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### A condition that implies commutativity

Let $R$ be a ring. A notable theorem of N. Jacobson states that if the identity $x^{n}=x$ holds for every $x \in R$ and a fixed $n \geq 2$ then $R$ is a commutative ring.
The proof of the result for ...

**33**

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**3**answers

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### What the heck is the Continuum Hypothesis doing in Weibel's Homological Algebra?

On page 98 of Weibel's An Introduction to Homological Algebra he mentions that the ring $R = \prod_{i=1}^\infty \mathbb{C}$ has global dimension $\geq 2$ with equality iff the continuum hypothesis ...

**32**

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### Does $SL_3(R)$ embed in $SL_2(R)$?

Is there any non-trivial ring such that $SL_{3}(R)$ is isomorphic to a subgroup of $SL_{2}(R)$?
$SL_{3}(\mathbb{Z})$ is not an amalgam, and has the wrong number of order $2$ elements to be a subgroup ...

**28**

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### Even XOR Odd Infinities?

Modular Arithmetic (MA) has the same axioms as first order Peano Arithmetic (PA) except $\forall x (Sx \ne 0)$ is replaced with $\exists x(Sx = 0)$.
...

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**3**answers

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### Invariance of $Z[x]$ under a self-equivalence of the category of commutative rings with 1.

Let $\mbox{Rings}$ be the category of commutative rings with $1$.
Is there an equivalence of categories $F: \mbox{Rings} \to \mbox{Rings}$ s.t.
$$F(\mathbb{Z}[x])\not\cong \mathbb{Z}[x]?$$

**19**

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**2**answers

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### What are applications of commutativity theorems for rings?

Herstein's little book "Noncommutative Rings" has a chapter called Commutativity Theorems in which he proves results like Jacobson's theorem: if a ring (associative with identity, please) has the ...

**18**

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**4**answers

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### Flatness and local freeness

The following statement is well-known:
$A$ a commutative Noetherian ring, $M$ a finitely generated $A$-module. Than $M$ is flat if and only if $M_{\mathfrak{p}}$ is free for all $\mathfrak{p}$.
My ...

**17**

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**1**answer

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### On a theorem of Jacobson

In a comment to an answer to a MO question, in which Bill Dubuque mentioned Jacobson's theorem stating that a ring in which $X^n=X$ is an identity is commutative (theorem which has shown up on MO ...

**16**

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**4**answers

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### Is there a Galois correspondence for ring extensions?

Given an ring extension of a (commutative with unit) ring, Is it possible to give a "good" notion of "degree of the extension"?. By "good", I am thinking in a degree which allow us, for instance, to ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

997 views

### Dimension 1 prime ideals in the intersection of two maximal ideals

This question/problem really comes from a fact in algebraic geometry, where it says that given an irreducible variety $V$ ($\dim V \geq 2$) then for any given pair of points $x,y\in V$ there is an ...

**12**

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**2**answers

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### Generalized Euler phi function

Let $n$ be an integer, there is a well-known formula for $\varphi(n)$ where $\varphi$ is the Euler phi function. Essentially, $\varphi(n)$ gives the number of invertible elements in ...

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### What does the semiring of ideals of a ring R tell us about R?

Here is something I've wondered about since I was an undergraduate. Let $R$ be a ring (commutative, let's say, although the generalization to noncommutative rings is obvious). Ideals of $R$ can be ...

**12**

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**2**answers

1k views

### What are the units in the ring of Laurent polynomials?

What are the units in $R[X,X^{-1}]$, where $R$ is a commutative ring with $1$? I know that the question for polynomial rings is a standard textbook exercise. However, I couldn't find a reference for ...

**11**

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**7**answers

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### Properties of rings that have an elegant description in terms of the associated category of modules

Suppose $A$ is a ring. Then $A$ happens to be a division ring iff every left $A$-module is free. (See here for proofs). I think this is very beautiful; what other properties of rings have an elegant ...

**11**

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**1**answer

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### Affine scheme on spec(A) of a ring A as the sheafification of a pre-sheave on spec(A)?

It is obvious that there is a parallel between the definition of structure sheaf of $\operatorname{Spec}(A)$
versus the sheafification of a pre-sheaf.
The definition of the sheaf $\mathscr F^+$ ...

**11**

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896 views

### Are units of rings of functions on algebraic varieties finitely generated (mod. constants)?

Hello,
Consider the following question. Let $A$ be a finitely generated reduced algebra over an algebraically closed field $k$. Consider the group of units of $A$, modulo the group $k^*$. Is this ...

**11**

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**1**answer

482 views

### Are there non-reflexive modules isomorphic to their bi-dual?

Let $M$ be an $R$-module. We say that $M$ is reflexive if the natural map $M\rightarrow M^{**}$ is an isomorphism.
I'd like to know if there exists a module isomorphic to its bi-dual but not ...

**10**

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**2**answers

403 views

### Are these rings of functions isomorphic?

Let $R$ be the ring of all functions $f : \Bbb{R}\longrightarrow \Bbb{R}$ which are continuous outside $(-1,1)$ and let $S$ be the ring of all functions $f : \Bbb{R}\longrightarrow \Bbb{R}$ which are ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

270 views

### Non-field example of a commutative, local, dual ring with nilradical $N$ such that $ann(N)\nsubseteq N$

I asked this question on math.stackexchange a month ago with no progress, even after a bounty. I hope to eliminate one if the other receives a satisfactory answer.
For an ideal $I\lhd R$ in a ...

**10**

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**1**answer

812 views

### Lengths over a local ring

Let $A$ be a noetherian domain, $\mathfrak{m}$ а maximal ideal, $s$ a non-zero element of $\mathfrak{m}$, $d= \dim A_\mathfrak{m}$.
Is the following claim true?
Claim:
For any $\epsilon>0$, there ...

**9**

votes

**6**answers

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### Applications of commutative algebra

Hi. I'm preparing a thesis in commutative algebra, and when I say this to my friends they always ask me what are the applications to "real-world", and I don't know what to answer. This let me think ...

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**5**answers

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### Axiomatic definition of integers

The real numbers can be axiomatically defined (up to isomorphism) as a Dedekind-complete ordered field.
What is a similar standard axiomatic definition of the integer numbers?
A commutative ordered ...

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**0**answers

120 views

### Weierstrass division theorem for henselian rings

Let $A$ be an henselian local noetherian ring. There is an old result of Lafon ("Anneaux henséliens et théorème de préparation" (1967)), which says that if $A$ is analytically normal and of ...

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**0**answers

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### Is the generation of rings by their units a question in K-theory?

Susan's question When can number rings be spanned (as $\mathbb{Z}$-modules) by units? smells like an algebraic K-theory question in disguise. I'll reformulate the question first:
Given an integral ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

587 views

### Is the support of an Artinian module finite?

Let $R$ be a commutative Noetherian ring, $M$ is an Artinian $R$-module. Is the set $Supp_R(M)$ finite?
Thanks.

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**1**answer

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### Maximal ideals of Z[x,y]

we know that the maximal ideals of ${\mathbb Z}[x]$ are of the form $(p, f(x))$ where $p$ is a prime number and $f(x)$ is a polynomial in ${\mathbb Z}[x]$ which is irreducible modulo $p$.
Is it true ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

691 views

### Algebraic Closure of a Ring is Not a Ring?

I'm trying to motivate the notion of integrality in a ring extension. It seems that the following would be a good motivation, because it would show that the notion of algebraic elements over a ring is ...

**7**

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**3**answers

647 views

### Idempotent polynomials

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with identity and let $f \in R[x]$. There are well known characterizations for $f$ to be a nilpotent element of $R[x]$ or to have a multiplicative inverse in $R[x]$. Is ...

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**4**answers

580 views

### $\lambda$-ring structure defined for a graded ring in Fulton-Lang's book

Given a commutative ring $A$ with unity, Grothendieck used universal polynomials to define a special $\lambda$-ring structure on $\Lambda(A):=1+t\:A[[t]]$. Suppose $A$ is graded, say ...

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**1**answer

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### Direct sum of injective modules over non-Noetherian rings

Hi. I know, by the Bass-Papp theorem, that if every direct sum of injective $R$-modules is injective then $R$ is Noetherian. I would like to know if there exists a direct sum of injective $R$-modules ...

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**1**answer

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### Can an infinite commutative ring have a finite (but nonzero) number of non-nilpotent zero-divisors?

By a theorem of Ganesan, if a commutative ring not a domain has only finitely many zero-divisors, then the ring must be finite. (There are analogous results for non-commutative rings.)
There are ...

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**1**answer

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### Divisibility and factorization in rings that are not integral domains

In my course notes for an undergraduate course "Algebra I", I wrote at the point when I'm introducing the notion of divisibility in rings (in a section on unique factorization):
We want to study ...

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655 views

### Quotient rings of $C(X)$

Let $X$ be a Tychonoff topological space. Consider the ring $C(X)$ of all continuous real valued functions on $X$. For what conditions on an ideal $I$ of $C(X)$, we could deduce that the quotient ring ...

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### Modules over Laurent series rings

Let $k[x]$ be the ring of polynomials over a field k in one variable x. A $k[x]$-module is a k-vector space together with a linear endomorphism (the action of x).
The field $k(x)$ of rational ...

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341 views

### What is the probability that a random sequence of polynomials is regular?

Let $k$ be a finite field or a field with a height function, such as a number field.
Consider the ring $k[[x_1,\dots, x_n]]$ and let $\mathfrak{m}$ be its maximal ideal.
What is the asymptotic ...

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**0**answers

274 views

### Can every commutative ring of characteristic $p\in\mathbb P$ be written as the form $R/(p)$ with $R$ being a ring of characteristic $0$?

All rings here are associative, commutative and unital. By a ring of characteristic zero (resp. of characteristic $p$, for prime $p$) I mean a ring $A$ such that the canonical homomorphism $\mathbb ...

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### Periodic matrices

A square matrix $M$ such that $M^{k+1}=M$, for some positive integer $k$, is called a periodic matrix.
Can we characterize the periodic matrices in $\mathcal{M}_n(\mathbb{Z})$?
If we replace ...

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**2**answers

851 views

### Is every poset the poset of prime ideals of a ring?

The answer to this question, as it is, is trivially false, for one necessary condition is the existence of maximal element(s), i.e., maximal ideals exist and are prime.
My question was inspired from ...

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**2**answers

925 views

### Is being finitely generated a local property?

I am trying ot figure out a proof of the following fact, that I believe is true, but it seems to me that something is lacking.
Suppose we have commutative, unitary rings $A,B$ and a (unit preserving) ...

**6**

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**1**answer

448 views

### Are roots of transcendental elements transcendental?

This looks extremely easy, but then again it's late at night...
Let $k$ be a commutative ring with unity. An element $a$ of a $k$-algebra $A$ is said to be transcendental over $k$ if and only if ...

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### functional subrings

I should recall the notion of maximal subring of a commutative unitary ring $R$.
Def: A commutative ring $S$ is called a maximal subring of $R$ if $S \subset R$ and if $T \subset R$ constitute a ...

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### Maximal ideals of the rings of Baire-One Functions

A real function $f:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is called Baire-one function, if there is a sequence $(f_n)_{n=1} ^\infty$ of continuous functions $f_n:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ on $X$ so that for all ...

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### flatness and derived completion

Let $A$ be a local ring of maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$. Let $\hat{A}$ be its completion.
If $A$ is noetherian , then we know that $A\rightarrow\hat{A}$ is faithfully flat.
If $A$ is not noetherian, ...

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### Square of primary ideals

Is there any example of a $P$-primary ideal $I$ in a noetherian domain $R$ such that $I^2=PI \not=P^2$?

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### Isomorphic rings of functions

Let $X$ and $Y$ be two topological spaces with $C(X) \cong C(Y)$ (where $C(X)$ is the ring of all continuous real valued functions on $X$). I know that we can not conclude that $X$ and $Y$ are ...

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### Subset of Spec(A) realized as inverse image of some Spec(B)

Let $A$ be a (commutative) ring and $U$ be an arbitrary subset of $\mathrm{Spec}(A)$. Do there exist a ring $B$ and a ring homomorphism $\varphi\colon A\to B$ such that ...

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### Homological characterization of smooth maps

Let $A \to B$ be a finitely generated homomorphism between two commutative noetherian rings.
As far as I understand, in various generalizations of this situation, such a map is called smooth if $B$ ...

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**1**answer

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### Units of $\mathbf Z[X,Y]/(P(X,Y))$

Let $P(X,Y)\in \mathbf Z[X,Y]$ be an irreducible polynomial and let $A$ denote the quotient ring $\mathbf Z[X,Y]/(P)$.
What is known about the group of units of $A$?
It's not even clear to me that ...

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**2**answers

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### Integral domains with totally ordered spectra

In my research I ended up trying to prove some properties of integral domains such that their spectrum is a totally ordered poset. Are there some nice (ubiqitous/natural) examples of such domains, ...

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**1**answer

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### Is an ideal generated by multilinear, irreducible, homogeneous polynomials of different degrees always radical?

I asked this question on math.se and someone even put a bounty on it, yet there was no answer. Hence, I am asking here. Assume $\Bbbk$ to be a field of characteristic zero.
Definition. A ...