6
votes
1answer
184 views

Über theorem on unavoidable patterns?

Let $A$ be an alphabet of $k$ symbols, and $p$ a pattern. An example of a pattern is $p=XX$, where $X$ is any finite string of symbols from $A^+$. Avoiding $p$ is avoiding any subword repeated twice ...
6
votes
1answer
274 views

Is there a name for infinite words containing every finite words?

Apparently, the closest thing I've found would be normal number http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NormalNumber.html But requiring that every finite words occurs is weaker than this property. So I'm ...
13
votes
1answer
269 views

partition of infinite word onto permitted words

Consider words over binary alphabet $\{0,1\}$. Let $M$ be a set of finite words such that $M$ contains at least $c\cdot 2^n$ words of length $n$ for all large enough $n$ (for a constant $c$, ...
3
votes
1answer
125 views

Calculating the probability that all possible length $r$ subwords exists in a string, with or without overlaps allowed

Let $S$ be a length $L$ string, where each character in the string is chosen with uniform random probability over an alphabet with $q$ characters. For example, a binary string would imply $q = 2$, a ...
2
votes
1answer
108 views

Representability of sets of infinite sequences sharing common prefixes and factors (i.e. infixes)

Here we are concerned with the space $X^{\omega}$ of infinite sequences. Denote by $F_n(\xi)$ the set of factors (consecutive finite subsequences) of length $n$ and consider the set $$ K_n(\xi) = ...
14
votes
7answers
1k views

Two questions from combinatorics on words

Question 1. Assume that an infinite word $u\in\{0,1\}^{\mathbb Z}$ is not balanced. Is it true that there exists a finite 0-1 word $w$ such that $0w01w1$ or $1w10w0$ is a factor of $u$? Is it true ...
5
votes
1answer
112 views

What prefix and factors determine a ultimately periodic word uniquely

Let $\xi$ be an ultimately periodic sequence, i.e. there exists finite sequences $p, q \in X^*$ such that $\xi = pq^{\omega}$. Does there exists a $n > 0$ such that the prefix of length $n$ and all ...
3
votes
2answers
169 views

Ordering on words

What are the known computation-friendly well-orderings on words from $A^*$, where $A$ is a finite alphabet, except the standard weightlex and syllable-order?
20
votes
2answers
553 views

congruence on words: having the same (scattered) subwords of length at most n

For a fixed finite alphabet $A=\{a,b,...\}$, write $x \sim_n y$ if the two words $x$ and $y$ have the same (scattered) subwords of length at most $n$. The relation $\sim_n$ is a congruence of finite ...
4
votes
4answers
465 views

Subwords of cube-free binary words

I'm currently working on subwords of cube-free binary words. A binary word is one composed of letters from a two-letter alphabet such as $\{0,1\}$. A word $y$ is a subword of $w$ if there exist ...
10
votes
1answer
447 views

Analogues of the Knuth and Forgotten equivalences on permutations: have they been studied?

Consider a totally ordered alphabet $A$ of $n$ letters. Let $W$ be the set of all words over $A$ which have no two letters equal. Then, for example, we can define the Knuth equivalence on $W$ as the ...
21
votes
3answers
701 views

an operation on binary strings

Recently, as part of some joint research, Tom Roby was led to a curious operation on strings of L's and R's which he calls "bounce-reading": We start by reading the string at the left. When the ...
8
votes
2answers
600 views

Ubiquitous Zimin words

Let $w$ be a word in letters $x_1,...,x_n$. A value of $w$ is any word of the form $w(u_1,...,u_n)$ where $u_1,...,u_n$ are words. For example, $abaaba$ is a value of $x^2$. A word $u$ is called ...
17
votes
5answers
1k views

Are there uncountably many cube-free infinite binary words?

In Cube-free infinite binary words it was established that there are infinitely many cube-free infinite binary words (see the earlier question for definitions of terms). The construction given in ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Cube-free infinite binary words

A word $y$ is a subword of $w$ if there exist words $x$ and $z$ (possibly empty) such that $w=xyz$. Thus, $01$ is a subword of $0110$, but $00$ is not a subword of $0110$. I'm interested in ...
13
votes
5answers
2k views

subwords of the fibonacci word

The Fibonacci word is the limit of the sequence of words starting with "0" and satisfying rules $0 \to 01, 1 \to 0$. It's equivalent to have initial conditions $S_0 = 0, S_1 = 01$ and then recursion ...
3
votes
2answers
239 views

Maximal words (reloaded)

I have 3 more questions about maximal words (which are just another way of talking of necklaces). Let W be a finite word on a two symbol alphabet {0,1}; let us say that W is maximal if it is the last ...
3
votes
5answers
343 views

Strings and “co-subsequences”

Let $S$ be a string over some alphabet $\Sigma$. It is well known that a substring of $S$ is commonly defined as a sequence of contiguous elements from $S$, while a subsequence of $S$ is a sequence ...