**73**

votes

**0**answers

5k views

### Dropping three bodies

Consider the usual three-body problem with Newtonian
$1/r^2$ force between masses. Let the three masses start off at rest,
and not collinear. Then they will become collinear a finite time ...

**27**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Prove that there exists $n\in\mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{(n)}$ has at least n+1 zeros on $(-1,1)$

Let $f\in C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R})$ such that $f(x)=0$ on $\mathbb{R}\setminus (-1,1)$. Prove that there exists $n\in\mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{(n)}$ has at least $n+1$ zeros on $(-1,1)$
...

**26**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Curious $q$-analogues

Consider the Fibonacci polynomials
$$F_n (x) = \sum_{j = 0}^{\left\lfloor {n/2} \right\rfloor }\binom{n-j}{j} x^{n - 2j} $$
and the Lucas polynomials
$$L_n (x) = \sum_{j = 0}^{\left\lfloor {n/2} ...

**24**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### $f\circ f=g$ revisited

This may be related to solving f(f(x))=g(x). Let
$C(\mathbb{R})$ be the linear space of all continuous functions from
reals to reals, and let $\mathcal{S}$ $:=$ { $g\in C(\mathbb{R})$ $;$ $\exists$ ...

**19**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Trigonometry related to Rogers--Ramanujan identities

For integers $n\ge2$ and $k\ge2$, fix the notation
$$
[m]=\sin\frac{\pi m}{nk+1} \quad\text{and}\quad
[m]!=[1][2]\dots[m], \qquad m\in\mathbb Z_{>0}.
$$
Consider the following trigonometric ...

**17**

votes

**0**answers

496 views

### What is the best probabilistic estimate from below for a random polynomial on an arc?

I'm currently involved in a small (but quite time consuming) project where we are trying to get some decent bound for the number $N(P)$ of real zeroes of a random polynomial $P(x)=\sum_{k=0}^n\xi_k ...

**17**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Why do polytopes pop up in Lagrange inversion?

I'd be interested in hearing people's viewpoints on this. Looking for an intuitive perspective. See Wikipedia for descriptions of polytopes and the Lagrange inversion theorem/formula (LIF) for ...

**15**

votes

**0**answers

867 views

### Almost everywhere differentiability for a class of functions on $\mathbb{R}^2$

A while ago, I came across the following problem, which I was not able to resolve one way or the other.
Let $f,g\colon\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$ be continuous functions such that $f(t,x)$ and ...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

264 views

### Partitions of ${\rm Sym}(\mathbb{N})$ induced by convergent, but not absolutely convergent series

Let $(a_n) \subset \mathbb{R}$ be a sequence such that the series
$\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ converges, but does not converge absolutely.
Then there is a partition of the symmetric group ${\rm ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

664 views

### Polynomials with presumably positive coefficients

After seeing that some positivity problems get their solutions on MO,
I am quite enthusiastic of posing my (and not only) problem of positive flavour.
In order to state it, I have to introduce the ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

739 views

### Constructive aspects of Caratheodory's theorem in convex analysis

Let me paraphrase Caratheodory's theorem in a probabilistic setup:
Let $X$ be a real-valued random variable. For $k = 1, \ldots, m$, let $f_k: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function such ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

243 views

### A multiple integral

Let us consider the multiple integral
$$I_{n}=\int_{-\infty }^{\infty }ds_{1}\int_{-\infty}^{s_{1}}ds_{2}\cdots
\int_{-\infty }^{s_{2n-1}}ds_{2n}\;\cos {(s_{1}^{2}-s_{2}^{2})}\;\cdots
\cos ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

244 views

### Positivity of polynomial sequences via generating series

In this question I address
the problem of proving the nonnegativity of a numerical sequence
$a_0,a_1,a_2,\dots$ via generating series technique. In the notation
$A(x)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_nx^n\ge0$ ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

208 views

### A slightly generalized existence and uniqueness theorem for integral equations (reference request)

I want to use the following statement without including the proof, which is completely straightforward but rather tedious:
Let $G_0:\mathbb R\times\mathbb R^m\to\mathbb R^m$, $\Theta_0:\mathbb ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

149 views

### Inertia group vs. differential equations

The tame quotient of the inertia group of $\mathbf Q_p$, say, is the profinite group generated by the Frobenius $\sigma$ and the monodromy $\tau$, subject to the relation $\tau^{p-1} [\tau, \sigma] = ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

376 views

### Multiple Integral (American Mathematical Monthly problem 11621 and its generalization)

AMM problem 11621 asks to calculate the integral
$$I_2=\int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty}ds_1\int\limits_{-\infty}^{s_1}ds_2
\int\limits_{-\infty}^{s_2}ds_3\int\limits_{-\infty}^{s_3}ds_4
...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

913 views

### Are these two functions equal?

The question here is sparked by the discussion inside this question about indefinite sum(antidifference) of tan(x).
A proposed solution was a function
$$f_1(x)=ix-\psi _{e^{2 ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

508 views

### G-delta of measure 0 containig the rationals.

It is well known that $\mathbb{Q}$ is not a $G_\delta$. In fact no countable dense subset of $\mathbb{R}$ is a $G_\delta$. We order the rationals in a sequence: $\mathbb{Q}=\lbrace r_k\rbrace$, and ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

349 views

### min/max of degenerate critical points and Newton diagrams

Given a smooth function of several variables, whose first derivatives vanish at the origin. Suppose the matrix of second derivatives is degenerate at the origin. For example all the second derivatives ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Questions on de Branges' work on the Riemann hypothesis

According to Wikipedia, Louis de Branges de Bourcia has obtained some notable
results, such as a proof of the Bieberbach conjecture in 1985, which is now
known as de Branges' theorem. Initially, his ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

212 views

### Is $Q_n(x)=\sigma_{n+1}(x)/\sigma_n(x)$ logarithmically convex on $\mathbf{R}$?

In 1975 J. van de Lune considered the monotony properties of the canonical Riemann Upper and Lower sums for $\int_0^1 t^xdt$, with $x>0$.
Writing $\sigma_n(x) := 1^x+2^x+\cdots+n^x$ these sums are
...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

259 views

### Finding a dimension-free bound for a certain multiplier on Euclidean space

The following question is indirectly motivated by strong type maximal function estimates. Let $f\in L_{p}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$. For $\xi=(\xi_{1},\ldots,\xi_{n})\in\mathbb{R}^{n}$ define $m(\xi)$ so ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

188 views

### Semi-norms for Schwartz-Bruhat space over Q_p

I'm an analyst beginning to do some work over the p-adics, in particular work with spaces of functions from $\mathbb{Q}_p$ to $\mathbb{C}$. The Schwartz-Bruhat space in this case is given by the space ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

169 views

### Spectral theory for Dirac Laplacian on a funnel

I would like to study the spectral theory of the Dirac Laplacian on a non-compact quotient of the hyperbolic plane by a discrete group (I am particularly interested in the simple case where the ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

119 views

### Almost Isodiametric Sets

Hi,
The isodiametric inequality tells us that, of all sets of diameter $r$, the one with the largest Lebesgue measure is the ball of radius $r/2$ - and this holds regardless of norm. Let $\tau(r)$ be ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

283 views

### Uniqueness for a non-local differential equation

Question:Fix $\epsilon>0$. Consider the differential equation, defined for functions $f(t,x)\in C^\infty([0,\epsilon]\times[0,\epsilon])$ defined by
$$\frac{\partial}{\partial t} ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

271 views

### Birth-Death Process associated with Orthogonal Polynomials

I have read in various places the following objects are related:
orthogonal polynomials
birth-death processes
Lattice paths
continued fractions
After a lot of searching online, I found sketches ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

199 views

### Regularity class of certain diffeomorphisms of the real line.

I care about the following class of homeomorphisms of $\mathbb R$, which I'll call $\mathcal C^?$.
For simplicity, let us restrict attention to compactly supported homeomorphisms
(a homeomorphism ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

279 views

### Reflection spectrum from a Fibonacci quasicrystal

Warning: this question may come across as too specific. Maybe it would help if I set values for the probability parameters below - they'd be based on the Fresnel equations. But anyway, I think this is ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Why is mechanical differentiation so hard to get right?

This question is related to this question on differentiation/integration which asks why differentiation is mechanical but integration is an art. The answers given all make a huge assumption: that one ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

413 views

### Phase perturbations in oscillatory integrals

I am interested in learning about quantitative refinements of the method of stationary phase which allow to treat small perturbations in the phase of an oscillatory integral (of the first kind, in ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

426 views

### convergence rate in Wiener's approximation theorem

Wiener has the following fantastic results about approximations using translation families:
Given a function $h: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$, the set $\{\sum a_i h(\cdot - x_i): a_i, x_i \in ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

94 views

### Hyperbolic toral automorphisms, and maximizing over orbits the minimum along an orbit of a function

Setup:
Let $\phi\colon T^2 \to T^2$ be a hyperbolic toral automorphism. Let $f\colon T^2 \to \mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function.
For $x \in T^2$, let $\underline{f}(x) = \inf_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

236 views

### Inverse Function Theorem on Zygmund Spaces, is the inverse in the same Zygmund Space?

Preliminary Definitions
Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be open. We define the Zygmund spaces $C^r_{*}(\Omega)$ with $r>0$, $r \in \mathbb{R}$ in the following way: (all the functions are ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

95 views

### Lagrangean uniqueness versus Eulerian uniqueness

(1) Lagrangean description. Let us consider a $N\times N$ system of autonomous ODE:
$$
\dot x=a(x),\quad \mathbb R\ni t\mapsto x(t)\in \mathbb R^N,\quad a:\mathbb R^N\rightarrow \mathbb R^N.
$$
...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

262 views

### Functions with null derivative

I am not here referring to the devil staircase, but to the question mark function. This is a strictly increasing function from $\mathbb{Q}$ to $\mathbb{Q}$, with derivative always $0$. I have two ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

716 views

### Is this Fourier integral well-known?

The following integral is a special case of one that arises in an economics problem:
$I(u_{1}, u_{2}) := \displaystyle \int_{z_{1}=-\infty}^{\infty} \int_{z_{2}=-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{ \displaystyle ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

288 views

### Differential forms on the simplex which are “constant towards the boundary”

Let $\Delta^k$ the standard $k$-dimensional simplex, $\Delta^k=\{(x^0,\dots,x^k)\in \mathbb{R}^{k+1}|\sum_{i=0}^kx^i=1\}$, and let $\Omega^\bullet(\Delta^k)$ be the de Rham complex of smooth ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

452 views

### Any similar inequality in literature?

I got the following inequality:
$B_{4}$ is the unit ball in $R^{4}$, $\partial B_{4}$ is its boundary.
$(\int_{B_{4}}e^{4u}dx)^{\frac{1}{4}} \leq S(\int_{\partial B_{4}}e^{3u}d\xi)^{\frac{1}{3}}$,
...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

217 views

### Polynomial upper approximation with respect to the Gaussian measure

Let $f = 1_{[a,+\infty)}$ be the indicator function of a half-line. Does there exist a sequence $(P_n)$ of polynomials such that $f(x) \leq P_n(x)$ for every real $x$ and
$$ \lim_{n\to \infty} ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

387 views

### Convolutions and Toeplitz Operators

Let be $d>0$ an integer number and consider the Cartesian product $\mathbb Z^d$ as metric space, with the distance between $x,y\in\mathbb Z^d$ given by $\|x-y\|_1=\sum_{j=0}^d|x_j-y_j|$.
Let be ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

111 views

### Interesting triple integral

Some time ago I stumbled on an alleged identity
$$\int\limits_0^\infty \frac{dx}{x} \int\limits_0^x \frac{dy}{y}
\int\limits_0^y \frac{dz}{z} [\sin{x}+\sin{(x-y)}-\sin{(x-z)}-\sin{(x-y+z)}]=
...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

98 views

### Unit eigenvalue of the linearized Poincare return map

Consider a surface $S$ and a vector field on the surface which has a closed orbit. The vector field on both sides of the closed orbit spirals towards it, which gives us that the linearized Poincare ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

114 views

### Carleman estimates on monotonicity formulas

I am trying to derive a monotonicity formula for a certain Dirichlet critical point (or even maybe a minimizer) of an energy of the type, say for simplicity, an energy of the from
$$\int_{B_r} ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

276 views

### decreasing rearrangements: why the asymmetry of measure-preserving maps?

Ryff proved in 1970 that the decreasing rearrangement $f^*$ of a, say, continuous function $f:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$ admits a measure preserving map $\phi$ such that $f=f^*\circ\phi$. In general it is ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

152 views

### semiclassical proof of Wigner semicircle

In Terence Tao's discussion of the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble, he derives the Dyson and Airy kernels. The GUE is the probability distribution of the eigenvalues of a random Hermitian matrix.
\[ \int ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

131 views

### Integrate the exponential of sum of circular differences?

Given positive integer $N$ and parameters $T>0$, $a$, $b$, what is
$\int_{t_1=0}^T \cdots \int_{t_N=0}^T e^{a(t_1+\cdots+t_N)+b(|t_1-t_2|+\cdots+|t_{i-1}-t_i|+|t_N-t_1|)} dt_1 \cdots dt_N$ ?
Any ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

207 views

### A possible refinement of a theorem of Malliavin

Due to a theorem of Malliavin (an improvement of an erlier theorem of Dixmier and Malliavin, see here) we know that every compactly supported smooth function $f$ on $\mathbb R^n$ can be written as a ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

229 views

### Hessians of Fourier transforms of positive radial functions

$\newcommand{\bR}{\mathbb{R}}$ $\newcommand{\ii}{\boldsymbol{i}}$ $\newcommand{\eW}{\mathscr{W}}$
While investigating the distribution of critical points of random funtions on tori I was lead to ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

210 views

### Find polynom p(z) with values in C[S_n] such that p'(z) = \sum_i (Id+(1i))/(z-i) p(z). [Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation for S_n]

Consider group algebra $C[S_n]$. Take any of its representation $(\pi, V)$ (for example regular).
Take some complex numbers $z_i$ i=2...n. Denote as usually by $(1i)\in S_n$
the transpositions of ...