**5**

votes

**2**answers

259 views

### Complexity of Turing Machine behavior

If one looks at the code for a Turing Machine (TM) with
$q$ states and, let's say, $2$ symbols, they all look
pretty much the same:
A list of $5$-tuples:
$$
< state, symbol{-}read, ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

283 views

### How long does the slow inefficient algorithm for computing the product in classical Laver tables take?

Let $(A_{n},*)$ denote the $n$-th classical Laver table. Let
$X_{n}$ be the set of all finite sequences of elements from $A_{n}$.
Define a function $E_{n}:X_{n}\rightarrow X_{n}$ by letting
...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

334 views

### Decidability of diophantine equation in a theory

Given a theory $T \subseteq \operatorname{Th}(\mathbb{N})$, define the decision problem $D_T$ as follows:
Given a polynomial $p$ with integer coefficients and variables $\bar{x}$, decide whether
...

**4**

votes

**5**answers

7k views

### Prove a function is primitive recursive

Hey,
I'm taking a course in computability theory, but I'm struggling with primitive recursion. More specifically we are often asked to prove that some arbitrary function is primitive recursive, but I ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

104 views

### A way to smooth out the log* function?

I have seen here and there discussions about what is the "correct" way of extending the Ackermann function to the reals (the same way the Gamma function extends the factorial function to the reals). ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

174 views

### Inverse Ackermann Function

The inverse Ackermann function is defined over the natural numbers as follows: ($[x]$ means that we round up x to the nearest integer, while $\log^*$ is the iterated log function discussed here: ...

**15**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Languages beyond enumerable

A language is a set of finite-length strings from some finite alphabet $\Sigma$.
It is no loss of generality (for my purposes) to take $\Sigma=\{0,1\}$; so a language is a set of bit-strings.
...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

361 views

### Difference between constructive Dedekind and Cauchy reals in computation

If the Axiom of Countable Choice (ACC)
$$ \forall n\in \mathbb{N} . \exists x \in X . \varphi [n, x] \implies \exists f: \mathbb{N} \longrightarrow X . \forall n \in \mathbb{N} . \varphi [n, f(n)] $$
...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

324 views

### Current status of computable spectral theorem and interpretation of quantum mechanics

The spectral theorem states if $A$ is a Hermitian operator acting on an $n-$dimensional Hilbert space space $H$, and $\lambda_1, ... \lambda_m$ are $m \leq n$ distinct eigenvalues of $A$, then
$$ ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

163 views

### Coproducts and “Error Conditions” in Math vs CS

First, some background: recently in learning more about functional programming I saw one use for coproducts that surprised me a little bit: A function $f: A \rightarrow B \coprod C$ may result when ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

215 views

### (non-)existence of the aperiodic monotile

The aperiodic monotile problem asks whether there exists a single tile that every tiling of the plane made with it results non-periodic. What is known about this problem? If this tile exists, how can ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

115 views

### When do wide initial segments ruin admissibility?

Suppose $\alpha$ is admissible and $\beta<\alpha$. We know that $L_\alpha$ is an admissible set (by definition), but adding subsets of $\beta$ to $L_\alpha$ might break admissibility: while set ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

31 views

### Comparing product of positive affine functions over integers

Problem
Let $f_i: \mathbb Z^n \mapsto \mathbb Z$ and $g_i: \mathbb Z^n \mapsto \mathbb Z$ affine functions and $\mathcal D \subseteq \mathbb Z^n$ a set on which they are all positive. Let $P$ and $Q$ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

93 views

### Are these two definitions of arithmetical hierarchy of real numbers equivalent?

Zheng and Weihrauch (http://www-sst.informatik.tu-cottbus.de/~wwwti/zheng/publications/1999/mfcs99.pdf) define a real number $x$ to be $\Sigma_n$ if and only if there is a computable function ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

634 views

### Continuous functions and 2-bushy trees

The following problem was asked by Joe Miller in the fall of 2010 at a bar in Madison.
A subtree $T \subseteq 4^{< \omega}$ is $2$-bushy if for some node $\sigma \in T$, every node above $\sigma$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

486 views

### Can Turing machines clarify mathematical, philosophical, and physical existence?

From Harvey Friedman's manuscript on "Order Invariant Relations and Incompleteness":
DEFINITION 4.4. A $\Pi_1^0$ sentence is a sentence asserting that some given Turing machine never halts at the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

254 views

### Finding limit-nondecreasing sets for certain functions

This is a question that arose a while ago in work with Damir Dzhafarov on some pieces of reverse mathematics. As far as I know, it has no deep significance; however, it feels like the sort of thing we ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

296 views

### Is ordinal arithmetic more complicated than classical arithmetic?

Consider the first-order language $\mathcal{L}_{\text{OA}}:=(+,\cdot,0,1)$; in this language, we can formulate statements of ordinal arithmetic. Clearly, the theory $T_{\text{OA}}$ of ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

134 views

### Theories of arithmetic from recursively inseparable sets

Edit: all sets / theories considered below are supposed to be recursively enumerable, although I'd also be interested in any possible generalizations to non-enumerable theories.
In the comments on ...

**56**

votes

**8**answers

6k views

### Succinctly naming big numbers: ZFC versus Busy-Beaver

Years ago, I wrote an essay called Who Can Name the Bigger Number?, which posed the following challenge:
You have fifteen seconds. Using standard math notation, English words, or both, name a single ...

**28**

votes

**5**answers

896 views

### Does the exact pair phenomenon for partial orders occur in your area of mathematics?

Suppose that I have a partial order P and an increasing sequence $a_0< a_1<a_2<\cdots$ of elements of $P$. A pair of elements (b,c) from P is said to be an exact pair for this sequence, if
...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

165 views

### Deciding isomorphism between structures which interpret in the pure set

I am interested in the following decision problem:
Given descriptions of two relational structures $A,B$ which interpret in the pure set $\mathbb N=(\{0,1,2,\ldots\},=)$, decide whether $A$ and ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

521 views

### Can we compute every definable number with knowledge of the halting problem?

Suppose we knew the answer to the halting problem, and the halting problem for this new system with the old halting problem solved. And so on. Would this allow us to compute every definable number?

**6**

votes

**2**answers

156 views

### a variant of the Kleene tree

The (a?) Kleene tree is a computable (a.k.a. decidable) sub-tree of the full binary tree with no computable path. It is well-known.
I need a variant. (For those in the know, I need a c-bar which is ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

124 views

### “Partial-computably isomorphic” sets

For $A,B \subseteq \mathbb{N}$, define $A\sim B$ when there exist partial computable functions $f,g\colon \mathbb{N}\rightharpoonup \mathbb{N}$ such that $f$ is defined at least on all of $A$ and $g$ ...

**22**

votes

**8**answers

2k views

### Between mu- and primitive recursion

It is well known that primitive recursion is not powerful enough
to express all functions, Ackermann function being probably the best
known example.
Now, in the logic courses (that I have had look ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### What is the relationship between Turing Machines and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem?

In this article, Scott Aaronson talks about using Turing Machines for proving the Rosser Theorem.
What is the relationship between the numbering that Gödel used in his proof of incompleteness and ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

264 views

### Time Hierarchy Theorem and P vs NP

One obvious strategy for proving P not equal to NP would be to show that there is some problem in NP which is hard for a time class strictly containing P (the origin of this question is the recent ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

97 views

### Distribution of definable integers

Consider the distribution of all formulas of length less then n which define an integer in PA.
So for instance f(7,n)=number of formulas of length less then n which output 7.
Or the number of steps ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

224 views

### Can we use this symbol? [closed]

We consider the ring $\mathbb{C}[e^{\lambda x} \mid \lambda \in \mathbb{C}]$ and the language $L=\{+, \cdot , \frac{d}{dx} , 0, 1\}$.
The ring consists of elements of the form $$\sum_{i=0}^N ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Is it possible to make an algorithm that could predict the likelihood that a program will halt?

Today I began to read about computability theory. I do not even have an elementary understanding of the topic but it certainly got me thinking. I know there is there is no 'one-for-all' algorithm that ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

147 views

### Is the positive existential theory undecidable?

Could you tell if the positive existential theory of $\mathbb{C}[e^{\mu x} \mid \mu \in \mathbb{C}]$ is undecidable in the language $\{+, \cdot , \frac{d}{dx} , 0, 1, e^x\}$ ?
How can we prove the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

140 views

### Minimal degrees of structures

For this question, a structure means a first-order structure in a computable language with domain $\omega$; a copy of a structure $\mathcal{A}$ is a structure $\mathcal{B}\cong\mathcal{A}$.
Given a ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

566 views

### Did Bishop, Heyting or Brouwer take partial functions seriously?

The partial μ-recursive functions which may or may not be provably total seem to have some direct relation to the initial motivations for intuitionistic mathematics. (Following Kronecker, one ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

208 views

### Is there an easy decision algorithm for the inhabitation problem for simple types?

Consider the basic system of simple types usually known as $TA_\lambda$. One can prove that (as a consequence of the Subject Reduction Property and the fact that any typable term is strongly ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

436 views

### Are compact topological $n$-manifolds recursively enumerable?

Earlier this year it was asked on MO, "Are there only countably many compact topological manifolds?" Thanks to Cheeger and Kister, the answer is yes. On the other hand, Manolescu recently debunked ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

469 views

### Can a stochastic Turing machine output a consistent extension of PA with positive probability?

Suppose that we interpret the output tape of a Turing machine as an assignment of true or false to all sentences of PA, taking the $n$th output bit as the truth value of the sentence with Goedel ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

231 views

### Comparing really big numbers

Is there an intractability theorem that says that in any sufficiently rich system for defining really big numbers, there will be two numbers for which it's very, very, ... very difficult to decide ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

146 views

### List of finitely presented groups with undecidable word problem

Is there any reasonably updated list of (representative) examples of finitely presented groups with undecidable word problem?
By "representative" I mean "avoiding obvious redundancy", i.e. examples ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

219 views

### Effectively non-recursiveness of some sets

A set $A$ is completely productive if there exists a computable function $f$ such that for every $e$, $f(e)\in (A-W_e)\cup (W_e-A)$. A set is effectively non-recursive if it is r.e. and its ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

159 views

### Does the notion of provably total function depend on the chosen representation?

A typical definition of "provably total function in a theory $T$" goes like this (paraphrased from Odifreddi, Classical Recursion Theory II):
A function $f : \mathbb{N}^n \to \mathbb{N}$ is ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

235 views

### Rice-like Theorems

Let $\varphi$ be an acceptable programming system. Consider the set $S=\{x\in\mathbb{N}:\varphi_x=\varphi_{x+1}\}$. By using Rogers' Fixed Point Theorem (RFPT) it can be proved that $S$ is a ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

223 views

### (A little bit) Beyond the E-recursive

The E-recursive functions are a particular generalization of classical recursion theory to the entire set-theoretic universe, $V$. They are defined via a schemes: see ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

78 views

### A reference for “Borel Sets and Circuit Complexity”

Is there any pdf version of M.Sipser's "Borel Sets and Circuit Complexity" or , since I am unable to get this paper, is there other reference closely related to theory in that paper?

**4**

votes

**1**answer

77 views

### What class of probability distributions do probabilistic turing machines induce? [closed]

What class of probability distributions is induced by the class of probabilistic turing machines? Is there a precise characterization?

**13**

votes

**0**answers

140 views

### Complexity classes for BSS machines

Given a first-order structure $\mathcal{S}$, a Blum-Shub-Smale machine on $\mathcal{S}$ is essentially a Turing machine where
Cells on the tape can hold arbitrary elements of $\mathcal{S}$.
The ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

154 views

### Can we find minimal-diameter metrics without computability?

A beautiful argument by Nabutovsky and Weinberger (see http://math.uchicago.edu/~shmuel/fractal.ps) shows that, if $M$ is any smooth compact manifold of dimension $\ge 5$, then the diameter functional ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

268 views

### Can there be computable non-standard models of PA in a weaker sense?

By Tennenbaum's theorem, in the usual sense of computability for models,
neither addition nor multiplication can be computable in a non-standard model of PA.
Weak version:
Can addition or ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

393 views

### Woodin on Posner-Robinson for the hyperjump and sharp

The Posner-Robinson theorem states that, if $X$ is noncomputable, there is some $G$ such that $X\oplus G=G'$; that is, even though genuine jump inversion only works above $0'$, every (nontrivial) $X$ ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

743 views

### Antirandom reals

This is a crossposting of http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1446602/anti-random-reals, which has not gotten any answers; after thinking about the problem, I've become more convinced that it ...