**24**

votes

**0**answers

891 views

### Godel on recursion-theoretic hierarchies

At the end of his excellent article, "The Emergence of Descriptive Set Theory" (http://math.bu.edu/people/aki/2.pdf), Kanamori writes:
"Another mathematical eternal return: Toward the end of his ...

**22**

votes

**0**answers

673 views

### On certain representations of algebraic numbers in terms of trigonometric functions

Let's say that a real number has a simple trigonometric representation, if it can be represented as a product of zero or more rational powers of positive integers and zero or more (positive or ...

**15**

votes

**0**answers

612 views

### Groups generated by 3 involutions

Let $r(m)$ denote the residue class $r+m\mathbb{Z}$, where $0 \leq r < m$.
Given disjoint residue classes $r_1(m_1)$ and $r_2(m_2)$, let the class transposition
$\tau_{r_1(m_1),r_2(m_2)}$ be the ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

582 views

### Minimal resources for Undecidability of First-Order Logic: the number of variables

It is well-known that First-Order Logic (FO) with a full vocabulary (i.e., a countable numbers of unary predicate symbols, a countable number of binary predicate symbols, etc.) is undecidable. And it ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

272 views

### The topos for forcing in computability theory

My understanding is that forcing (such as Cohen forcing) can be described via a topos. For example this nlab article on forcing describes forcing as a "the topos of sheaves on a suitable site."
My ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

327 views

### Do all linear orders in this class have computable copies?

This is a question which has been bothering me now for quite some time. I've talked to a number of people about it, and we've shown that a few basic ideas can't work, but other than that haven't made ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

345 views

### Decidability of $x^3+y^3+z^3 = c$

I wondering if it is known whether the following problem is algorithmically decidable or undecidable by Turing machines: given an integer c, determine if there are integers $(x,y,z)$ such that ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

153 views

### Savings property: A transformation which turns nonnegative martingales into uniformly integrable ones

Background
I work in a subfield of computability theory called algorithmic randomness. We have been using martingales as long as probability theory (going back to work of von Mises). However, since ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

480 views

### Diagonal lemma from recursion theorem?

Does Gödel's diagonal lemma follow from Kleene's recursion theorem? I believe the converse is true, by an argument like the following.
Let e ↦ θe be a bijection between ω and ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

306 views

### Automorphism group of the Turing degrees

It is conjectured that the automorphism group of the Turing degrees, $Aut(\mathcal{D})$, is trivial. However, to the best of my knowledge, the current state-of-the-art is that $Aut(\mathcal{D})$ is ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

222 views

### Infinite time game of life

Today in a talk with a friend of mine I had an idea of extending cellular automatons to transfinite working time. I know it has already been considered, but, as far as I can tell, GoL extended to ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

358 views

### “Hard” separation results in reverse mathematics (or similar)

This is a fairly broad question. In particular, I specify 5 questions (Q1, Q2.1, Q2.2, Q3, Q4) which for me all fall under one umbrella. Since this is unreasonably broad, I'm really interested in an ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

299 views

### Various definitions of recursion from ordinal machines

Background: I'm trying to get an intuitive understanding of α-recursion and related concepts in higher recursion theory. Once nice book is Peter Hinman's Recursion-Theoretic Hierarchies, available ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

175 views

### $\alpha$-minimal degrees for singular $\alpha$

An important question in $\alpha$-recursion theory is whether there is a minimal $\alpha$-degree at $\alpha=\aleph_\omega.$
Question 1. Who first introduced the above question, and where can I find ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

180 views

### $\omega$-models of $\mathbf{\Sigma^1_1}-DC$ and $\mathbf{\Delta^1_1}-CA$

So what is needed to demonstrate something (say like $L_{\omega_1^{CK}}[a]$ is a $\omega$-models of $\mathbf{\Sigma^1_1}$-$DC$ or $\mathbf{\Delta^1_1}$-$CA$? It's not like I don't understand what the ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

67 views

### TCAs (total combinatory algebras) with oracles

Is there a natural, non-trivial example of a TCA (total combinatory algebra, cf. pca) with a natural notion of an oracle?

**4**

votes

**0**answers

63 views

### Undecidability of the existential theory

Do you know if I can find the proof that the existential theory of $\mathbb{Z}$ with the structure of addition , divisibility and the relation $(\exists s \in \mathbb{Z})m=np^s$ is undecidable, ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

170 views

### Recursively Pointed Sacks Forcing and Preserving $\omega_1$

Let $\mathbb{P}$ denote recursively pointed Sacks forcing. This is forcing with recursively pointed perfect trees ordered by inclusion. A tree $T \subseteq {}^{<\omega}2$ is recursively pointed if ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

90 views

### Upper bound on ranks of well-founded trees in $SKI\Omega$ calculus

All ideas explained below are due to A.P.Goucher, and defined here.
First of all, $SKI\Omega$ calculus is an extension of standard SKI calculus, with additional type of combinator, called oracle ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

94 views

### Stabilization of recursive approximation in $PA^-+I\Sigma_1^0$

Over any model M of $PA^-+I\Sigma_1^0$. Suppose $A\in [T]$ where $T$ is a $\Delta_2^0$-tree and $A$ is one isolated path. Further, $A$ is regular, i.e. $\forall n A\upharpoonright n$ has a code in ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

307 views

### About “natural proof” of Razborov and Rudich

The famous "Natural Proof" paper ,http://www.cs.umd.edu/~gasarch/BLOGPAPERS/natural.pdf , of Razborov and Rudich gives a barrier for any proof that try to separate P and NP. It mainly shows that if ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

295 views

### Difference between lambda-calculus with well-formed formulas vs properly-formed formulas

In S.C. Kleene's 1935 paper "$\lambda$-definability and recursiveness," he proves that all $\lambda$-definable functions are general recursive in the Herbrand-Godel sense and vice-versa. However, the ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

117 views

### What is the relation between the length of period of simple continued fraction expansion of quadratic algebraic numbers $\sqrt{A}$ and the integer $A$

What is the relation between the length of period of simple continued fraction expansion of quadratic algebraic numbers and the integer
As we know,$\sqrt{2} = [1;2,2,2,2,…]$; while $\sqrt{14}= ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

92 views

### Weak classes of diophantine functions

From a well-known work(s) by Putnam, Davis, Robinson and Matiyasevich, we know that every partially recursive function is diophantine.
Now it seems a natural question to ask: can we say something ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

162 views

### Alternate proof of van de Wiele's theorem in E-recursion

Hello, all
I'm currently trying to understand $E$-recursion theory, which is a generalization of classical recursion theory to arbitrary sets. One of the difficulties I'm having with understanding ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

101 views

### Is a parametric family which is universally consistent for multiple quantiles impossible?

Suppose I am dead-set on using Bayesian inference on independent and identically distributed data, but I'm lazy and insist on using a parametric likelihood function come what may. I'd be reassured to ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

111 views

### Inverse Ackermann Function

The inverse Ackermann function is defined over the natural numbers as follows: ($[x]$ means that we round up x to the nearest integer, while $\log^*$ is the iterated log function discussed here: ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

123 views

### Equivalence of LOOP (primitive recursive functions) and of SRL (reversible transformations) programs

This is a question about the decidability of program equivalence.
Primitive recursive functions correspond exactly to the functions
that can be implemented on a specific register machine usually
...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

140 views

### Reference for original paper (but translated to English) of Matiyasevich's proof of Fibonacci relation being Diophantine?

Hello. I am a maths undergraduate. I am doing a project about history of mathematics. I am looking for the original solution to Hilbert's 10th problem, or at least the theorems that is accessible to ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

226 views

### A polytime feasible subuniverse of the Effective Topos

The effective topos is a well known universe of sets suitable for abstract computability, as it is build "from the ground up" via the classical notion of realisability by Kleene.
I have found a few ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

98 views

### Oracle queries asked in parallel

Definition: Assume that $\phi(q)$ is of the form $\exists y \leq 2^{p(n)} \varphi(q,y)$, where $p$ is a polynomial and $n = |q|$ (i.e. $n$ is the length of the binary representation of $q$). Then a ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

100 views

### Analogue break down between complexity theory and computability theory

Motivated by my post, Is there a program for theory of incompleteness in NP, much of NP-completeness theory has been heavily influenced by computability theory for which we were successful in proving ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

118 views

### Graph theoretical representation of Wang Tile

We note that for one dimensional tiling problem of Wang Tile could be represented by a graph. Each cycle on the graph represents a periodic solution.
However, is there a well established counter-part ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

85 views

### Is there any track for proving $D=NP$, besides showing that $D$ has polynomial-bounded universal quantifiers?

Background
By the MRDP theorem, every for every recursively enumerable set $S$, there exists a Diophantine polynomial $p$ such that
$$x \in S \iff \exists y_1, \dots, y_n \in \mathbb{N} \text{ such ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

140 views

### Is there an easy decision algorithm for the inhabitation problem for simple types?

Consider the basic system of simple types usually known as $TA_\lambda$. One can prove that (as a consequence of the Subject Reduction Property and the fact that any typable term is strongly ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

80 views

### Counting path generating sentences in a specific formal language

Given a formal grammar of a language or an Turing machine of the language, can we count the path that generating sentences of the language?
For example, we know that if the grammar is context-free ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

73 views

### Linkage between homotopy equivalence and identification of algorithms

I vaguely recall that someone says there is linkage between homotopy equivalence and identification of algorithms which may be isomorphic or morphism or something like that,the algorithm may be ...