# Tagged Questions

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### “Nyldon words”: understanding a class of words factorizing the free monoid increasingly

BACKGROUND. Let me first introduce some classical definitions, which appear, e.g., in §5 of Lothaire's Combinatorics on Words, in §5.1 of Reutenauer's Free Lie algebras, and in §6.1 of Victor ...
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### Counting strings with alternating letters with generating functions

It is a classical problem that of finding the generating function (GF) of the number of strings with length $n$ having $m$ different letters (basically, the problem reduces to that of writing the ...
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### Computing exact or asymptotics for number of strings over an alphabet of size $n$ that have no non-trivial substrings that appear more than once

I ran across a seemingly relatively simple combinatorics problem that appears open. For an alphabet of size $n$, let $A(n)$ be the number of strings over the alphabet that have no substring of length ...
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### Which criteria guarantee an orthogonal circuit in $\mathbb R^3$ to be rigid?

For $n\ge4$, define an orthogonal circuit or O-circuit as a closed circuit of $n$ unit segments in $\mathbb R^3$ such that any two neighboring segments form a right angle. (Physically this could be ...
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### Do runs of every length occur in this sequence?

This is a repost from user r.e.s's unsolved Math Stack Exchange question: Do runs of every length occur in this string? That question was derived from my original question on the subject: Does this ...
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### Über theorem on unavoidable patterns?

Let $A$ be an alphabet of $k$ symbols, and $p$ a pattern. An example of a pattern is $p=XX$, where $X$ is any finite string of symbols from $A^+$. Avoiding $p$ is avoiding any subword repeated twice ...
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### Is there a name for infinite words containing every finite words?

Apparently, the closest thing I've found would be normal number http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NormalNumber.html But requiring that every finite words occurs is weaker than this property. So I'm ...
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### Covariance matrix for number of powers in a word

A word over the alphabet $\{0,1\}$ of length $n$ may contain squares, cubes, and generally $k$th powers, where $2\le k\le n$. Let $O_k(w)$ denote the number of $k$th power occurrences in the word $w$. ...
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### partition of infinite word onto permitted words

Consider words over binary alphabet $\{0,1\}$. Let $M$ be a set of finite words such that $M$ contains at least $c\cdot 2^n$ words of length $n$ for all large enough $n$ (for a constant $c$, ...
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### Calculating the probability that all possible length $r$ subwords exists in a string, with or without overlaps allowed

Let $S$ be a length $L$ string, where each character in the string is chosen with uniform random probability over an alphabet with $q$ characters. For example, a binary string would imply $q = 2$, a ...
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### Which automated theorem provers can address the combinatorics of periods in strings?

Five years ago, I made a conjecture on the number of correlation classes that are exhibited by pairs of words in an alphabet of a given size. I later speculated that the conjecture could be tackled ...
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### Representability of sets of infinite sequences sharing common prefixes and factors (i.e. infixes)

Here we are concerned with the space $X^{\omega}$ of infinite sequences. Denote by $F_n(\xi)$ the set of factors (consecutive finite subsequences) of length $n$ and consider the set  K_n(\xi) = ...
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### Two questions from combinatorics on words

Question 1. Assume that an infinite word $u\in\{0,1\}^{\mathbb Z}$ is not balanced. Is it true that there exists a finite 0-1 word $w$ such that $0w01w1$ or $1w10w0$ is a factor of $u$? Is it true ...
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### What prefix and factors determine a ultimately periodic word uniquely

Let $\xi$ be an ultimately periodic sequence, i.e. there exists finite sequences $p, q \in X^*$ such that $\xi = pq^{\omega}$. Does there exists a $n > 0$ such that the prefix of length $n$ and all ...
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### Ordering on words

What are the known computation-friendly well-orderings on words from $A^*$, where $A$ is a finite alphabet, except the standard weightlex and syllable-order?
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### congruence on words: having the same (scattered) subwords of length at most n

For a fixed finite alphabet $A=\{a,b,...\}$, write $x \sim_n y$ if the two words $x$ and $y$ have the same (scattered) subwords of length at most $n$. The relation $\sim_n$ is a congruence of finite ...
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### A property of periodic words

Question is edited Perhaps this formulation is clearer. It is well known that if a power of a primitive (i.e. not a proper power) word $u$ contains two different occurrences of a word $v$, ...
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### Subwords of cube-free binary words

I'm currently working on subwords of cube-free binary words. A binary word is one composed of letters from a two-letter alphabet such as $\{0,1\}$. A word $y$ is a subword of $w$ if there exist ...
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### Generalised de Bruijn Graph

I have encountered sets of the following type, consisting of words over a finite aphabet $A$. If $S$ is such a set, then $S$ is finite, No word in $S$ is part of another element of $S$, and every ...
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### Analogues of the Knuth and Forgotten equivalences on permutations: have they been studied?

Consider a totally ordered alphabet $A$ of $n$ letters. Let $W$ be the set of all words over $A$ which have no two letters equal. Then, for example, we can define the Knuth equivalence on $W$ as the ...
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### Avoidable words

Let $u(x_1,...,x_n)$ be a word, $k\in \mathbb{N}$. We say that $u$ is $k$-avoidable if there exists an infinite word in $k$ letters $\{a_1,...,a_k\}$ which does not contain values of $u$ (i.e. words ...
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### Notation for ends of a string

I work now a lot with strings of characters and other finite sequences and found that I need many times a good notation for "cutting the end" a string. If $a$ is a finite sequence and $a'$ is its ...
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### Software for Combinatorial Algebra sought

I am looking for software which helps me do straightforward tasks in combinatorial algebra. Let me give an example of what I mean by a straightforward task: I have two graded (generally ...
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### an operation on binary strings

Recently, as part of some joint research, Tom Roby was led to a curious operation on strings of L's and R's which he calls "bounce-reading": We start by reading the string at the left. When the ...
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### Ubiquitous Zimin words

Let $w$ be a word in letters $x_1,...,x_n$. A value of $w$ is any word of the form $w(u_1,...,u_n)$ where $u_1,...,u_n$ are words. For example, $abaaba$ is a value of $x^2$. A word $u$ is called ...
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### Equivalent subshifts

Let $X$ be a finite set, $(X^{\mathbb Z}, T)$ is the shift, i.e. the Tikhonov topological space of all bi-infinite words in $X$, $T$ shifts the words one letter to the right. A subshift is a closed ...
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### Are there uncountably many cube-free infinite binary words?

In Cube-free infinite binary words it was established that there are infinitely many cube-free infinite binary words (see the earlier question for definitions of terms). The construction given in ...
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### Cube-free infinite binary words

A word $y$ is a subword of $w$ if there exist words $x$ and $z$ (possibly empty) such that $w=xyz$. Thus, $01$ is a subword of $0110$, but $00$ is not a subword of $0110$. I'm interested in ...
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### subwords of the fibonacci word

The Fibonacci word is the limit of the sequence of words starting with "0" and satisfying rules $0 \to 01, 1 \to 0$. It's equivalent to have initial conditions $S_0 = 0, S_1 = 01$ and then recursion ...
Let $S$ be a string over some alphabet $\Sigma$. It is well known that a substring of $S$ is commonly defined as a sequence of contiguous elements from $S$, while a subsequence of $S$ is a sequence ...