# Tagged Questions

computational complexity theory; complexity classes, such as P, NP, PSPACE, and so on; resource-limited computation; NP-completeness and other completeness concepts; oracle analogues of complexity classes; complexity-theoretic computational models such as automata, circuits; regular languages; ...

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### $0/1$ programming multiple quadratic constraints

If we have an $n$-variable rank $n$-linear system it is clear we can find whether there exists a $0/1$ solution in polynomial time. If we have an $n$-variable degree $2$ system how many constraints ...
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### Complexity of OBDD isomorphism (representing same function after permutation of variables)?

According to wikipedia Ordered Binary Decision Diagarams (OBDD) are a data structure that is used to represent a Boolean function. OBDD is a DAG with two sinks $0,1$. The size of the BDD is number ...
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### Can we solve Hamiltonian Path problem for biconnected planar graphs in linear time?

Assume that we have a bi-connected planar graph $G$ with $\Delta(G)>3$, and we want to find a Hamiltonian Path in $G$. As we know the st-order of a bi-connected planar graph can be computed in ...
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### Derandomization barriers in complexity theory applicable as barriers to constructive arguments replacing probabilistic method

The probabilistic method as first pioneered by Erdős (although others used this before) shows existence of a certain object while finding that object may take exponential time. (1) Is there any ...
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### Claimed Quadrature Results seem Impossible

We've been preparing a preprint that shows that the convergence bounds proved for tanh-sinh quadrature for numerical integration, cannot possibly hold, and an error must exist - since they imply a P ...
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### Complexity of linear solvers vs matrix inversion

Solving linear equations can be reduced to a matrix-inversion problem, implying that the time complexity of the former problem is not greater than the time complexity of the latter. Conversely, given ...
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### On Knot Equivalence problem statement

How is the knot equivalence problem represented? By this I mean I am looking for an analogy that compares with graph equivalence. For graph equivalence, we have two graphs $G_1$ and $G_2$ with ...
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### Is it possible to make an algorithm that could predict the likelihood that a program will halt?

Today I began to read about computability theory. I do not even have an elementary understanding of the topic but it certainly got me thinking. I know there is there is no 'one-for-all' algorithm that ...
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### Complexity of $\mathsf{gcd}(a,b)\bmod N$

Given $a,b\in\Bbb N$ where each $a,b$ is $n$-bits, we can compute $\mathsf{gcd}(a,b)$ in $cn^{1+\epsilon}$ bit operations for some fixed $c\geq1$. My query is given $N,a,b$ where $a,b$ is $n$-bits ...
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### Complexity theory and closed form formulas in analysis

My question concerns definitions of "closed form" solutions. In hamiltonian systems this is closely related to complete integrability. In this context closed form can refers to having $(q(t),p(t))$ ...
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### Time Hierarchy Theorem and P vs NP

One obvious strategy for proving P not equal to NP would be to show that there is some problem in NP which is hard for a time class strictly containing P (the origin of this question is the recent ...
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### What are the implications of the new quasi-polynomial time solution for the Graph Isomorphism problem?

This week, news came out that Laszlo Babai has found a quasi-polynomial time algorithm to solve the Graph Isomorphism problem (that is: $O(\exp(polylog(n)))$). He is giving a series of talks this week,...
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### Effectively non-recursiveness of some sets

A set $A$ is completely productive if there exists a computable function $f$ such that for every $e$, $f(e)\in (A-W_e)\cup (W_e-A)$‎. ‎A set is effectively non-recursive if it is r.e‎. ‎and its ...
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### What is the fastest way to sort numbers lexicographically?

I have $N$ sequences of numbers. None of them is longer than $10^6$. I want to sort those sequences lexicographically. For example, given sequences {1, 2, 4}, {1, 2, 3}, {2, 5, 7}, {2}, I want to have ...
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### Probability two random intervals overlap

I'm working on an algorithm for orthogonal line intersection detection and am trying to analyze some things about it. For simplicity, we can consider the problem as follows: Given N randomly ...
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### Understanding Corollary 3, Sec. 5.6, of Papadimitriou's Computational Complexity

I am struggling to understand Corollary 3 from Section 5.6 of Papadimitriou's Complexity Theory book (Addison-Wesley, 1993). It got me completely confused... If anyone out there has read it and ...
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### Most computationally efficient Littlewood-Richardson rule

There are many, many different versions of the Littlewood-Richardson rule: the original characterization via Yamanouchi words, Remmel's version, a description via the Poirier-Reutenauer bialgebra, the ...
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### Efficient recognition of sequences sortable by transpositions?

While reading the post, Probability of generating a desired permutation by random swaps, by Aaronson, I got interested in this sorting problem: Input: a sequence $A$ of $2N$ positive integers. ...
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### Reference request: Parallel processor theorem of William Thurston

Sometime in the 1980's or 1990's, Bill Thurston proved a theorem regarding the existence of a universal parallel processing machine, using a certain class for such machines having finite deterministic ...
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### Oracle queries asked in parallel

Definition: Assume that $\phi(q)$ is of the form $\exists y \leq 2^{p(n)} \varphi(q,y)$, where $p$ is a polynomial and $n = |q|$ (i.e. $n$ is the length of the binary representation of $q$). Then a ...
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### Relation between indexed languages (OI-macro or context-free tree) and scattered context languages

I'm not sure about the relation between indexed languages (generated by indexed grammars--Aho) and scattered context languages (generated by scattered context grammars--J Hopcroft). I think that ...
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### Complexity of sparse matrix-vector multiplication?

I have a vector $\mathbf{x}$ of size $m\cdot n$ of zeros and ones, i.e., $\mathbf{x}\in\{0,1\}^{m\cdot n}$ and a matrix $\mathbf{A}$ of size $\left(m\cdot n+m+n+1\right)\times\left(m\cdot n\right)$ of ...
I am interested in the complexity of edge coloring graphs with $\Delta(G) > |V(G)|/3$. This is closely related to the Overfull conjecture (OC). Conjecture/Question: If a simple graph G with n ...