computable sets and functions, Turing degrees, c.e. degrees, models of computability, primitive recursion, oracle computation, models of computability, decision problems, undecidability, Turing jump, halting problem, notions of computable randomness, computable model theory, computable equivalence ...

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2
votes
1answer
122 views

Model existence and consistency conditions for $\Pi_1^0$ oracles

Let a $\Pi_1^0$ sentence be a sentence asserting that some given Turing machine never halts at the empty input tape. Let Q1 be a (potentially consistently lying) oracle for deciding $\Pi_1^0$ ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Relationship between computational undecidability and axiomatic undecidability

On surface, these seem two completely different class of problems. One class represent statements which can't be proved or disproved in an axiomatic theory. For example One can write down a ...
12
votes
2answers
252 views

Can noncomputable sets be distinguishable in $RCA_0$?

Say that a set $X\subseteq\omega$ is distinguishable if there is some Turing machine $\Phi_e$ which, when given two sets exactly one of which is $X$, can determine which set is $X$. Formally, $X$ is ...
2
votes
2answers
194 views

Linear systems of equations with singular coefficient matrix [closed]

Consider a consistent system of linear equations $Ax=b$. Let's assume for simplicity that $A$ is square $n \times n$. We are looking for an effectively computable approximate solution $\hat{x}$ in the ...
13
votes
1answer
353 views

Turing degree of finding independent formulas

In this Paper of D. Isaacson, it is proved that the true arithmetic($Th(\mathbb{N}$)) is the only $\omega$-consistent and complete extension of $Q$ (Robinson's arithmetic). This, together with the ...
2
votes
1answer
168 views

What is the extension of the truth-table degrees to Baire Space called?

Recall that for sets $A, B \in 2^\omega$ that we say $A \leq_{tt} B$ if there is a total Turing functional $F \colon 2^\omega \to 2^\omega$ such that $F(B)=A$. This is called truth-table reducibility....
3
votes
0answers
42 views

Finite realization of irrational transfer functions

In the field of digital signal processing, linear time-invariant systems play a distinguished role. These are the systems for which there exists an impulse response, a function $h:\mathbb{Z}\to\...
1
vote
1answer
116 views

Computable function [closed]

Let $f(n)$ be $$ f(n)=\begin{cases} 1,&\small{\text{if there are digits 1 in the constant $\textit{e}$ $\textit{n}$ times in a row}}\\ 0,&\small{\text{otherwise.}}\\ \end{cases} $$ Is it true ...
10
votes
1answer
364 views

What Turing degree is this function?

Over at http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=2725#comment-1089004 we had a discussion of intermediate Turing degrees. The following function came up: Take Chaitin’s constant, and rearrange its ...
-3
votes
1answer
131 views

Turing and Many one reductions in computability versus complexity

What are some non-trivial (please exclude poly time definitional difference) differences between Turing versus Many-one reductions in computability theory and those that occur in complexity theory?
7
votes
2answers
717 views

Complexity of Turing Machine behavior

If one looks at the code for a Turing Machine (TM) with $q$ states and, let's say, $2$ symbols, they all look pretty much the same: A list of $5$-tuples: $$ < state, symbol{-}read, symbol{-}to{-}...
6
votes
0answers
107 views

A way to smooth out the log* function?

I have seen here and there discussions about what is the "correct" way of extending the Ackermann function to the reals (the same way the Gamma function extends the factorial function to the reals). ...
15
votes
4answers
2k views

Languages beyond enumerable

A language is a set of finite-length strings from some finite alphabet $\Sigma$. It is no loss of generality (for my purposes) to take $\Sigma=\{0,1\}$; so a language is a set of bit-strings. ...
7
votes
2answers
384 views

Difference between constructive Dedekind and Cauchy reals in computation

If the Axiom of Countable Choice (ACC) $$ \forall n\in \mathbb{N} . \exists x \in X . \varphi [n, x] \implies \exists f: \mathbb{N} \longrightarrow X . \forall n \in \mathbb{N} . \varphi [n, f(n)] $$ ...
3
votes
3answers
173 views

Coproducts and “Error Conditions” in Math vs CS

First, some background: recently in learning more about functional programming I saw one use for coproducts that surprised me a little bit: A function $f: A \rightarrow B \coprod C$ may result when ...
6
votes
1answer
328 views

Current status of computable spectral theorem and interpretation of quantum mechanics

The spectral theorem states if $A$ is a Hermitian operator acting on an $n-$dimensional Hilbert space space $H$, and $\lambda_1, ... \lambda_m$ are $m \leq n$ distinct eigenvalues of $A$, then $$ H=\...
2
votes
0answers
121 views

When do wide initial segments ruin admissibility?

Suppose $\alpha$ is admissible and $\beta<\alpha$. We know that $L_\alpha$ is an admissible set (by definition), but adding subsets of $\beta$ to $L_\alpha$ might break admissibility: while set ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Comparing product of positive affine functions over integers

Problem Let $f_i: \mathbb Z^n \mapsto \mathbb Z$ and $g_i: \mathbb Z^n \mapsto \mathbb Z$ affine functions and $\mathcal D \subseteq \mathbb Z^n$ a set on which they are all positive. Let $P$ and $Q$ ...
4
votes
1answer
102 views

Are these two definitions of arithmetical hierarchy of real numbers equivalent?

Zheng and Weihrauch (http://www-sst.informatik.tu-cottbus.de/~wwwti/zheng/publications/1999/mfcs99.pdf) define a real number $x$ to be $\Sigma_n$ if and only if there is a computable function $f:\...
8
votes
1answer
289 views

How long does the slow inefficient algorithm for computing the product in classical Laver tables take?

Let $(A_{n},*)$ denote the $n$-th classical Laver table. Let $X_{n}$ be the set of all finite sequences of elements from $A_{n}$. Define a function $E_{n}:X_{n}\rightarrow X_{n}$ by letting $E_{n}((...
11
votes
1answer
302 views

Is ordinal arithmetic more complicated than classical arithmetic?

Consider the first-order language $\mathcal{L}_{\text{OA}}:=(+,\cdot,0,1)$; in this language, we can formulate statements of ordinal arithmetic. Clearly, the theory $T_{\text{OA}}$ of $(\text{On},+,\...
2
votes
1answer
514 views

Can Turing machines clarify mathematical, philosophical, and physical existence?

From Harvey Friedman's manuscript on "Order Invariant Relations and Incompleteness": DEFINITION 4.4. A $\Pi_1^0$ sentence is a sentence asserting that some given Turing machine never halts at the ...
3
votes
1answer
163 views

Theories of arithmetic from recursively inseparable sets

Edit: all sets / theories considered below are supposed to be recursively enumerable, although I'd also be interested in any possible generalizations to non-enumerable theories. In the comments on ...
5
votes
1answer
169 views

Deciding isomorphism between structures which interpret in the pure set

I am interested in the following decision problem: Given descriptions of two relational structures $A,B$ which interpret in the pure set $\mathbb N=(\{0,1,2,\ldots\},=)$, decide whether $A$ and $B$...
6
votes
2answers
157 views

a variant of the Kleene tree

The (a?) Kleene tree is a computable (a.k.a. decidable) sub-tree of the full binary tree with no computable path. It is well-known. I need a variant. (For those in the know, I need a c-bar which is ...
5
votes
1answer
128 views

“Partial-computably isomorphic” sets

For $A,B \subseteq \mathbb{N}$, define $A\sim B$ when there exist partial computable functions $f,g\colon \mathbb{N}\rightharpoonup \mathbb{N}$ such that $f$ is defined at least on all of $A$ and $g$ ...
6
votes
1answer
259 views

Finding limit-nondecreasing sets for certain functions

This is a question that arose a while ago in work with Damir Dzhafarov on some pieces of reverse mathematics. As far as I know, it has no deep significance; however, it feels like the sort of thing we ...
2
votes
2answers
524 views

Can we compute every definable number with knowledge of the halting problem?

Suppose we knew the answer to the halting problem, and the halting problem for this new system with the old halting problem solved. And so on. Would this allow us to compute every definable number?
16
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the relationship between Turing Machines and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem?

In this article, Scott Aaronson talks about using Turing Machines for proving the Rosser Theorem. What is the relationship between the numbering that Gödel used in his proof of incompleteness and ...
0
votes
0answers
103 views

Distribution of definable integers

Consider the distribution of all formulas of length less then n which define an integer in PA. So for instance f(7,n)=number of formulas of length less then n which output 7. Or the number of steps ...
3
votes
1answer
226 views

Can we use this symbol? [closed]

We consider the ring $\mathbb{C}[e^{\lambda x} \mid \lambda \in \mathbb{C}]$ and the language $L=\{+, \cdot , \frac{d}{dx} , 0, 1\}$. The ring consists of elements of the form $$\sum_{i=0}^N \...
16
votes
1answer
1k views

Is it possible to make an algorithm that could predict the likelihood that a program will halt?

Today I began to read about computability theory. I do not even have an elementary understanding of the topic but it certainly got me thinking. I know there is there is no 'one-for-all' algorithm that ...
0
votes
0answers
150 views

Is the positive existential theory undecidable?

Could you tell if the positive existential theory of $\mathbb{C}[e^{\mu x} \mid \mu \in \mathbb{C}]$ is undecidable in the language $\{+, \cdot , \frac{d}{dx} , 0, 1, e^x\}$ ? How can we prove the (...
2
votes
2answers
272 views

Time Hierarchy Theorem and P vs NP

One obvious strategy for proving P not equal to NP would be to show that there is some problem in NP which is hard for a time class strictly containing P (the origin of this question is the recent ...
8
votes
2answers
574 views

Did Bishop, Heyting or Brouwer take partial functions seriously?

The partial μ-recursive functions which may or may not be provably total seem to have some direct relation to the initial motivations for intuitionistic mathematics. (Following Kronecker, one ...
15
votes
2answers
493 views

Can a stochastic Turing machine output a consistent extension of PA with positive probability?

Suppose that we interpret the output tape of a Turing machine as an assignment of true or false to all sentences of PA, taking the $n$th output bit as the truth value of the sentence with Goedel ...
5
votes
0answers
147 views

List of finitely presented groups with undecidable word problem

Is there any reasonably updated list of (representative) examples of finitely presented groups with undecidable word problem? By "representative" I mean "avoiding obvious redundancy", i.e. examples ...
3
votes
2answers
235 views

Comparing really big numbers

Is there an intractability theorem that says that in any sufficiently rich system for defining really big numbers, there will be two numbers for which it's very, very, ... very difficult to decide ...
4
votes
2answers
165 views

Does the notion of provably total function depend on the chosen representation?

A typical definition of "provably total function in a theory $T$" goes like this (paraphrased from Odifreddi, Classical Recursion Theory II): A function $f : \mathbb{N}^n \to \mathbb{N}$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
226 views

Effectively non-recursiveness of some sets

A set $A$ is completely productive if there exists a computable function $f$ such that for every $e$, $f(e)\in (A-W_e)\cup (W_e-A)$‎. ‎A set is effectively non-recursive if it is r.e‎. ‎and its ...
5
votes
0answers
239 views

Rice-like Theorems

Let $\varphi$ be an acceptable programming system. Consider the set $S=\{x\in\mathbb{N}:\varphi_x=\varphi_{x+1}\}$. By using Rogers' Fixed Point Theorem (RFPT) it can be proved that $S$ is a non-...
9
votes
0answers
227 views

(A little bit) Beyond the E-recursive

The E-recursive functions are a particular generalization of classical recursion theory to the entire set-theoretic universe, $V$. They are defined via a schemes: see http://www.math.harvard.edu/~...
1
vote
0answers
84 views

A reference for “Borel Sets and Circuit Complexity”

Is there any pdf version of M.Sipser's "Borel Sets and Circuit Complexity" or , since I am unable to get this paper, is there other reference closely related to theory in that paper?
4
votes
1answer
77 views

What class of probability distributions do probabilistic turing machines induce? [closed]

What class of probability distributions is induced by the class of probabilistic turing machines? Is there a precise characterization?
17
votes
1answer
437 views

Are compact topological $n$-manifolds recursively enumerable?

Earlier this year it was asked on MO, "Are there only countably many compact topological manifolds?" Thanks to Cheeger and Kister, the answer is yes. On the other hand, Manolescu recently debunked ...
14
votes
0answers
144 views

Complexity classes for BSS machines

Given a first-order structure $\mathcal{S}$, a Blum-Shub-Smale machine on $\mathcal{S}$ is essentially a Turing machine where Cells on the tape can hold arbitrary elements of $\mathcal{S}$. The ...
10
votes
0answers
154 views

Can we find minimal-diameter metrics without computability?

A beautiful argument by Nabutovsky and Weinberger (see http://math.uchicago.edu/~shmuel/fractal.ps) shows that, if $M$ is any smooth compact manifold of dimension $\ge 5$, then the diameter functional ...
11
votes
1answer
271 views

Can there be computable non-standard models of PA in a weaker sense?

By Tennenbaum's theorem, in the usual sense of computability for models, neither addition nor multiplication can be computable in a non-standard model of PA. Weak version: Can addition or ...
12
votes
2answers
400 views

Woodin on Posner-Robinson for the hyperjump and sharp

The Posner-Robinson theorem states that, if $X$ is noncomputable, there is some $G$ such that $X\oplus G=G'$; that is, even though genuine jump inversion only works above $0'$, every (nontrivial) $X$ ...
20
votes
2answers
759 views

Antirandom reals

This is a crossposting of http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1446602/anti-random-reals, which has not gotten any answers; after thinking about the problem, I've become more convinced that it ...