**24**

votes

**0**answers

617 views

### A combination of two well-known complexity problems

Suppose you are given two graphs $G$ and $H$ and are told that one of the following two situations occurs. Either they are isomorphic, or one of the graphs contains a Hamilton cycle and the other ...

**18**

votes

**0**answers

546 views

### Reference request: Parallel processor theorem of William Thurston

Sometime in the 1980's or 1990's, Bill Thurston proved a theorem regarding the existence of a universal parallel processing machine, using a certain class for such machines having finite deterministic ...

**18**

votes

**0**answers

646 views

### Computational complexity of topological K-theory

I am a novice with K-theory trying to understand what is and what is not possible.
Given a finite simplicial complex $X$, there of course elementary ways to quickly compute the cohomology of $X$ with ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

135 views

### Complexity classes for BSS machines

Given a first-order structure $\mathcal{S}$, a Blum-Shub-Smale machine on $\mathcal{S}$ is essentially a Turing machine where
Cells on the tape can hold arbitrary elements of $\mathcal{S}$.
The ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

343 views

### Splay trees and Thompson's group $F$

( I apologize for only indicating some easy to find references, but new users are not allowed to link more than five). This is very speculative, but:
Question: Is there a reformulation of the Dynamic ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### How can an approach to $P$ vs $NP$ based on descriptive complexity avoid being a natural proof in the sense of Raborov-Rudich?

EDIT: This question has been modified to make it a stand-alone question. Feel free to retract your votes for the previous version.
Here are Vinay Deolalikar's paper, and Richard Lipton's first post ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Razborov's response to Almost Natural Proofs

This post is about Natural Proofs barrier in computational complexity.
There are two recent papers related to this. They are:
Amplifying lower bounds by means of self-reducibility by Eric Allender ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

745 views

### Primes and Parity

This problem is motivated by the polymath4 project. There, the aim was to find an efficient deterministic algorithm for finding a prime larger than $N$. The hope was to find a polynomial algorithm in ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

598 views

### Regular languages of matrices and their generating functions

My question is somewhat related to this question.
Let us fix natural numbers $k$ and $C$. Let $A$ be an automaton whose alphabet consists of $k\times k$ matrices with integer coefficients of ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Is Witten's new method of quantization useful for geometric complexity theory?

The Kempf-Ness theorem (see e.g. arXiv:0912.1132) - that the algebraic quotient of geometric invariant theory is also a symplectic quotient - suggests (to me) that certain physical constructions used ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

173 views

### Ricocheting pinball-like shot: Complexity?

Suppose one has $n$ perfect two-sided mirror segments in the plane $\mathbb{R}^2$.
The segments are open, excluding their endpoints.
They are disjoint as closed segments, i.e., no pair shares an ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

269 views

### Computing van Kampen diagrams

If G is a finitely presented group (with generating set X) and w is a word over X such that
w=1 in G, then the latter can be witnessed by a so called van Kampen diagram for w, which is
a planar ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

514 views

### Is the dominating set problem restricted to planar bipartite graphs of maximum degree 3 NP-complete?

Does anyone know about an NP-completeness result for the DOMINATING SET problem in graphs, restricted to the class of planar bipartite graphs of maximum degree 3?
I know it is NP-complete for the ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Weighted Hamming distance

Basically my question is, what kind of geometry do we get if we use a "weighted" Hamming distance. This is combinatorics but similar things come up sometimes in theoretical computer science, for ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

95 views

### Is there a ``Ladner's Theorem" for the PH-vs-PSPACE scenario?

Like a statement of the kind, ``If the Polynomial Hierarchy (PH) $\neq$ PSPACE then there exists $L \in PSPACE \backslash PH$ which is not PSPACE-complete"?
Or is there something else that states ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

163 views

### Is there an infinite increasing sequence of naturals for which Landau's function can be efficiently computed?

Landau's function
$g(n)$ is the largest order of an element of the symmetric group $S_n$.
Equivalently, $g(n)$ is the largest least common multiple (lcm) of any partition of $n$.
In general $g(n)$ is ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

195 views

### When is a reduction not a reduction?

Every mathematician understands the concept of reducing a complicated problem to a simpler problem. "Without loss of generality, we may assume…" However, I've noticed that some kinds of ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

355 views

### Is simultaneous diophantine approximation (in a weaker sense) NP hard?

The traditional problem of simultaneous diophantine approximation is: Given a set of rational numbers $g_1,\ldots,g_d$, an integer $N$, and a rational $\gamma>0$, is there an integer $W$ with ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

436 views

### Any reason to believe that $NP \neq P$ is unprovable in ZFC

We know $NP \neq P$ from a lot of point of view like empirical reason,or theoretical reasons such as finite model theory or descriptive complexity.Although we find so many reasons to believe $NP \neq ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

132 views

### An explicit IP algorithm for chess?

If I have 2 large graphs to be tested for isomorphism, and can communicate with some (powerfull but untrusted) machine, I can choose graph at random, permute vertices, ask machine to guess which one ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

97 views

### Can the isomorphism relation for countable models become harder when adding finitely many constants?

I am particularly interesting in the case where $T$ is o-minimal, but I would be interested in any theory $T$ (or even an $L_{\omega_1,\omega}$-sentence) which has this property.
Context: view the ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

289 views

### Is integer GCD in NC?

Wikipedia, in the page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greatest_common_divisor#Complexity mentions integer GCD is in NC by citing http://www.cs.cornell.edu/courses/CS6820/2012sp/Handouts/Sedjelmaci07.pdf
...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

292 views

### Enumerating (generalized) de Bruijn tori

Given a cyclic word $w$ of length $N$ over a $q$-ary alphabet and $k \in \mathbb{Z}_+$, consider the directed multigraph $G_k(w) = (V,E)$ with $V \subset$ {$1,\dots,q$}$^k$ given by the $k$-lets ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

128 views

### Is there a decomposition strengthening of the Sauer-Shelah Lemma?

Let $S \subset \{-1,1\}^n$. For a subset $A \subset [n]$ let $P_A$ denote the coordinate projection operator on S; in other words let $P_A(S)$ be the coordinate projection of $S$ onto the coordinates ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

130 views

### Is Hankelability NP-hard?

This question was previously asked on cstheory but with no answers or substantive comments.
I am trying to write code to detect if a matrix is a permutation of a Hankel matrix. Here is the spec.
...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

129 views

### Complexity of finding three perfect matchings with no edge in common in a bridgeless cubic graph

According to a conjecture:
Conjecture (Fan & Raspaud, 1994) Every bridgeless cubic graph contains three perfect matchings with no edge in common.
Equivalent statement here
Main question:
...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

186 views

### Feasible Type Theories

I am looking for references about efficient type theories,
efficiency in the sense of computational complexity,
and type theory in the sense of Martin-Lof's type theories.
Has there been any studies ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

115 views

### Are there sampNP-intermediate problems?

This questions is approximately cross-posted from theoretical computer science stackexchange
Ladner's theorem establishes that if $\mathsf{P} \ne \mathsf{NP}$ then $\mathsf{NPI} := \mathsf{NP} ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

60 views

### Complexity of approximating the size of the range of a matrix

Given an $m$ by $n$ matrix $M$ with $m \leq n$ and elements from $\{-1,1\}$, let us define:
$$S_M = |\{Mx : x \in \{-1,1\}^n\}.$$
It is NP-hard to compute $S_M$ exactly I believe by applying the ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

185 views

### Weighted Median Filtering

Let's begin with a little review of unweighted median filtering.
Suppose I have a list of $N$ real-valued numbers, $x=x_1,...,x_N$. Let $m_i$ be the median of $K$ consecutive values: $m_i=$ ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

43 views

### Digraph weak connectivity in $O(V)$ space and $O(V+E)$ time

A digraph is called weakly connected if its underlying undirected graph is connected.
You are given a digraph $G$ with $V$ vertices and $E$ edges as a read-only data structure consisting of lists of ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

208 views

### Is there a program for theory of incompleteness in NP?

Motivated by Suresh's post, Techniques for showing that problem is in hardness limbo, it seems that there might be an underlying theory that explains why some of these problems can not be complete for ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

173 views

### What is the complexity of intersecting two matrix algebras over a finite field?

The following question arose in a joint project with Arkadius Kalka and Adi Ben-Zvi.
Let $\mathbb{F}$ be a finite field, and $M_n(\mathbb{F})$ be the $n\times n$ matrices over $\mathbb{F}$.
For a ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

152 views

### What is known about the complexity of this covering problem?

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a graph. A vertex set $X\subseteq V$ is called critical if $X\neq\emptyset$ and no vertex in $V\setminus X$ is adjacent to exactly one vertex in $X$. The problem is to find a vertex ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

327 views

### About “natural proof” of Razborov and Rudich

The famous "Natural Proof" paper ,http://www.cs.umd.edu/~gasarch/BLOGPAPERS/natural.pdf , of Razborov and Rudich gives a barrier for any proof that try to separate P and NP. It mainly shows that if ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

531 views

### Computational complexity of multiplication in a nilpotent group?

What is the computational complexity of multiplication in a Carnot group ?
Background: A Carnot group is a real nilpotent Lie group $N$ whose Lie algebra $Lie(N)$ admits a direct sum decomposition
...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

162 views

### Best lower bound for proof complexity of graph asymmetry

Graph automorphism problem ( GA) of determining whether a graph has a nontrivial automorphism is a good candidate for a problem in $NP$-intermediate. I'm looking for references that study the ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

176 views

### Suppose P = BPP; Pseudorandom Generators vs NP Adversary

Suppose P = BPP.
Then we know there exist pseudorandom number generators vs P.
Suppose the adversary is NP.
Now, any pseudorandom number generator that only uses P will fail. (Since NP can invert ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

221 views

### Domination in Nice Lattices

Let an integer vector be nice when it has only two nonzero components, which sum to zero. So (0, 0, 3, 0, -3) and (-1, 0, 1, 0, 0) are examples of nice vectors in $n=5$ dimensions.
Call a lattice ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

310 views

### Can the Littlewood-Richardson cone be used for combinatorial optimization?

The Littlewood-Richardson cone $LR_{n, k}$ consists of all $k-$tuples $(a_1, a_2, \dots, a_k)$ of real $n-$vectors with monotonically decreasing entries such that there exist $k$ $n \times ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

163 views

### Derandomization barriers in complexity theory applicable as barriers to constructive arguments replacing probabilistic method

The probabilistic method as first pioneered by Erdős (although others used this before) shows existence of a certain object while finding that object may take exponential time.
(1) Is there any ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

52 views

### Existence of universal witness set and efficient sampling of coNP sets

Inspired by this answer given by Noam, which (I think) implies that a set $A \in NP$ if and only if there is polynomial-time computable function $f$ from random strings to elements of $A$ such that ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

227 views

### A factorial related statement

Is the following promise problem in $\mathsf{NP}$ or $\mathsf{coNP}$ or even in $\mathsf{PH}$?
$$\Pi:\mathsf{Given}\mbox{ }p,a,s\in\Bbb N,\mbox{ }\mathsf{with}\mbox{ }p\mbox{ }\mathsf{a}\mbox{ ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

105 views

### Oracle queries asked in parallel

Definition: Assume that $\phi(q)$ is of the form $\exists y \leq 2^{p(n)} \varphi(q,y)$, where $p$ is a polynomial and $n = |q|$ (i.e. $n$ is the length of the binary representation of $q$). Then a ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

229 views

### Possible $\mathsf{NP}$ complete problem from number theory

A candidate $\mathsf{NP}$ complete variant of factoring was posted in http://cstheory.stackexchange.com/questions/4769/an-np-complete-variant-of-factoring, where decision problem ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

49 views

### $n!$ computation in $\mathsf{BSS}$ model

It is well known that if $n!$ cannot be computed in $\mathsf{polylog}(n)$ ring ($\Bbb Z$) operations, then $\mathsf P\neq\mathsf{NP}$ in $\mathsf{BSS}$ model.
Suppose if we assume $\mathsf ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

150 views

### Polynomial-time algorithm solving approximately a generalization of the travelling salesman problem

Take a graph $G$ and a number of sets of nodes of $G$. The problem is to find the shortest path passing through at least one node in each node set. If each node set consists of only one node, the ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

73 views

### Are all $k$th-longest-tour problems equally hard?

It is well known, that determining the shortest and, the longest Hamilton Cycle of a complete graph with real edge weights are algorithmically two sides of the same medal: one transforms to the other ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

118 views

### On the computational complexity of the Hilbert polynomial of numerical semigroup rings

Let $(R, \mathfrak{m}) = k[[X^a, X^b, X^c]]$, $a<b<c$, $gcd(a, b, c) = 1$, be a semigroup ring. We have $R$ is a Cohen-Macaulay local ring of dimension one. It is well known that ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

159 views

### Complexity of counting words of given length in regular or context-free language

Let $L$ be a regular or context-free language over
alphabet $\{0,1\}$.
What is the complexity of counting words of length $n$ in $L$?
Is it possible to efficiently find if for given $n$
all words ...