# Tagged Questions

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### A certain instance of the Set Covering problem

Is there any useful structure associated with the following instance of the Set Covering problem? Let $G$ be a weighted graph and let $\mathcal{P}$ denote the set of all shortest paths between all ...
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### Practical use of probability amplification for randomized algorithms

Normally a 2-sided error randomized algorithm will have some constant error $\varepsilon < 1/2$. We know that we can replace the error term for any inverse polynomial. And the inverse polynomial ...
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### Complete problems for randomized complexity classes

It is believed that $BPP$ has no complete problems. Even for $BPP^O$ for a suitable oracle $O$ it is believed not to have complete problems, unless P=BPP. I wonder if the class MA (the randomized ...
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### Minimizing quadratic form over permutations

Let $Q$ be an $n \times n$ real symmetric matrix and $x$ an $n \times 1$ real vector. Consider the following minimization problem: $\min_{\pi \in S_n} ~(\pi x)^{\rm T} Q (\pi x)$, where $S_n$ ...
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### Structure theorems for Turing-decidable languages?

Languages decidable by weak models of computation often have certain necessary characteristics, e.g. the pumping lemma for regular languages or the pumping lemma for context-free languages. Such ...
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### What is the relationship between “translation” and time complexity?

Consider the problem of deciding a language $L$; for concreteness, say that this is the graph isomorphism problem. That is, $L$ consists of pairs of graphs $(G, H)$ such that $G\simeq H$. Now the ...
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### Problems known to be in both NP and coNP, but not known to be in P

One such problem I know is integer factorization. What are other interesting cases?
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### Indexing schemes of binary sequences

I am looking for "low-complexity" indexing methods to enumerate binary sequences of a given length and a given weight. Formally, let $T_k^n = \{x_1^n \in \{0,1\}^n: \sum_{i=1}^n x_i = k\}$. How to ...
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### What is the shortest program for which halting is unknown?

In short, my question is: What is the shortest computer program for which it is not known whether or not the program halts? Of course, this depends on the description language; I also have the ...
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### How long are the certificates produced by the Zeilberger and WZ methods for solving combinatorial sums (A=B)?

In the book "A = B" by Petkovesk, Wilf, and Zeilberger, (downloadable here), the authors provide several algorithmic methods for finding closed forms or recurrences for sums involving e.g. binomial ...