trivial)
And here is something uncertainty
If we use ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

779 views

### Asymptotic approximation of $x^\alpha$ by entire functions

Given a non-integral real $\alpha$, is there an entire (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entire_function) function $h(x)$ such that $x^{-\alpha}h(x)\longrightarrow 1$
for $x\rightarrow+\infty$ (with $...

**21**

votes

**10**answers

6k views

### Uniformization theorem for Riemann surfaces

How does one prove that every simply connected Riemann surface is conformally equivalent to the open unit disk, the complex plane, or the Riemann sphere, and these are not conformally equivalent to ...

**45**

votes

**1**answer

4k views

### Behaviour of power series on their circle of convergence

I asked myself the following question while preparing a course on power series for 2nd year students. Let F be the set of power series with convergence radius equal to 1. What subsets S of the unit ...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Conformal maps in higher dimensions

In dimension 2 we know by the Riemann mapping theorem that any simply connected domain ( $\neq \mathbb{R}^{2}$) can be mapped bijectively to the unit disk with a function that preserves angles between ...

**22**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Distribution of roots of complex polynomials

I generated random quadratic and cubic polynomials with coefficients in $\mathbb{C}$
uniformly distributed in the unit disk $|z| \le 1$. The distribution of the roots of 10000
of these polynomials are ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Dirichlet series expansion of an analytic function

Let $F(s)=\sum_{n\geq 1}\frac{a_n}{n^s}$ be a Dirichlet series with (finite) abscissa of absolute convergence $\sigma_a$. It can be shown that $\forall \sigma >\sigma_a:$
$$\lim_{T\to\infty}\frac{1}...

**9**

votes

**4**answers

818 views

### Seeking a Geometric Proof of a Generalized Alternating Series' Convergence

Let $z \in \mathbb{C} \backslash \lbrace 1 \rbrace$ with $|z| = 1$. We consider the following infinite series, which necessarily converges:
$$S(z) := \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}\frac{z^n}{n}$$
Note that $S(...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

496 views

### $ 2|f^{'}(0)| = \sup_{z, w \in D} |f(z)-f(w)|$ if and only if $f$ is linear

I know the following is a well-known result.
Let $D = B(0,1) \subset \mathbb{C} $ a disc, $f$ holomorphic on $D$. Show that $$ 2|f^{'}(0)| \le \sup_{z, w \in D} |f(z)-f(w)|$$
Furthermore, there is ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

591 views

### Are there irreducible polynomials with all zeros on two concentric circles?

This is somewhat similar to this recent question, but extending in a different direction.
Let $f(x)$ be an irreducible polynomial of degree $n$ with integer coefficients. Call such $f$ a bicycle ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

255 views

### Explicit form for hermitian structure $h$ with respect to $\omega$

Let $(M,\omega)$ be a symplectic manifold. and $\pi:L\to M$ be a complex line bundle , we denote $h$ as hermitian structure,i.e. if $s,s'$ are smooth sections of $L$ and if $X$ is a vector field on $M$...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

328 views

### Basic questions on the Hilbert scheme/ Douady space

Let $X$ be a complex projective scheme (resp. complex analytic space). The Hilbert scheme (resp. Douady space) parameterizes closed subschemes (resp. complex analytic subspaces) of $X$. More precisely,...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

231 views

### meromorphic extension of a function

Let $\Lambda\in \mathbf{C}$ be a discrete subset. We assume that $\mathrm{Re}(\lambda)<0$ for all the $\lambda\in \Lambda$. For $i\in \mathbf{N}$, $\lambda\in \Lambda$, let $m_{i,\lambda}\in \...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

293 views

### Half spaces free of roots of a given polynomial

I thank Loic Teyssier and Emil Jerabek who helped me to revise the two previous version
This question is motivated by the following fact in complex variable:(I learned this fact from the book of ...

**112**

votes

**2**answers

11k views

### What are the shapes of rational functions?

I would like to understand and compute the shapes of rational functions, that is, holomorphic maps of the Riemann sphere to itself, or equivalently, ratios of two polynomials, up to Moebius ...

**52**

votes

**9**answers

9k views

### Why do functions in complex analysis behave so well? (as opposed to functions in real analysis)

Complex analytic functions show rigid behavior while real-valued smooth functions are flexible. Why is this the case?

**45**

votes

**8**answers

7k views

### Why does the Gamma-function complete the Riemann Zeta function?

Defining $$\xi(s) := \pi^{-s/2}\ \Gamma\left(\frac{s}{2}\right)\ \zeta(s)$$ yields $\xi(s) = \xi(1 - s)$ (where $\zeta$ is the Riemann Zeta function).
Is there any conceptual explanation - or ...

**54**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Does a power series converging everywhere on its circle of convergence define a continuous function?

Consider a complex power series $\sum a_n z^n \in \mathbb C[[z]]$ with radius of convergence $0\lt r\lt\infty$ and suppose that for every $w$ with $\mid w\mid =r$ the series $\sum a_n w^n $ converges ....

**31**

votes

**5**answers

4k views

### Liouville's theorem with your bare hands

Liouville's theorem from complex analysis states that a holomorphic function $f(z)$ on the plane that is bounded in magnitude is constant. The usual proof uses the Cauchy integral formula. But this ...

**30**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Must the set of lines through the origin on which a nonconstant entire function is bounded be finite?

If an entire function is bounded for all $z \in \mathbb{C}$, than it's a constant by Liouville's theorem. Of course an entire function can be bounded on lines through the origin $z=r \exp(i \phi), \...

**28**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Computing Self-Intersections with Complex Analysis

It is possible to find the winding number of a path $C \subset \mathbb{C}$ using complex analysis:
$$n = \oint_C\frac{dz}{z}.$$
You can also count the number of roots of $f(z) = 0$ inside a close ...

**10**

votes

**5**answers

4k views

### References for complex analytic geometry?

I'm looking for references on the "algebraic geometry" side of complex analytis, i.e. on complex spaces, morphisms of those spaces, coherent sheaves, flat morphisms, direct image sheaves etc. A ...

**39**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Absolute value inequality for complex numbers

I asked this question on stackexchange, but despite much effort on my part have been unsuccesful in finding a solution.
Does the inequality
$$2(|a|+|b|+|c|) \leq |a+b+c|+|a+b-c|+|a+c-b|+|b+c-a|$$
...

**27**

votes

**3**answers

997 views

### Rational functions with a common iterate

Let $f$ and $g$ be two rational functions. To avoid trivialities, we suppose that their degrees are
at least $2$. We say that they have a common iterate if $f^m=g^n$ for some positive integers $m,n$,
...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### When is a holomorphic submersion with isomorphic fibers locally trivial?

A justly celebrated theorem by Ehresmann states that a proper smooth submersion $\pi: X\to S$ between smooth manifolds is locally trivial in the sense that every point $s\in S$ downstairs has a ...

**31**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Polynomials with the same values set on the unit circle

Assume that $P(z)$, $Q(z)$ are complex polynomials such that $P(S)=Q(S)$, where $S=\{z\colon |z|=1\}$ (equality is understood in the sense of sets, but I do not know the answer even for multisets). ...

**28**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Zeros of polynomials with real positive coefficients

The following problem arose in collaborative work with Subhro Ghosh:
Question: To any polynomial $P_n(z)=\sum_{i=0}^n a_i z^i =a_n \prod_{i=1}^n(z-z_i)$, attach the empirical measure of zeros
$L_n=n^{...

**16**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### Elementary solutions to f(z+1)-f(z)=g(z) in entire functions

Let g(z) be an entire function of a complex variable z. Does there exist an entire function f(z) such that f(z+1)-f(z)=g(z)? As I learned several years back, the answer to this is apparently 'yes', ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

863 views

### Maximum of a function of one variable

Let $D$ be a circular quadrilateral (that is a Jordan region whose boundary consists of 4 arcs
of circles all orthogonal to the unit circle) whose interior angles are all equal to 0, the vertices lie ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Does Riemann map depend continuously on the domain?

I've always taken this for granted until recently:
In the simplest case, given Jordan curve $C \subseteq \mathbb{C}$ containing a neighborhood of $\bar{0}$ in its interior. Given parametrizations $\...

**31**

votes

**1**answer

7k views

### What, exactly, has Louis de Branges proved about the Riemann Hypothesis?

Hi,
I know this is a dangerous topic which could attract many cranks and nutters, but:
According to Wikipedia [and probably his own website, but I have a hard time seeing exactly what he's claiming] ...

**8**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Why $\partial$ and $\bar{\partial}$ defined in that way (the Wirtinger derivatives)?

For $\mathbb{C}$-valued functions, why are $\frac{\partial}{\partial z}$ and $\frac{\partial}{\partial \bar{z}}$ defined as
$$
\frac{\partial}{\partial z}=
\frac{1}{2}\left(
\frac{\partial}{\...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Determining rational functions by their critical points

Fix an integer $d > 1$ and $2d-2$ points $P_1, \ldots, P_{2d-2}$ in the Riemann sphere (not necessarily distinct). Thanks to the work of Eisenbud and Harris on limit linear series (Inventiones, ...

**24**

votes

**2**answers

551 views

### Why is there no connection between fast-growing functions and complex analysis

I found myself wondering the other day whether the fast-growing functions from natural to naturals that are studied by people like proof theorists are the restriction to the naturals of analytic ...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

423 views

### Decidability of equality of elementary expressions

In the following definition the term expression is to be understood as a finite tree built from formal symbols without any predefined meaning assigned to them.
Define the set $\mathcal{E}$ of ...

**18**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Continuous + holomorphic on a dense open => holomorphic?

Let D ⊂ ℂ be the closed unit disc in the complex plane, and let C be a continuously embedded path in D between the points -1 and 1. The curve C splits D into two halfs $D_1$ and $D_2$.
Let ...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

910 views

### Complex evaluation of a classical (real) integral

There are several ways to compute the classical integral
$$
\int_{\mathbb R}e^{-x^2}dx=\sqrt{\pi}.
$$
Probably, best known are
(1) squaring the integral with subsequent change
of (now two) variables ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Harmonic level sets and boundary data

This is probably a classic problem, so a good reference book or paper to get me started on this type of question would be great:
Let $\mathbb{D} \subset \mathbb{C}$ be the unit disk with boundary $\...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

299 views

### Are the zeros of Tutte polynomials dense in $\mathbb C^2$?

For the chromatic polynomials of graphs we have two nice theorems which describe the behavior of their zeros: Thomassen proved that the set of real zeros of all chromatic polynomials is the union of $\...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

926 views

### How to best distribute points on two concentric circles?

An N-subset $\{x_1,\dots,x_N\}$ of a compact set $X\subset \mathbb R^d$ is called a set of Fekete points (named after Michael Fekete) if it maximizes the product $$\prod_{1\le k<j\le N}|x_k-x_j|\...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

886 views

### Characterize where the Dirichlet Problem for the Laplacian is always solvable

Conway's 1978 textbook Functions of One Complex Variable I gives an unsatisfying characterization of the regions for which the Dirichlet Problem can always be solved, and then comments no cleaner ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Does module Hom commute with tensor product in the second variable?

Let $A$ be a commutative ring, and $L, M, N$ be $A$-modules. Then is it true that
$$\text{Hom}_A (L, M)\otimes_A N \cong \text{Hom}_A (L, M\otimes_A N)$$
as $A$-modules?
(Note that there is a ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Visualizing functions with a number of independant variables

I need to graph real valued functions ( for exposition and analysis)
the issue is the independent variables are more so that the conventional graphing method cant be used and further i don't want to ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### The Paley-Wiener theorem and exponential decay.

Consider a function whose Fourier transform is supported on a half-ray:
$$
A(t)=\int_0^\infty \omega(E) e^{-iEt}d E,
$$
where I can suppose $\omega(E)\geq 0$ and any suitable regularity conditions on $...

**3**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Minimizing the modulus of a polynomial around a circle

I'm probably missing something elementary here, but I guess the only way to be sure is to ask here.
Now, I have encountered a situation where given an nth-degree polynomial $p_n(z)$ with complex ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

494 views

### How can one “see” the Hopf fibration in the space of lattices in the plane?

This question is inspired from Etienne Ghys's talk on Knots and Dynamics from ICM 2006.
The map $L \mapsto (G_4(L), G_6(L))$ gives a bijection between all lattices $L\subset \mathbb{C}$ (including ...