**5**

votes

**1**answer

128 views

### Are there any unitary matrices which satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation which are universal for quantum computation?

Let $H$ be a finite dimensional hilbert space. Let $L:H\otimes H\rightarrow H\otimes H$ be a unitary transformation. Then the equation
$$(L\otimes I)(I\otimes L)(L\otimes I)=(I\otimes L)(L\otimes I)(I\...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

59 views

### Do the normal forms for braid groups really conceal information about better than randomly applying the braid relations?

In braid based cryptography, one typically wants to conceal the way a certain braid $b$ has been obtained. One therefore puts $b$ into some normal form. Since every braid has a unique normal form, the ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

126 views

### Inverting a function

I posted this question on crypto.SE but got no answer:
Let $w = a_0 \cdot a_1 \cdots a_{n-1} $ be a word from $ \{0,1\}^n $, $|w| = n$
Let $m = \sum_{i=0}^{n-1}{ a_i \cdot 2 ^ {n-1-i} } $ be the ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

273 views

### Breaking the RSA encryption based on a $(e,N)$ given an integer $w \neq 0$ such that $e^w = 1 \mod(N)$?

In his book 'Forcing with Random Variables and Proof Complexity' Jan Krajíček claims (p.154) that it is possible to break the RSA encryption with public key $(e,N)$ if one has has an integer $w \neq ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

208 views

### Finding cyclic subgroups of points on elliptic curves for isogeny based cryptography

Isogeny based cryptography is one of the newest post-quantum cryptography. Hardness of this system is based on finding isogeny between two elliptic curves. Also this is a theorem:
Elliptic curves ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

44 views

### Dual lattices up to a q scaling factor

In this paper : https://eprint.iacr.org/2011/501.pdf
There is an equality page 10, in the second paragraph considered by the authors as "easy to check". If someone could explain to me why the set at ...

**7**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Zero knowledge proof of equality

Alice and Bob each secretly chooses an integer between 1 and 10, a and b. They want to know (with high probability) whether or ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

68 views

### Algebraic operations with memory hardness properties

In cryptography, there are password hash functions like scrypt and argon2 for which the fastest known algorithms employ large ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Encrypting a message for multiple recipients

Let $m$ be a secret message that needs to be sent to $n >1$ recipients. Let each recipient $r_i$ have a public key $p_i$ and private key $s_i$. Is there a scheme such that we can encrypt the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

174 views

### Shortest vector problem over polynomials

In shortest vector problem, given a lattice in $\Bbb Z^n$, we seek the shortest non-zero vector in the lattice. This problem is computationally difficult.
Is there a polynomial analog of this problem ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

558 views

### Is hyperelliptic cryptography “practical”?

Previosly my impression on this subject was that hyperelliptic cryptography systems (as well as other possible cryptosystems based on abelian varieties of dimension $>1$) have no advantages over ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

131 views

### Combinations Question about the construction of some special sets [closed]

Let $n$ and $k$ be two given numbers. The goal is to choose $n$ subsets from $\{1,2,...,n\}$ such that the union of any $k$ of these subsets is the set $\{1,2,...,n\}$ and the union of any $m < k$ ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

43 views

### lower bound for solve ECDLP

Let $P$ and $Q$ are two points of NIST elliptic curve $E$ (defined over $F_{2^m}$ with prime $m$) and $k$ is a private key such that $k.P=Q$. Suppose $\ell$ be the number of bits in $k$, and let $k_i$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

63 views

### Reduced echelon form of sparce matrices and constructing hash function

Let $G$ be a $d$-regular graph, and $A$ be the incidence matrix of $G$. Also suppose $B$ is a reduced echelon form of $A$ such that computations are in $\mathbb F_2$. Given matrix $B$, can we find ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

71 views

### Optimal covering and CSPNG

Consider a function $f: \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}^{cn}$, where $c>1$.
A random $f$ with high probability generates optimal covering of $\{0,1\}^{cn}$,
i. e.:
$\forall x \in \{0,1\}^{cn}$ $\exists y \...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

131 views

### Does this modification of the General Number Field Sieve factor integers?

The General Number Field Sieve
factors composite $n$ basically this way.
Select homogeneous polynomials with integer coefficients $f(x,y),g(x,y)$
s.t. $f(x,1),g(x,1)$ have common root modulo $n$ but ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

136 views

### Equivalence between Diffie Hellman and Discrete Log

For which non-trivial groups, do we know that the Diffie Hellman problem and the Discrete Log are equivalent?
Is there any group for which we suspect them to be different?
Could there be a finite ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

148 views

### What should I read to prepare for research in Number Theoretic Cryptography? [closed]

I am not sure if this is the correct place to ask this, and if it is not the correct place, I would appreciate if you could direct me to where I could get this problem answered.
I have just begun my ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

42 views

### How much p-adic logarithm with precision 2 speeds discrete logarithm modulo $p^2$?

Let $p$ be large prime and $g$ generator of the multiplicative
group modulo $p^2$.
The discrete logarithm (DL) modulo $p^2$ asks : given $g,A,p$, find $x$
satisfying $g^x \equiv A \pmod{p^2}$.
...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

110 views

### Mestre-type algorithm for higher-genus curves?

Is there an analogous algorithm for genus $g>2$ curves that, given a complete set of invariants, outputs a curve with those invariants?
(I'm interested in particular in $g=3$.)
Any references ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

382 views

### “Most Similar Vector Problem” on an Integer Lattice?

I am currently working on problem that I think could be expressed as an integer lattice problem.
Given $u \in \mathbb{R}^n$ and a bounded integer lattice $L = \mathbb{Z}^n \cap [-M,M]^n$ I would like ...

**-4**

votes

**1**answer

133 views

### Elliptic Curve Multiplication [closed]

What would happen if I performed Elliptic Curve multiplication on some random point within the FiniteField that wasn't actually on the curve? I assume that I would get a point in return but would that ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

499 views

### “The Two Sheriffs” puzzle -2: threshold for security

I've already asked a question “The Two Sheriffs” puzzle with wrong assumption. Yoav Kallus in his amazing answer using Fano plane showed that the problem has a solution in the case of seven suspects.
...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

645 views

### Factorization when a factor is partially known

Let's say that I have a very large number of the order ($10^{250+}$) which is composite. I have been given one of its factor partially to a significant amount of digits (say 75+). Then, how can I ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

428 views

### A balls and urns model for a hashing problem

Fix $N \in \mathbb{N}$. Suppose we throw $N$ numbered balls into $N$ numbered urns, so that for each $b \in \{1,\ldots,N\}$, ball $b$ lands in urn $j$ with equal probability $1/N$. Choose a number $c \...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

175 views

### PRNG and coding theory

Let $k, n \in \mathbb{N}$, $k = (1 - \epsilon)n$ where $1 >\epsilon > 0$.
I want to find $f: \{0,1\}^k \to \{0, 1\}^n$
such that:
1) $f(a) \not= f(b)$ if $a \not=b $
2) for any $x \in \{0,1\}...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

100 views

### Future-Proof Encrypt for Multiple Independent Parties

I have a secret message which I want to encrypt such that any of several different keys can open it independently. The keys can't know about each other and it has to be able to work completely ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Bitcoin Research

I have recently been assigned to advise a student on a senior thesis. She has taken linear algebra, introductory real analysis, and abstract algebra. Her interest is in cryptography. And she has a ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

64 views

### Showing that a crypto hash function is not permutation, possibly conditionally?

Let $f$ be some crypto hash function, say MD5 with output $n$ bits. Restrict the input to $n$ bits.
Cryptographer told me it is open problem if such restricted collision
exists, i.e. $f(x)=f(y),x \ne ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

129 views

### Is there a security analysis of the GQ digital signature scheme?

I'm doing summer cryptography research and I am have been looking for a security analysis of the Guillou-Quisquater (GQ) digital signature scheme, but I have been unable to find one.
Since this is ...

**23**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Securing privacy of “who communicates with whom” under Orwell-like conditions

Assume that there is a big and powerful country with an
information-greedy secret service which has backdoors to all internet nodes
throughout the world which permit him to observe all exchanged data ...

**16**

votes

**5**answers

643 views

### Mathematics of privacy?

I wonder to which extent the current public debate on privacy issues (not only by state sniffing, but e.g. by microtargetting ads too an issue) offers interesting questions in mathematics?
Can we ...

**14**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Zero-knowledge proof of positivity

If I have committed to a number x by revealing g^x mod p, can I prove that 0 < x mod (p-1) < (p-1)/2, i.e. that x is positive, without leaking any more information about x?
My bounty is ending ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

143 views

### DL-problem on abelian variety

Let $A$ be an abelian variety over $\mathbb{F_q}$ with dimension $n$. Let $q$ be a constant.
Is there polynomial algorithm of finding discrete logarithm in $A$?
UPD: really I don't undestend: can we ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

323 views

### Modular polynomials for elliptic curves point counting

The Schoof-Elkies-Atkin (SEA) algorithm (for counting points on elliptic curves over a finite field) performs computations over polynomials modulo some modular polynomials. Originally the "classical" ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

129 views

### Functional Encryption for Inner Product Predicates

I want to try to implement a functional encryption scheme proposed in http://eprint.iacr.org/2011/410. The first problem I faced with is a TrapGen algorithm. In the paper theorem 3.1 states that:
...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

243 views

### Polynomial dynamical systems

The question is somewhat related to the theory of permutation polynomials. Let $\mathbb{F}_p$ be a finite field of $p$ elements ($p$ is prime) and $\mathcal{V} = \mathbb{F}_p^2 = \{ (t_1,t_2)\::\: t_1,...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

114 views

### Connection between inf-entropy rate and min-entropy

I am reading the paper "Generating random bits from an arbitrary source: fundamental limits" by Vembu and Verdu. This paper is written in the language of information theory, however, I need to ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

243 views

### Canonical lifts from $\mathbb F_q$ and CM-theory

One knows that (ordinary) Jacobians of hyperelliptic curves over a finite field $\mathbb F_q$ (mostly of genus 1 (elliptic curves) and 2) are extensively studied by cryptographers, as a platform for ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

104 views

### Genus 2 hyperelliptic cryptography : typical discriminant and class number

As far as I know, there is no standard yet for cryptography based on the DLP over Jacobians of genus 2 curves. Yet, what can we say about the class number, and the discriminant of the complex ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

60 views

### Encrypting the same message using different schemes

$E_1$ and $E_2$ are IND-CPA secure encryption schemes.
$E$ is defined as:
$k_1,k_2 \leftarrow K_1 \times K_2$ .
$E_{k_1,k_2}(m) \leftarrow E_{1,k_1}(m)||E_{2,k_2}(m)$.
Hope the notations are in an ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

243 views

### Anomalous elliptic curves over finite rings

I was wondering if it is possible to solve the discrete logarithm on an Elliptic Curve E(Z/nZ) (defined over the ring of integers modulo a composite n) with #E(Z/nZ)=n by applying a method analogous ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

36 views

### largest size for a randomness extractor

I am not so expert in theoretical computer science, so sorry if the question is trivial, i just could not find it in literature.
Suppose we have a source $X$ with min-entropy $\ell$, the randomness ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

56 views

### Private Randomness extractor

Suppose we are given two random variables $X$ and $Y$ with fixed marginal and joint distribution. What is the maximum randomness that we can extract from $Y$ that is independent from $X$, that is, if $...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

344 views

### Is this obfuscation scheme unbreakable?

I've just come across this popular article about a breakthrough (which can be purchased here), published in Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), 2013 IEEE 54th Annual Symposium by a team of ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Whitening a random bit sequence

Given an (infinite) stream of uncorrelated random bit with a known "reasonable" bias (say 15-85% 1's) I want to whiten it, e.i. produce a shorter stream of bits that has no bias. The restriction is ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

700 views

### Pairing on elliptic curve

Let $E(\mathbb{F_q})$ - elliptic curve.
$G_1 = E(\mathbb{F_q})[r]$. $|G_1| = r$.
$k$ is minimal such $r | q^k - 1$.
$\pi_q$ - $q$-power Frobenius endomorphism.
$G_2 = E(\mathbb{F_{q^k}})[r] \cap ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

17k views

### Which hard mathematical problems do you have to solve to earn bitcoins ?

A virtual currency called bitcoins has been in the news recently. It is said that in order to "mine" bitcoins, you have to solve hard mathematical problems.
Now, there are two kinds of mathematical ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

648 views

### Predicting if something is a code

I'm trying to help a non-mathematical friend by posting a question of his here. He studies literature and has come across a book which is written in a made-up language. The book is hundreds of pages,...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

219 views

### Oracle separating FIP for bounded-depth Frege from FIP for Frege (and hardness conditions on DDH)

Is there an oracle such that in the relativized world, bd-Frege (bounded depth Frege propositional proof system) has FIP (feasible interpolation property) but Frege does not have FIP?
Such an oracle ...