**6**

votes

**0**answers

257 views

### Have topographs been studied before?

This is my first post on MO so I hope this question is suitable. I have quite a few definitions which I will need to state before my questions at the end of this post. Please let me know if anything ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

135 views

### Generalization of Little Fermat Theorem for a particular $a$ and perfect shuffles

I'm looking for the smallest $n\in \mathbb{N}$ that solves the following equation:
$$2^n=1 \mod m$$
For an odd $m$. I know that Little Fermat Theorem and Euler Totient give me a solution but they ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

189 views

### What is the status on questions related to Bhargava's factorial function?

In Manjul Bhargava's The Factorial Function and Generalizations he motivates a new type of factorial $n!_S$ using by generalizing a few theorems like:
For $k, l \in \mathbb{Z}$, we have $k! \times ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

77 views

### Notions of consistency / heterogeneity in sets of vector values?

The problem
Let us consider a row vector u of size $n\in\mathbb{N}$, containing only binary values (0,1):
$$u=(u_1 \cdots u_n), n\in\mathbb{N}$$
$$\forall i \in \{1\ldots n\}, u_i \in\{0,1\}$$
I ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

106 views

### Dense symmetric unitary integer matrix?

Can someone give me a nontrivial example of a symmetric unitary integer matrix? I'm looking for something as dense as possible (i.e., not too many 0's); 5 <= size <= 8 would be ideal.

**7**

votes

**0**answers

137 views

### Combinatorics of palindromic decompositions

This is sort of a companion to my question Number of trivializations of a trivial word in the free group (which in turn is motivated by my earlier question here). It turns out that that question may ...

**16**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### Are there any Algebraic Geometry Theorems that were proved using Combinatorics?

I'm collaborating with some algebraic geometers in a paper, and when writing the introduction I mentioned the interaction of Combinatorics and Algebraic Geometry, and gave some examples like the ...

**-2**

votes

**1**answer

112 views

### About structure of the set of perfect matchings of $K_{n,n}$

Are there any special properties known about the set of perfect matchings of $K_{n,n}$? Like any global structure of this set? Some natural way to partition it? Like is there some algebraic structure ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

237 views

### Mass Transportation Through Wonderful Roller

There is a wonderful roller that transports mass from A to B and there is a pile of sand with weight $W$ in point A and we want to transport it to B.
Wonderfulness of roller comes from this property ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

155 views

### Existence of functions on finite sets with specific propertise

Let $\Omega$ be an universal set and $|\Omega|=N$, denote $\mathcal{F}$ to be the family of all subsets $\subset \Omega$ with cardinal $n$. We now define a function $f:\mathcal{F}\rightarrow \Omega$, ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

80 views

### Is the union of strongly base-orderable matroids strongly base-orderable?

A matroid is said to be strongly base-orderable if for any two bases $B_1,B_2$ there is a bijection $f:B_1 \to B_2$ such that for any $S\subseteq B_1$ set $(B_1 \setminus S) \cup f(S)$ is also a base.
...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

99 views

### For which sidelengths are there polyominos composed of three squares that tile the plane?

Given three naturals $a<b<c$. We consider polyominos, connected or not, which are composed of three squares of sides $a,b,c$.
How can one characterize all triples $a,b,c$ for which such a ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

122 views

### How compute combinatorial expression [closed]

How compute
$\sum_{j=1}^k \binom{x}{j}\binom{k-1}{j-1}\alpha^j, \quad x, \alpha\in\mathbb{R}$

**2**

votes

**1**answer

140 views

### How to choose a random proper coloring

I am studying proper colorings of complete bipartite graphs and I'd like to be able to pick a random proper coloring and the compute some things about it.
Recall that a proper coloring of a complete ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

69 views

### Are there non-isomorphic graphs with rationally orthogonal similar adjacency matrices?

Let $A_G,A_H$ be the adjacency matrices of two non-isomorphic graphs.
Let $P$ be orthogonal matrix with rational entries.
Is it possible $A_G = P^{-1}A_H P$?
Paper
gives algorithm for ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

349 views

### Number of trivializations of a trivial word in the free group

Let $M$ be the free monoid on $2n$ generators $x_1,X_1,...,x_n,X_n$ and consider the set $T$ of all those elements of $M$ which map to 1 of the free group on $x_1,...,x_n$ under the homomorphism $\pi$ ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

42 views

### addition chains for products of relatively prime factors

Suppose I have a set $F$ consisting of relatively prime factors (e.g. $\{ 5, 7, 9, 13, 17 \}$) and the set $P = \{\prod_{f \neq f_i}f \} $ consisting of the products of N-1 factors in $F$ (e.g. ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

331 views

### When are the adjacency matrices of non-isomorphic graphs similar?

From Wikipedia.
In linear algebra, two n-by-n matrices A and B are called similar if
$$ B = P^{-1} A P$$
for some invertible n-by-n matrix $P$.
If $P$ is a permutation matrix, $A$ and $B$ are ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

470 views

### Enumeration of $0-1$ matrices with determinant $1$

Has the number $f(n)$ of $n \times n$, $0{-}1$ matrices whose determinant is $+1$
been enumerated?
E.g., for $n{=}2$, there are $f(2)=3$ such matrices:
$$
\left(
\begin{array}{cc}
1 & 0 \\
0 ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

373 views

### Can every tromino (including those with gaps) tile the plane?

I've generalized trominos to include "gaps", i.e. they are formed by removing all but $3$ squares from an $n$-omino where $n$ is finite.
The generalized trominos pictured above can tile the plane ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

119 views

### Why must commuting maps (of an interval) without common fixed points have at least 11 fixed points for the composition?

I've been looking at the examples of commuting functions on a closed interval which have no common fixed points. These were discovered in 1967 by William M Boyce and J Philip Huneke.
Earlier work by ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

176 views

### Creating a Latin rectangle from a projective plane

Given a projective plane I'd like to form a latin rectangle from the lines. In particular, I'd like to take each line from the plane, order the elements in some way, and stick them into the matrix as ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

221 views

### Generalized expression for balls and bins problem

$n$ number of balls are thrown randomly to $m$ number of bins, standing in a row. The balls are labeled as $1,2,3,....n$ and bins are also labeled as $1,2,3,...,m$. The probability of $i_{th}$ ball ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

123 views

### Surjective marriages

Let $M, W\neq \emptyset$ be sets and $K\subseteq M\times W$. We say that $(M, W, K)$ has a marriage if there is an injective function $f:M\to W$ such that $f\subseteq K$.
If $(M,W, K)$ has a ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

561 views

### Associativity of Kontsevich's star product up to second order

In Deformation quantization of Poisson manifolds, Kontsevich gives the quantization formula
$$f \star g = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \hbar^n \sum_{\Gamma \in G_n} w_\Gamma B_{\Gamma,\alpha}(f,g).$$
He gives ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

142 views

### How to calculate one Cauchy type determinant

As we know, a Cauchy determinant of size n admits the following explicit formula:
$$\det \left(\frac{1}{x _i+y _j}\right) _{1\le i,j \le n}=\frac{\prod _{1\le i < j\le n} (x _j-x _i)(y _j-y ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

312 views

### Does Langton's ant cover every n by 6 gridded torus?

This post follows this other post about times cover by Langton's ant of $n$ by $n$ gridded torus.
For $n$ by $n$ gridded torus, I've checked for $n \le 1000$ that the ant covers all. This fact needs ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

157 views

### What's the analogue of a Young symmetrizer in the Brauer algebra?

According to Schur--Weyl duality, the centralizer of $\mathrm{GL}(V)$ acting diagonally on $V^{\otimes N}$ is the group algebra of the symmetric group $\mathbb S_N$. An equivalent formulation is the ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

135 views

### Kripke frames as classes of partitions

Here's something I've been playing with off and on for a bit; I'm curious if anyone has seen it before.
For this question, a Kripke frame $K$ is a finite reflexive directed graph. (Reflexivity isn't ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

165 views

### The Maximal $\ell_2$ norm of a signed sum of vectors

Suppose we have $n$ vectors in $\mathbb{R}^n.$ Consider the signed sum of these vectors:
$$U(s_1,\ldots,s_n)=s_1 v_1+s_2 v_2 + \ldots + s_n v_n$$
where $s_j$'s can only take values of $+1$ or $-1.$ I ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

139 views

### How many finite subsets in $\mathbb{Z}^d$ have a given sum of squares?

Let $|\cdot|$ denote the usual norm in $\mathbb{Z}^d$. Given a finite subset $S \subset \mathbb{Z}^d$, let $\varphi(S) = \sum_{z \in S}|z|^2$. Given $m \in \mathbb{N}$, what is the size of ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

86 views

### Looking for a natural definition of certain polynomials associated with skew Young diagrams

Consider a connected skew Young diagram in the English notation and then rotate it counterclockwise by $\pi/4$. This rotation can be avoided by simply replacing "rows" by "diagonals" in the below, but ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

139 views

### Generating function for reciprocals of Stirling numbers?

Is there an (ordinary or exponential) generating function for the reciprocals $\frac{1}{s(n,k)}$ of the Stirling numbers of the first kind?
Also, is there some general way to find generating ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

65 views

### Which (polytopal) fans/polytopes are secondary?

Let $P$ be a (d-1)-dimensional polytope with $n$ vertices that sits in an affine hyperplane in $\mathbb{R}^d$.
The secondary fan of $P$ is a polytopal fan in $\mathbb{R}^n$ with $d$-dimensional ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

88 views

### Adjacency graph of a polyomino

Given a polyomino, the "adjacency graph" has one vertex for each tile and an edge connecting tiles which are adjacent (diagonal doesn't count). Is anything known about which graphs can be the ...

**19**

votes

**0**answers

455 views

### Time for Langton's ant to cover a “square” torus

Langton's ant is a cellular automaton running as follows:
Squares on a plane are colored variously either black or white. We
arbitrarily identify one square as the "ant". The ant can travel ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

242 views

### Deforming a basis of a polynomial ring

The ring $Symm$ of symmetric functions in infinitely many variables is well-known to be a polynomial ring in the elementary symmetric functions, and has a $\mathbb Z$-basis of Schur functions ...

**9**

votes

**5**answers

711 views

### Combinatorial\Probabilistic Proof of Stirling's Approximation

Stirling's approximation is the following well-known asymptotic result:
$$n! \approx \left(\frac{n}{e}\right)^n \sqrt{2 \pi n}$$
This result has several analytical proofs, for example via Laplace's ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

699 views

### In how many steps a random walk visits all the elements of a finite group, with a probability 1/2?

This question is a variation of the return to the origin problem.
Let $G$ be the finite group $\mathbb{Z}/n \times \mathbb{Z}/n$ and let the random transformation $T: G \to G$ such that $T(a,b) = ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

229 views

### Yet another Erdős–Szekeres game

Given $n$. Two players in turn write different real numbers $x_1,x_2,x_3,\dots$
The player after whose turn there is a monotone subsequence of length $n$ loses.
I guess that the question 'who wins' ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

483 views

### Erdős-Szekeres game

Given $n$. Two players in turn mark points on the plane. No three may be collinear, no $n$ may form a convex $n$-gon. The player who does not have legal move loses. Who has a winning strategy?

**11**

votes

**1**answer

482 views

### Continuous functions and 2-bushy trees

The following problem was asked by Joe Miller in the fall of 2010 at a bar in Madison.
A subtree $T \subseteq 4^{< \omega}$ is $2$-bushy if for some node $\sigma \in T$, every node above $\sigma$ ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

93 views

### A particular argument in the review on expanders by Hoory-Linial-Wigderson

I am thinking about the third bullet point on page 455 here, http://www.ams.org/journals/bull/2006-43-04/S0273-0979-06-01126-8/
Can someone explain what is the argument there which seems to conclude ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

520 views

### How to prove this identity on double summation series?

I suspect the following identity is valid, but I can not prove it. I just calculate it numerically.
...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

189 views

### Asymptotic of a certain double sum involving binomial coefficients

Consider sums of the form
$S(n)=\sum^{n}_{m=0}\sum^{m}_{k=1}2^{2k+m+1}{n-m+k+1 \choose 2k+2}{m \choose k}$
I am interested in the asymptotics of $S(n)$ as $n\to \infty$.
More precisely I would ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

196 views

### Probability of a graph procedure

We are going to build $K_n$ one edge at a time. Begin with the empty graph on $n$ vertices. Take a random permutation of the edges of $K_n$ and, one at a time, place the edges onto the graph (so, ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

119 views

### Hypercube edge-coloring problem

Question: Is there a pairing (a fixed point free involution) of the vertices of the $n$-dimensional cube graph, and a $2$-coloring of its edges such that the number of color changes needed to get from ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

300 views

### Infinite sequence avoiding a countable set of words

As an application in group theory, I would need an infinite sequence over a finite alphabet, that avoids a sequence of words $w_i$, where the length of $w_i$ is such that $l(w_i) > 10^8 ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

333 views

### Aperiodic graphs

The concepts of being non-periodic and aperiodic for tilings have obvious versions for connected graphs with a countable set of vertices and a finite number of edges meeting at each vertex. A graph ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

166 views

### Asymptotics of the multipartition function

Recall that the multipartition function $p_k(n)$ counts the number of $k$-tuples of partitions $\lambda^1,\ldots,\lambda^k$ of numbers $a_1,\ldots,a_k$ with $a_1+\cdots+a_k=n$. It has a generating ...