computable sets and functions, Turing degrees, c.e. degrees, models of computability, primitive recursion, oracle computation, models of computability, decision problems, undecidability, Turing jump, halting problem, notions of computable randomness, computable model theory, computable equivalence ...

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14
votes
5answers
1k views

Are the two meanings of “undecidable” related?

I am usually confused by questions of the type "could such and such a problem be undecidable", because as far as I know there are two distinct possible meanings of "undecidable". I regard the ...
2
votes
0answers
135 views

Reference for original paper (but translated to English) of Matiyasevich's proof of Fibonacci relation being Diophantine?

Hello. I am a maths undergraduate. I am doing a project about history of mathematics. I am looking for the original solution to Hilbert's 10th problem, or at least the theorems that is accessible to ...
11
votes
0answers
148 views

Savings property: A transformation which turns nonnegative martingales into uniformly integrable ones

Background I work in a subfield of computability theory called algorithmic randomness. We have been using martingales as long as probability theory (going back to work of von Mises). However, since ...
3
votes
2answers
196 views

Smallest base to reach partial recursive functions as a closure of unbound search

It is customary to define the class of partial recursive functions by taking the set of primitive recursive functions $PR$ and taking closure over unbound search operation. Do we need the "whole" set ...
24
votes
1answer
686 views

Does an existence of large cardinals have implications in number theory or combinatorics?

Does an existence of large cardinals have implications in more down-to-earth fields like number theory, finite combinatorics, graph theory, Ramsey theory or computability theory? Are there any ...
1
vote
1answer
168 views

Can all programs reducible to ones with only arithmetic operations on inputs be simulated with polynomial overhead by arithmetic machine?

I failed to get an answer at http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/364061/can-all-programs-reducible-to-ones-with-only-arithmetic-operations-on-inputs-be, so I am asking here. In ...
4
votes
2answers
343 views

A question about primitive recursive functions

I have a question about primitive recursive functions. Maybe it's trivial, if it is I will move it into math.stackexchange. Is there a primitive recursive function $f$ which is a bijection of $N$ ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Categories of recursive functions

I have a couple of conjectures on recursive functions, that I feel must have been proved or refuted by someone else, but I don't know where to look. In short: 1. The primitive recursive functions ...
9
votes
2answers
416 views

Reverse mathematics below RCA

I'm sure this is a fairly basic question, but I can't seem to find a solid answer: My primary question is: Is there a reasonably nice subsystem of second-order arithmetic corresponding essentially to ...
22
votes
0answers
843 views

Godel on recursion-theoretic hierarchies

At the end of his excellent article, "The Emergence of Descriptive Set Theory" (http://math.bu.edu/people/aki/2.pdf), Kanamori writes: "Another mathematical eternal return: Toward the end of his ...
1
vote
1answer
151 views

Grzegorczyk-hierarchy, growth-rate and functions with finite image

Grzegorczyk-hierarchy divides primitive recursive functions in distinct classes with respect to their growth-rate. It seems that the higher we go the hierarchy, the more tools we have to define ...
2
votes
3answers
326 views

Indices of r.e. sets

The last part of the paper Located Sets and Reverse Mathematics [Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (1999), 1451–1480] by Giusto and Simpson involves a proof as follows: Given $A$ an effectively ...
3
votes
2answers
174 views

Disjoint sets of fixed points 2

Let $\phi$ be an acceptable programming system. For every recursive function $f$, let $(f)=\{x:\phi_x=\phi_{f(x)}\}$ the set of fixed points of $f$. Now, let $S$ be a set and suppose that there exist ...
9
votes
1answer
427 views

New research on coding in reverse mathematics?

Coding is obviously a fundamental tool in reverse mathematics, and practitioners take care to both demonstrate the correctness of their coding mechanisms and point out their limitations. Harvey ...
2
votes
2answers
134 views

Size-limited oracles

I am interested in complexity of algorithms which have access to the following peculiar sort of oracle: Suppose that an invocation of an algorithm f with an input of size n has access to an oracle ...
18
votes
1answer
809 views

Looking for a copy of Leo Harrington's unpublished notes on the first nonprojectible ordinal

Sometime around 1975, Leo Harrington wrote a set of notes, apparently 13 pages long, entitled Kolmogorov's $R$-operator and the first nonprojectible ordinal. I do not know how widely they were ...
3
votes
1answer
216 views

$\Sigma_1^0-COH$?

In reverse mathematics, $COH$ is a statement that there is a cohesive set for any uniform array of sets. Here uniform array of sets means that there exists a set $B$ such that $x\in B_e ...
3
votes
1answer
158 views

Complexity of winning strategies for open games (for open player)

If $G\subseteq\omega^{<\omega}$ is a computable clopen game, then $G$ has a winning strategy which is hyperarithmetic $(\Delta^1_1)$, by an inductive ranking process. The key observation here is ...
4
votes
1answer
109 views

Computable images of differences of r.e. sets

Suppose f is a computable function from a recursively enumerable set U to the natural numbers and that L,K are r.e. subsets of U. Is f(L-K) a difference of r.e. subsets? The motivation comes from ...
8
votes
1answer
801 views

Can a Hamkins infinite time Turing Machine with infinite Super Turing jumps (from higher type oracles) get the power to decide $\Sigma_1^2$ sets?

Hamkins showed that his infinite time Turing machine has the power to decide some $\Delta_2^1$ sets. I wonder if some modifications of the machine could be made to reach level $\Sigma_1^2$ sets, or, ...
8
votes
1answer
277 views

Cohesive sets with degree below some non-high 1-generic degrees?

Terminology: Cohesive sets: $A\subset \omega$, for each recursively enumerable set $W_e$, either $A\cap W_e$ is finite or $A\cap(\omega\setminus W_e)$ is finite. Non-high degrees: Degree $a$ such ...
6
votes
1answer
233 views

Disjoint sets of fixed points

Let $\phi$ be an acceptable programming system. For every recursive function $f$, let $(f)=\{x:\phi_x=\phi_{f(x)}\}$ the set of fixed points of $f$. Now, suppose that $f$ and $g$ are recursive ...
0
votes
0answers
106 views

Recursive relation using successor function

What is the recursive relation for H(m)=2^(m^2) using successor function recursive relation for multiplication: mult(x,0)=0; mult(x,S(y))=add(x,mult(x,y)) recursive relation for addition: add(x,0)=x; ...
9
votes
0answers
282 views

Automorphism group of the Turing degrees

It is conjectured that the automorphism group of the Turing degrees, $Aut(\mathcal{D})$, is trivial. However, to the best of my knowledge, the current state-of-the-art is that $Aut(\mathcal{D})$ is ...
4
votes
1answer
167 views

When do substructures have computable copies?

Say that a class $\mathcal{C}$ of countable first-order structures in some finite signature has the effective substructure property if $\mathcal{C}$ is closed under isomorphism and whenever $A\in ...
16
votes
1answer
611 views

Polynomial-time algorithm to compare numbers in Conway chained arrow notation

I am looking for a polynomial-time algorithm which, given a character string containing two numbers in Conway's chained arrow notation for large numbers, indicates whether the first number is less ...
9
votes
1answer
188 views

Ensuring nonempty lightface Borel sets have elements via theories of second-order arithmetic

This question is an outgrowth of this MathSE question: http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/276068/members-of-lightface-borel-sets. A Borel set $X\subseteq 2^\omega$ is a member of the smallest ...
4
votes
1answer
384 views

Definition of HYP in $L_{\omega_1^{CK}}[a]$?

The structure $L_{\omega_1^{CK}}$ consists of only HYP sets (I believe) and HYP in this structure is the same as the actual hyperaritmetic sets. Now if I move to the structure $L_{\omega_1^{CK}}[a]$ ...
6
votes
0answers
168 views

$\omega$-models of $\mathbf{\Sigma^1_1}-DC$ and $\mathbf{\Delta^1_1}-CA$

So what is needed to demonstrate something (say like $L_{\omega_1^{CK}}[a]$ is a $\omega$-models of $\mathbf{\Sigma^1_1}$-$DC$ or $\mathbf{\Delta^1_1}$-$CA$? It's not like I don't understand what the ...
5
votes
1answer
216 views

Notion of independence of Turing degrees

I've been thinking for a while about different ways two Turing degrees might be "independent" of each other (from the point of view of computability theory). The simplest such notion would be to say ...
3
votes
0answers
91 views

Weak classes of diophantine functions

From a well-known work(s) by Putnam, Davis, Robinson and Matiyasevich, we know that every partially recursive function is diophantine. Now it seems a natural question to ask: can we say something ...
6
votes
1answer
275 views

Status of the Isomorphism problem for automatic groups?

I only ask because I don't know how to look for the answer.
3
votes
2answers
99 views

How would one characterize a PR-complete language?

The complexity class $PR$ is the set of all formal languages that can be decided by a primitive recursive function. Is there any language $l$ known to be complete for this class, i.e., for every ...
3
votes
1answer
194 views

Various notions of Turing reduction for partial functions

If $f$ and $g$ are partial functions $\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$, define six preorder relations $f \preceq g$ as follows: $f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{S}}} g$ ("$f$ is strict/Sasso reducible to $g$") ...
11
votes
0answers
527 views

Groups generated by 3 involutions

Let $r(m)$ denote the residue class $r+m\mathbb{Z}$, where $0 \leq r < m$. Given disjoint residue classes $r_1(m_1)$ and $r_2(m_2)$, let the class transposition $\tau_{r_1(m_1),r_2(m_2)}$ be the ...
3
votes
2answers
317 views

Recursively enumerable sets as range sets of functions in Grzegorczyk-hierarchy

It is well known that recursively enumerable sets can be defined (among many other equivalent alternatives) as the range sets of primitive recusive functions (except for the trivial case of the empty ...
8
votes
1answer
254 views

The equality problem between conjugate group elements

The Novikov--Boone Theorem, which is perhaps the archetypal local unsolvability result in group theory, states existence of a finitely presented group whose word problem is recursively unsolvable. ...
2
votes
2answers
300 views

Second-order undecidability

Hi, The idea of undecidability in computability theory seems to be along the lines of: There can't be an effective procedure, that decides all instances of input, but a single instance can still be ...
2
votes
1answer
290 views

A question about recursively enumerable sets of rational numbers

Let (Q*,<) denote the ordered set in which the elements of Q* are just the positive rational numbers less than 1 and "<" is the ordering relation of the ordered field (of all rational numbers) ...
9
votes
0answers
283 views

Various definitions of recursion from ordinal machines

Background: I'm trying to get an intuitive understanding of α-recursion and related concepts in higher recursion theory. Once nice book is Peter Hinman's Recursion-Theoretic Hierarchies, available ...
3
votes
0answers
152 views

Alternate proof of van de Wiele's theorem in E-recursion

Hello, all I'm currently trying to understand $E$-recursion theory, which is a generalization of classical recursion theory to arbitrary sets. One of the difficulties I'm having with understanding ...
4
votes
1answer
662 views

Deciding equivalence of regular languages

Given two regular expressions $R$ and $S$ on an alphabet $\Sigma$ it is possible to decide their equivalence as follows: build two finite automata $M_R$ and $M_S$ such that $L(R) = L(M_R)$ and $L(S) ...
2
votes
1answer
159 views

The set of $\Delta_1$ indices

Is the set of Godel numbers of $\Delta_1$ formulae itself $\Delta_1$ definable (i.e., computable)?
5
votes
1answer
203 views

Companion of the pointclass of inductive sets

This question is about the notion of a companion for a Spector class, as defined in Moschovakis's book Elementary Induction on Abstract Structures. I am interested in Spector classes on $\mathbb{R}$, ...
8
votes
1answer
415 views

Fast-growing hierarchy and Turing machines

Is it possible to get an estimate of the size of a Turing machine computing $f_\alpha(n)$, for a given $\alpha$ (I am especialy interested in moderately large $\alpha$ like the ordinal of ...
2
votes
2answers
222 views

Computability of finding roots in holomorphic functions.

Consider a holomorphic function $f: S \to \mathbb{C}$ where $S$ is a path connected open subset of $\mathbb{C}$ (not necessarily simply connected). Is it then possible to determine if $f$ contains a ...
24
votes
1answer
803 views

Can a string's sophistication be defined in an unsophisticated way?

This question is about sophistication, a way of measuring the amount of "interesting, non-random information" in a binary string, which was proposed by Kolmogorov and others in the 1980s. I'll define ...
13
votes
2answers
507 views

Minimal degree of polynomial vanishing on the variety of small degree.

My question is assume that we know that the degree of some irreducible variety is small does it possible to conclude that there exists polynomial of small degree vanishing on this variety. Let us ...
2
votes
1answer
349 views

Turing-Complete Cellular Automata and Sym(Z)

Does there exist a Turing complete, cellular automata with universe and alphabet $\mathbb{Z}$ such that the only allowable configurations are permutations of $\mathbb{Z}$? Formally, consider $\tau : ...
1
vote
2answers
278 views

Satisfiability problem for FOL[<,R]

Let FOL[<,R] be the fragment of first-order logic enriched with two relational symbols < and R and the first-order axioms that say: < is a strict partial order and R is an irreflexive and ...