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Polynomial ring operations on $\mathbb{Z}$

I have asked this on Math Stack Exchange but without answers: The usual ring operations on $\mathbb{Z}$ can be defined via polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[a,b]$ (when viewing $a,b$ as variables): ...
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On rings $R$ such that $xR\cap yR$ is non zero whenever $x$ and $y$ are non zero

I've isolated a property of rings (integral domains, associative, unitary, non necessarily commutative) that is useful to me : $$xR\cap yR\neq\{0\}\quad\text{ whenever x and y are non zero.}$$ ...
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Rings such that all quotients by prime ideals are PIDs?

Let $R$ be a commutative ring such that for every prime ideal $P$ of $R$, the ring $R/P$ is a PID. Do you know how these rings are called or another characterization of them? I know there are a lot ...
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Is it true that if $\operatorname{Ext}^{1}_{A}(P,A/I)=0$ for all $I$ then $P$ is projective?

Is it true that if $\operatorname{Ext}^{1}_{A}(P,A/I)=0$ forall $I$ then $P$ is projective? Similar statements are true for flat and injective modules, but I'm beginning to suspect that projective ...
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Has anything ever been done with the set $\{1,2,3,4,\ldots\}$ equipped with the operation $a \oplus b = a+b-1$ and the usual notion of multiplication?

Definition. $$\mathbb{J} = \{1,2,3,\ldots\}.$$ We can refer to the elements of $\mathbb{J}$ as "joiners." The product of joiners is inherited from $\mathbb{Z}$. The sum of joiners will ...
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Bass' stable range condition for principal ideal domains

Do you know a characterization of commutative rings $R$ whose every prime factor ring of $R$ is a principal ideal domain?
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Completeness of Localizations of Completions of Commutative Rings

Let $R$ be an integral domain. Let $x,y\in R\setminus\{0\}$ be distinct. Let $\hat R$ be the $x$-adic completion of $R$ (the ring of all sequences $(r_n+Rx^n)_{n\ge0}$ where for $n\ge0$, $r_n\in R$ ...
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A property of minimal prime ideals in rings with finite chromatic number

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with identity. There are so many ways to associate a graph to $R$. Consider this: take the elements of $R$ (All elements including zero) as vertices an two distinct ...
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Upper bound for the minimum number of generators of the canonical module

Let $P=k[x_1...x_n]$ be a poly over a field. Suppose that $R=k[x_1...x_n]/I$. The canonical module of $R$ is $\omega_R=Ext^{n-dim(R)}_P(R,P)$. The question is that is there any upper bound for the ...
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Flatness and local freeness

The following statement is well-known: $A$ a commutative Noetherian ring, $M$ a finitely generated $A$-module. Than $M$ is flat if and only if $M_{\mathfrak{p}}$ is free for all $\mathfrak{p}$. My ...
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What are the units in the ring of Laurent polynomials?

What are the units in $R[X,X^{-1}]$, where $R$ is a commutative ring with $1$? I know that the question for polynomial rings is a standard textbook exercise. However, I couldn't find a reference for ...
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Reference request for $R$-index

Let $R$ be a noetherian domain with field of fractions $F$, let $V$ be a finite-dimensional $F$-vector space, and let $M,N \subseteq V$ be $R$-lattices in $V$ (finitely generated $R$-submodules of $V$ ...
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Is the sheaf of smooth functions flat?

Let $X$ be a smooth algebraic variety over $\mathbb{C}$. Is the sheaf of smooth functions on $X$ flat as an $\mathcal{O}_X$ module?
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Commutative noetherian domains with large fixed rings

Let $R$ be a commutative domain and let $\theta$ be a ring automorphism of $R$. The fixed ring of $\theta$ is defined by $R^{\theta}:=\{r \in R: \ \theta(r)=r \}.$ An ideal $I$ of $R$ is called ...
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Is an ideal generated by multilinear, irreducible, homogeneous polynomials of different degrees always radical?

I asked this question on math.se and someone even put a bounty on it, yet there was no answer. Hence, I am asking here. Assume $\Bbbk$ to be a field of characteristic zero. Definition. A ...
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Grobner basis for a general algebra

Let $R$ be a quotient of the polynomial ring $\mathbb{C}[x_1,\dots , x_n]$. We fix a $\mathbb{C}^*$ action on $R$ which preserve homogenous components and the multiplication. (The geometric analogue ...
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When does 'Zariski tangent space derivative' vanishes everywhere imply that a section is constant?

Consider an abelian algebra, $R$, over the field $K$ with the properties that every residue field of $R$ is (canonically) isomorphic to $K$ (I'm not sure but I think this is necessary, otherwise we ...
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What kinds of limits does localization of commutative rings reflect?

Localization of commutative rings is a left exact left adjoint, so it behaves nicely with plenty of things. Local-to-global principles are also abundant in commutative algebra, and I thought some of ...
Let $R$ be a (commutative) subring of $S$, and assume that $R$ is graded by an abelian group $G$. Is there anything known, possibly under less general circumstances, about the existence/uniqueness of ...
Suppose $K$ is some nice space, for example $\mathbb R$ or $\mathbb C$. Let $X$ be a set and $C$ a ring of functions $X \to K$. Is there any way to determine, from the algebraic structure of $C$, ...