Tagged Questions

computational complexity theory; complexity classes, such as P, NP, PSPACE, and so on; resource-limited computation; NP-completeness and other completeness concepts; oracle analogues of complexity classes; complexity-theoretic computational models such as automata, circuits; regular languages; ...

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6
votes
1answer
254 views

Best ranking in tournament: polynomial time algorithm?

This question was posed by my colleague Torbjörn Lundh in his paper Which Ball is the Roundest? A Suggested Tournament Stability Index, Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports 2(3), 2006. We have ...
2
votes
0answers
92 views

What are natural examples of non-relativizable proofs? [duplicate]

As I understand it, a proof that P=NP or P≠NP would need to be non-relativizable (as in recursion theory oracles). Virtually all proofs seem to be relativizable, though. What are good examples of ...
12
votes
2answers
518 views

Faster multiplication with a restricted set of multiplicands?

Let $A$ be a set of $k>1$ distinct elements from a semigroup. We wish to compute the product $$ p=b_1 b_2 \cdots b_n$$ where each $b_i\in A$. Clearly $n-1$ multiplications suffice to compute $p$; ...
10
votes
1answer
285 views

Harvey Friedman's strict reverse mathematics vs. Cook-Nguyen's V$^0$

Harvey Friedman posted several manuscripts [1] proposing a program for "strict" reverse mathematics, in the sense that the base theory should be mathematically natural and coding-free. In them he ...
5
votes
1answer
289 views

Subsets of all Diophantine's sets

I have asked this question on math.stackexchange already: http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/627461/subsets-of-all-diophantines-sets Function $\mathbb{N}^k \to \mathbb{N}^m$ is computable ...
2
votes
1answer
136 views

Computation complexity of calculating the cdf of an n-th dimensional gaussian random vector

Suppose you have a general $n$-th dimensional random Gaussian vector with probability distribution function $\mathcal{N}\left(\mathbf{x}|\boldsymbol{\mu},\boldsymbol{\Sigma}\right)$. What is the ...
3
votes
3answers
443 views

Can you efficiently solve a system of quadratic multivariate polynomials?

Given a system of 2nd-degree polynomials, $P=\{p_1,\dots,p_m\}$ where $p_i: \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, can you efficiently find a common zero of all of these polynomials? In other words, ...
2
votes
0answers
112 views

Reference Request: Properties of the Integer Factorization Polytope

The complexity of Integer Factorization is to my knowledge still an open problem, whereas deciding, whether a given integer is a prime number is known to be in $P$ and a proof is available online ...
9
votes
5answers
829 views

Examples of ubiquitous objects that are hard to find?

I've been wrestling with a certain research problem for a few years now, and I wonder if it's an instance of a more general problem with other important instances. I'll first describe a general ...
24
votes
10answers
2k views

Can We Decide Whether Small Computer Programs Halt?

The undecidability of the halting problem states that there is no general procedure for deciding whether an arbitrary sufficiently complex computer program will halt or not. Are there some large $n$ ...
2
votes
0answers
217 views

cyclotomic polynomials of given degree

Is there a fast algorithm to generate all cyclotomic polynomials $\Phi_n$ for which the degree of $\Phi_n$ is a fixed constant $d?$ This is obviously related to the "inverse totient" function: compute ...
6
votes
0answers
119 views

An explicit IP algorithm for chess?

If I have 2 large graphs to be tested for isomorphism, and can communicate with some (powerfull but untrusted) machine, I can choose graph at random, permute vertices, ask machine to guess which one ...
1
vote
1answer
156 views

Graph classes where Hamiltonian Cycle and Hamiltonian Path problems have different complexity

While searching The information System on Graph Classes and their Inclusions, I stumbled on several graph classes for which the Hamiltonian Cycle problem is $NP$-complete while the complexity of ...
0
votes
1answer
209 views

When is a power of an indeterminate in an ideal with 2 generators?

If I have an ideal ${\frak a} \colon= (f(X,S), g(X,S))$ of height $2$ in ${\Bbb C}[X, S]$, is it easy to know what power of $S$ is contained in $\frak a$? For example, what is the minimal number $m$? ...
5
votes
0answers
113 views

Complexity of finding three perfect matchings with no edge in common in a bridgeless cubic graph

According to a conjecture: Conjecture (Fan & Raspaud, 1994) Every bridgeless cubic graph contains three perfect matchings with no edge in common. Equivalent statement here Main question: ...
4
votes
0answers
243 views

About “natural proof” of Razborov and Rudich

The famous "Natural Proof" paper ,http://www.cs.umd.edu/~gasarch/BLOGPAPERS/natural.pdf , ‎of Razborov and Rudich gives a barrier for any proof that try to separate P and NP. It mainly shows that if ...
2
votes
0answers
134 views

Odds of projections of a point not on the hyperplane

Let $\mathcal{L}=\{\Bbb x\in\Bbb R^n:x_1+x_2+\dots+x_n=0\}$ be a specific hyperplane. Let a projection of $c\in\Bbb R^n$ be $p(c)=[p_1,p_2,\dots,p_n]$ where $p_i\neq c_i\implies p_i=0$. Let ...
3
votes
2answers
263 views

Efficient representations of natural numbers via arithmetical expressions

A given natural number $n \in \mathbb{N}$ has many representations as expressions mixing other natural numbers and the operators and punctuation symbols $\{+,-,\times,/,\exp,(,)\}$, where '$\exp$' ...
3
votes
1answer
181 views

Minimum distance between Hamiltonian cycles in cubic Hamiltonian graph

It is $NP$-hard to find constant factor approximation of longest cycle in cubic Hamiltonian graphs. Therefore, finding a Hamiltonian cycle in a cubic Hamiltonian graph is NP-hard. By Smith's theorem, ...
1
vote
0answers
165 views

How to prove the NP-hardness of this scheduling problem? [closed]

Suppose there are a set of $m$ jobs $J= \{J_1, J_2, \ldots, J_m\}$ and $n$ machines $M=\{M_1, M_2, \ldots, M_n\}$. Each job $J_i$ consists of $k_i$ unit operations, and there are totally K operations ...
1
vote
1answer
209 views

Does this algorithm terminate in all scenarios?

Let $x \in \mathbb{R}^p$ denote a $p$-dimensional data point (a vector). I have two sets $A = \{x_1, \dots, x_n\}$ and $B = \{x_{n+1}, \dots, x_{n+m}\}$, so $|A| = n$, and $|B| = m$. Given $k \in ...
4
votes
0answers
158 views

Nesting big-O with big-Omega $O(g(\Omega(h(n))))$: is it $O$ for all $\Omega$ or for one $\Omega$?

I want to express the following statement about a function $f(n)$: there exists $f_\Omega\in\Omega(h(n))$ such that $f\in O(g(f_\Omega(n))$. What's the correct notation for this? Is it $f\in ...
17
votes
2answers
814 views

Deep theorems and long proofs

I ran across this discussion by Daniel Shanks, "Is the quadratic reciprocity law a deep theorem?." Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory. Vol. 297. AMS, 2001. p.64ff. which made me ...
3
votes
1answer
204 views

Are there any efficient (polynomial time) algorithms for finding if a multivariate quadratic polynomial has a root?

I know that in general, polynomial satisfiability is NP; however, I'm curious to know what work has been done on special classes of polynomials, and in particular quadratic polynomials of multiple ...
-3
votes
1answer
98 views

“logical distance” link algorithmic complexity to statistical information [closed]

Someone mentioned what I think was referred to as 'logical distance'. My hard drive crashed and I dont have the link anymore. I do recall that I ran across it on this site, in response to linking ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Dimension independent computational complexity of singular value decomposition

Suppose $X$ is a $m \times n$ real matrix, which has only $k$ number of nonzero elements ($k \ll mn$). Given a vector $y$, the sparsity of $X$ allows $X y$ to be computed in $O(k)$ time which is ...
8
votes
0answers
200 views

Computing van Kampen diagrams

If G is a finitely presented group (with generating set X) and w is a word over X such that w=1 in G, then the latter can be witnessed by a so called van Kampen diagram for w, which is a planar ...
6
votes
4answers
505 views

How long does it take to compute a class number?

I was wondering if there are any known (upper and lower) bounds for the complexity of computing the class-number of a finite extension of the rationals. (A general bound should be in function of the ...
10
votes
2answers
456 views

How hard (P, NP, NP-hard) is it to compute Schur norms of matrices (as multipliers)?

Given a matrix $A\in M_n(\mathbb{C})$, I will denote by $||A||_\infty$ the operator norm of $A$, as seen acting on the Hilbert space $\mathbb{C}^n$. This makes $M_n(\mathbb{C})$ into a Banach space ...
3
votes
2answers
210 views

Complexity of a problem remotely related to the discrete logarithm $A=x g^x$

Let $x,g \in \mathbb{F}_p^\ast$. Given $g$ and either $$ A = x g^ x$$ or $$ A = x g^{x^2-1}$$ find $x$. What is the complexity of solving this? Is there a reduction to the discrete ...
4
votes
2answers
392 views

Simplified knapsack problem

There is a problem that I can not solve. Given a set of items (each item has some integer weight) we have to fill bag with some number of copies of these items, with the only restriction that the ...
3
votes
1answer
167 views

Hamiltonian circuit

Let us consider a disk with one labelled point on the boundary and $n$ labelled points in the interior. Let T be a triangulation of the whole disk with vertices on the labelled points such that T ...
0
votes
1answer
343 views

Proof of the lower bounds of time of algorithm working [closed]

I have asked this question on math.stackexchange already: http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/515920/lower-bounds-on-the-running-time There are some problems, when there is non-trivial lower ...
1
vote
1answer
142 views

How to prove the NP-hardness of this set covering problem

In the Set Covering problem, we are given a ground set $U$ and a collection $S$ of subsets of $U$, where each subset is associated with a non-negative cost, the Set Cover problem asks to find a ...
3
votes
2answers
267 views

Is There An Algorithmic Complexity Of A Random Distribution

Has anyone studied an equivalent to algorithmic complexity for probability distributions? This would be a measure which was similar to Kolmogorov complexity but look at the complexity of a (discreet ...
1
vote
1answer
546 views

The smallest altitude amongst the triangles formed by points in the unit circle

Let $S$ be a finite set of points inside the unit circle. Consider all possible triangles formed by three distinct points in $S$, and among all such triangles find the smallest altitude. Denote this ...
0
votes
0answers
69 views

maximum weight k-edge problem

Given positive integer $k$ and an undirected graph $(V,E)$, with nonnegative (non-uniform) weights on the nodes. Find $k$ edges whose spanning nodes have the maximum weight. Is this in P or NP? I ...
5
votes
2answers
420 views

A simple language and systematic computations

The following somewhat popular simple computer language was enjoyed on sci.math, sci.math.research, pl.sci.matematyka, and perhaps before and after at several places (I wish I knew it's exact ...
2
votes
1answer
164 views

For interior point methods of linear programming, what is the “L” in the computational complexity $\mathcal{O}(n^3 L)$?

My question is about interior point methods of linear programming. Suppose the constraint matrix $A$ has $m$ rows and $n$ columns, and $m<n$. The state-of-the-art methods, like primal dual interior ...
5
votes
5answers
341 views

Efficient Hamiltonian cycle algorithms for graph classes

Generally speaking finding a Hamiltonian cycle is NP-Hard and so tough. But if $G=L(H)$ is the line graph of $G$ then we can reduce the finding of a Hamiltonian cycle in $G$ to a Eurler your of $H$ ...
4
votes
1answer
155 views

NP-hardness of sparsest cut

Consider bipartitioning the vertices of a graph $(V,E)$ into $V = P \cup Q$ to minimize $$\frac{|E(P,Q)|}{|P| |Q|},$$ where $E(P,Q)$ denotes the set of edges in the cut. The usual citation for ...
1
vote
0answers
89 views

Indecomposability of image transformations (pure algebra). Open questions

W-transformations -- definitions We will consider a class called finite window transformations $\ T:C^\mathbb Z\rightarrow C^\mathbb Z\ $ defined a paragraph below; $\ \mathbb Z\ $ is the ring of ...
4
votes
1answer
317 views

The relationship between P vs NP problem and “Kolmogorov complexity with time”

Let $P$ - polynomial($P(x) \ge x$), $n \in \mathbb{N}$, $l < log(n)$. Problem1: "Is there program with length $\le l$ that print $n$ by using $\le P(log(n))$ time?" Is it Problem1 $\in ...
13
votes
1answer
436 views

How fast can we numerically calculate Kloosterman sums?

Define the usual Kloosterman sum by $$S(m,n;c) = \sum_{\substack{x \pmod{c} \\ (x,c) = 1}} e\Big(\frac{mx + n\overline{x}}{c}\Big),$$ where $x \overline{x} \equiv 1 \pmod{c}$, and $e(x) = e^{2 \pi i ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

Complexity of numerically solving systems over the reals

Basically I am interested in What is the complexity of numerically solving systems over $\mathbb{R}$? By solving I mean finding at least one numeric solution with given precision. Probably the ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

A criterion or algorithm for polynomial which admits Markov partition on its Julia set

For a given polynomials $P(z)$, whether there exists general algorithm to check it admits a Markov partition on its Julia sets. (in finite computation time.) May be it is more difficult for the ...
10
votes
2answers
385 views

What Turing-Complete models of computation carry a notion of time complexity that “agrees” with that of Turing Machines?

Certain models of computation are technically Turing-Complete, but cannot feasibly simulate a Turing Machine within the usual time constraints we hope for. One example of this is Godel's recursive ...
1
vote
3answers
146 views

unbounded complexity

If a language L is decidable, does that imply that the is a computable function f such that L is in O(f(n)) ? For example what would be the complexity class of the language of "provably halting ...
5
votes
0answers
86 views

Can the isomorphism relation for countable models become harder when adding finitely many constants?

I am particularly interesting in the case where $T$ is o-minimal, but I would be interested in any theory $T$ (or even an $L_{\omega_1,\omega}$-sentence) which has this property. Context: view the ...
1
vote
0answers
111 views

Row subset selection of matrix to optimize condition number

Given a matrix $\mathbf{A} \in \mathbb{C}^{N\times M}$ with $N \gg M$. This matrix results from a linear equation system and has a certain structure (however, I do not think that details provide any ...