# Tagged Questions

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### A condition that implies commutativity

Let $R$ be a ring. A notable theorem of N. Jacobson states that if the identity $x^{n}=x$ holds for every $x \in R$ and a fixed $n \geq 2$ then $R$ is a commutative ring. The proof of the result for ...
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### Does $SL_3(R)$ embed in $SL_2(R)$?

Is there any non-trivial ring such that $SL_{3}(R)$ is isomorphic to a subgroup of $SL_{2}(R)$? $SL_{3}(\mathbb{Z})$ is not an amalgam, and has the wrong number of order $2$ elements to be a subgroup ...
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### What the heck is the Continuum Hypothesis doing in Weibel's Homological Algebra?

On page 98 of Weibel's An Introduction to Homological Algebra he mentions that the ring $R = \prod_{i=1}^\infty \mathbb{C}$ has global dimension $\geq 2$ with equality iff the continuum hypothesis ...
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### Even XOR Odd Infinities?

Modular Arithmetic (MA) has the same axioms as first order Peano Arithmetic (PA) except $\forall x (Sx \ne 0)$ is replaced with $\exists x(Sx = 0)$. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peano_axioms#First-...
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### Flatness and local freeness

The following statement is well-known: $A$ a commutative Noetherian ring, $M$ a finitely generated $A$-module. Than $M$ is flat if and only if $M_{\mathfrak{p}}$ is free for all $\mathfrak{p}$. My ...
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### What are applications of commutativity theorems for rings?

Herstein's little book "Noncommutative Rings" has a chapter called Commutativity Theorems in which he proves results like Jacobson's theorem: if a ring (associative with identity, please) has the ...
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### Invariance of $Z[x]$ under a self-equivalence of the category of commutative rings with 1.

Let $\mbox{Rings}$ be the category of commutative rings with $1$. Is there an equivalence of categories $F: \mbox{Rings} \to \mbox{Rings}$ s.t. $$F(\mathbb{Z}[x])\not\cong \mathbb{Z}[x]?$$
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### Examples of Noetherian overkill

I have read in many places that the noetherian hypothesis is often overkill - both in commutative algebra and in ($\overset?=$) algebraic geometry. In particular, I've read that coherence and finite ...
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### Is there a Galois correspondence for ring extensions?

Given an ring extension of a (commutative with unit) ring, Is it possible to give a "good" notion of "degree of the extension"?. By "good", I am thinking in a degree which allow us, for instance, to ...
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### On a theorem of Jacobson

In a comment to an answer to a MO question, in which Bill Dubuque mentioned Jacobson's theorem stating that a ring in which $X^n=X$ is an identity is commutative (theorem which has shown up on MO ...
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### Has anything ever been done with the set $\{1,2,3,4,\ldots\}$ equipped with the operation $a \oplus b = a+b-1$ and the usual notion of multiplication?

Definition. $$\mathbb{J} = \{1,2,3,\ldots\}.$$ We can refer to the elements of $\mathbb{J}$ as "joiners." The product of joiners is inherited from $\mathbb{Z}$. The sum of joiners will ...
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### What are the units in the ring of Laurent polynomials?

What are the units in $R[X,X^{-1}]$, where $R$ is a commutative ring with $1$? I know that the question for polynomial rings is a standard textbook exercise. However, I couldn't find a reference for ...
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### Affine scheme on spec(A) of a ring A as the sheafification of a pre-sheave on spec(A)?

It is obvious that there is a parallel between the definition of structure sheaf of $\operatorname{Spec}(A)$ versus the sheafification of a pre-sheaf. The definition of the sheaf $\mathscr F^+$ ...
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### What does the semiring of ideals of a ring R tell us about R?

Here is something I've wondered about since I was an undergraduate. Let $R$ be a ring (commutative, let's say, although the generalization to noncommutative rings is obvious). Ideals of $R$ can be ...
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### Dimension 1 prime ideals in the intersection of two maximal ideals

This question/problem really comes from a fact in algebraic geometry, where it says that given an irreducible variety $V$ ($\dim V \geq 2$) then for any given pair of points $x,y\in V$ there is an ...
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### Direct sum of injective modules over non-Noetherian rings

Hi. I know, by the Bass-Papp theorem, that if every direct sum of injective $R$-modules is injective then $R$ is Noetherian. I would like to know if there exists a direct sum of injective $R$-modules ...
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### Can an infinite commutative ring have a finite (but nonzero) number of non-nilpotent zero-divisors?

By a theorem of Ganesan, if a commutative ring not a domain has only finitely many zero-divisors, then the ring must be finite. (There are analogous results for non-commutative rings.) There are ...
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### Divisibility and factorization in rings that are not integral domains

In my course notes for an undergraduate course "Algebra I", I wrote at the point when I'm introducing the notion of divisibility in rings (in a section on unique factorization): We want to study ...
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### Quotient rings of $C(X)$

Let $X$ be a Tychonoff topological space. Consider the ring $C(X)$ of all continuous real valued functions on $X$. For what conditions on an ideal $I$ of $C(X)$, we could deduce that the quotient ring ...
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### Modules over Laurent series rings

Let $k[x]$ be the ring of polynomials over a field k in one variable x. A $k[x]$-module is a k-vector space together with a linear endomorphism (the action of x). The field $k(x)$ of rational ...
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### invariants that can be measured by Local Cohomology

What invariants can be measured by Local Cohomology (and what application it has)? As an example of what I mean: Local Cohomology can measure invariants like depth and dim. So in some cases ...
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### What is the probability that a random sequence of polynomials is regular?

Let $k$ be a finite field or a field with a height function, such as a number field. Consider the ring $k[[x_1,\dots, x_n]]$ and let $\mathfrak{m}$ be its maximal ideal. What is the asymptotic ...
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### Is an ideal generated by multilinear, irreducible, homogeneous polynomials of different degrees always radical?

I asked this question on math.se and someone even put a bounty on it, yet there was no answer. Hence, I am asking here. Assume $\Bbbk$ to be a field of characteristic zero. Definition. A ...
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### Is being finitely generated a local property?

I am trying ot figure out a proof of the following fact, that I believe is true, but it seems to me that something is lacking. Suppose we have commutative, unitary rings $A,B$ and a (unit preserving) ...
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### Is the sheaf of smooth functions flat?

Let $X$ be a smooth algebraic variety over $\mathbb{C}$. Is the sheaf of smooth functions on $X$ flat as an $\mathcal{O}_X$ module?
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### Are roots of transcendental elements transcendental?

This looks extremely easy, but then again it's late at night... Let $k$ be a commutative ring with unity. An element $a$ of a $k$-algebra $A$ is said to be transcendental over $k$ if and only if ...
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### When does 'Zariski tangent space derivative' vanishes everywhere imply that a section is constant?

Consider an abelian algebra, $R$, over the field $K$ with the properties that every residue field of $R$ is (canonically) isomorphic to $K$ (I'm not sure but I think this is necessary, otherwise we ...
I should recall the notion of maximal subring of a commutative unitary ring $R$. Def: A commutative ring $S$ is called a maximal subring of $R$ if $S \subset R$ and if $T \subset R$ constitute a ...
A real function $f:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is called Baire-one function, if there is a sequence $(f_n)_{n=1} ^\infty$ of continuous functions $f_n:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ on $X$ so that for all \$x\...