**32**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Does the formal power series solution to $f(f(x))= \sin( x) $ converge?

I have spent some time using gp-pari. There is, of course, a formal power series solution to
$ f(f(x)) = \sin x.$ It is displayed, below, identified by the symbol $g$ because I am not entirely sure ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

15 views

### Sequential compactness of smooth functions when derivatives of all orders are uniformly bounded [on hold]

Suppose I have a sequence $u_n$ of smooth functions on the N dimensional reals. If $\|D^{\alpha}u_n\|_{\infty} \leq C_{\alpha}$ for all multi-indices $\alpha$, then is it possible to deduce that there ...

**8**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### What's a natural candidate for an analytic function that interpolates the tower function?

I know that there are analytic functions whose composition with itself is the exponential function, the so-called functional square root of the exponential function, with the additional property that ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

46 views

### smoothness of boundary under Riemann mapping

Suppose there is a smooth Jordan curve separating the complex plane. For complicity, assume the curve is given by a graph $(x, \phi(x))$, where $\phi(x)$ is smooth, bounded, and derivatives are ...

**74**

votes

**9**answers

15k views

### How to solve $f(f(x)) = \cos(x)$?

I found the following interesting equation on some web page I cannot remember:
$f(f(x))=\cos(x)$
Out of curiosity I tried to solve it, but realized that I do not have a clue how to approach such an ...

**27**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### $f\circ f=g$ revisited

This may be related to solving f(f(x))=g(x). Let
$C(\mathbb{R})$ be the linear space of all continuous functions from
reals to reals, and let $\mathcal{S}$ $:=$ { $g\in C(\mathbb{R})$ $;$ $\exists$ ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

113 views

### The eigenvalue of operator $-\Delta$

Let $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^N$ be open bounded, smooth boundary. We know the eigenfunction of Laplacian operator $-\Delta$ is an orthonormal basis of $L^2$. Let $\{\omega_n\}$ denote the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

142 views

### The unique positive real root of summation function

update: add one condition according to answer below.
I post this question in MSE a week ago. I thought this should be an easy freshman exercise, but it turns out not easy...
The original question ...

**34**

votes

**7**answers

7k views

### Why are there so many smooth functions?

I do understand that my question might seem a little bit ignorant, but I thought about it a lot and still can't wrap my head around it.
Analycity imposes very strong conditions on a map, from ...

**47**

votes

**9**answers

8k views

### Why do functions in complex analysis behave so well? (as opposed to functions in real analysis)

Complex analytic functions show rigid behavior while real-valued smooth functions are flexible. Why is this the case?

**2**

votes

**0**answers

80 views

### Lie Symmetries of the Bessel Differential Equation

The Bessel differential equation has an arbitrary looking form, but a lot is known about it.
$$ x^2 \frac{d^2 y}{dx^2} + x \frac{dy}{dx} + (x^2 - n^2)y = 0 $$
Is there a way to derive the Bessel ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

130 views

### Wong-Zakai smooth approximation in probabilty for stochastic differential equations

I'm looking for a result of the form: Let $B_\epsilon$ denote a "natural" smooth $\epsilon$-approximation to an $n$-dimensional Brownian motion $B$ (e.g. by mollification or simply piecewise linear) ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

19 views

### The derivatives of Riemann xi function [migrated]

What are the first few values of derivatives of Riemann xi function at zero? Is there any general formula for calculating the nth derivative of the riemann zeta function at zero? What happens to the ...

**29**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Which differential equations allow for a variational formulation?

Many ODE's and PDE's arising in nature have a variational formulation. An example of what I mean is the following. Classical motions are solutions $q(t)$ to Lagrange's equation
$$
...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

283 views

### Decay of real continuous algebraic functions at infinity

Let $f$ be a real valued continuous algebraic function on $\mathbb R^n$. Suppose the zero set of $f$ is bounded, i.e., if $|x|$ is large enough, $f(x)\neq 0$. Is there any estimate of the sort ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

109 views

### Pointwise convergence for continuous functions

Let $f_n:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb R$ be a sequence of continuous functions converging pointwise, i.e. such that $\forall x\in [0,1]$, the sequence $(f_n(x))_{n\in \mathbb N}$ converges. We set ...

**27**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Is there a category structure one can place on measure spaces so that category-theoretic products exist?

The usual category of measure spaces consists of objects $(X, \mathcal{B}_X, \mu_X)$, where $X$ is a space, $\mathcal{B}_X$ is a $\sigma$-algebra on $X$, and $\mu_X$ is a measure on $X$, and measure ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

48 views

### Some problems about symmetric convolution semigroup on the unit circle

These are problems from Example 1.4.2 of Fukushima's book "Dirichlet forms and symmetric Markov processes".
Let $\Lambda$ be the set of all real sequences $\left\{\lambda_n\right\}_{n\in\mathbf{Z}}$ ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

672 views

### What are the difference between modeling with stochastic differential equations (SDE) and ordinary differential equations (ODE) with a random force?

There are lots of differences between SDE and ODE. From the theoretical point of view an also from the numerical algorithms used for simulations. But I am interested in knowing if there is a point ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

159 views

### General solution to system of stochastic linear differential equations

Assume we are given the system of linear stochastic differential equations
$$dx_i = \sum_{j=1}^n a_{ij}(t) \cdot x_j \cdot dt + \sum_{j=1}^n \sigma_{ij}(t) \cdot x_j \cdot dB_{ij,t} + b_j(t)\cdot ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

151 views

### Faà di Bruno formula

Let $f,g$ be smooth functions from $\mathbb R$ to $\mathbb R$. Then
$$
\frac{(g\circ f)^{(n)}}{n!}=\sum_{1\le r\le n}\frac{(g^{(r)}\circ f)}{r!}
\sum_{\substack{(n_1,\dots, n_r)\in {\mathbb ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

70 views

### Resolvent of the operator

Consider the Laplace operator defined on the biggest possible subset of$L^{2}(R^{2})$:
$T= - \partial^{2}_{x} -\partial^{2}_{y}+x^{2}+y^{2}+ 2.i(x \frac{\partial}{\partial ...

**-3**

votes

**0**answers

57 views

### Topological monoid spaces

A binary operation $∗ : [0, 1] \times [0, 1]\to [0, 1]$ is said to be a
continuous t-norm if $([0, 1], ∗)$ is a topological monoid with unit 1 such that
$a ∗ b \leq c ∗ d$ whenever $a \leq c$ and $b ...

**98**

votes

**26**answers

31k views

### What is convolution intuitively?

If random variable $X$ has a probability distribution of $f(x)$ and random variable $Y$ has a probability distribution $g(x)$ then $(f*g)(x)$, the convolution of $f$ and $g$, is the probability ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### The Cauchy–Riemann equations and analyticity

I would be interested to learn if the following generalization of the classical Looman-Menchoff theorem is true.
Assume that the function $f=u+iv$, defined on a domain $D\subset\mathbb{C}$, is ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

163 views

### Lyapunov stability of linear system

Consider a linear ODE system
$$\dot x_k=\sum_{j=1}^ma_{kj}(t)x_j,\qquad k=1,\ldots, m,\quad a_{kj}(t)\in C[0,\infty).\quad (1)$$
Proposition. Suppose that $$\sup_{t\ge ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

91 views

### Log-concave polynomial is a log-concave function?

A polynomial $\sum\limits_{k=0}^n a_kx^k$ is log-concave if $a_0,\ldots,a_n$ constitute a log-concave sequence. I wonder whether the log-concave polynomial is also a log-concave function with respect ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

55 views

### A Statement from Brauer and Nohel's book on stability of time-depending linear systems

On page 158 (The qualitative theory of differential equations; an introduction) the authors cite a $2 \times 2$ counterexample by Vinograd to the system $y'=A(t)y$, where
$$
A(t) =
\left(
...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

169 views

### functions with orthogonal Jacobian

I'm working on a model that would require to use vectorial functions of $\mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$, such that $\forall x, y \in \mathbb{R}^n$, $\lVert \frac{df(x)}{dx}(y) \lVert_2 = ...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

878 views

### Complex evaluation of a classical (real) integral

There are several ways to compute the classical integral
$$
\int_{\mathbb R}e^{-x^2}dx=\sqrt{\pi}.
$$
Probably, best known are
(1) squaring the integral with subsequent change
of (now two) variables ...

**30**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### A translation of the Cantor set contained in the irrationals

Let $C$ be the standard Cantor middle-third set. As a consequence of the Baire category theorem, there are numbers $r$ such that $C+r$ consists solely of irrational numbers, see here.
What would ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

130 views

### On nonlinear fractional field equations

In a paper by Vazquez I read that an interesting variant of fractional diffusion (where the fractional operator is usually $(-\Delta)^s$) could be $(I-\Delta)^s$. Therefore I am wondering if there are ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

711 views

### Algebraic independance of exponentials

First of all, a happy new year. Be it better than 2015,
healthy, wealthy, fruitful and cross-fertilizing
for you, familly and friends.
In order to cope with families of solutions of evolution ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

283 views

### Is the Fourier transform of $e^{-|x|^n}$ positive?

Let
$$\Phi(x) = \int_{\mathbf{R}^n} e^{-|y|^n +i (x,y)} dy.$$
Is $\Phi$ positive everywhere in $\mathbf{R}^n$?
Could someone helps me answer this question or gives a reference for it? Thanks.

**16**

votes

**1**answer

651 views

### Are the algebraic numbers dense everywhere on the boundary of the Mandelbrot set?

Let $\mathcal{B}$ denote the boundary of the Mandelbrot set, and let
$\overline{\mathbb{Q}}$ denote the algebraic closure of the rationals.
Further put $\mathcal{B}_{\overline{\mathbb{Q}}} := ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

248 views

### Dominated convergence to characteristic function

Let $\phi_m(x):=\chi_{[0,1]} * \chi_{[0,1]} *...* \chi_{[0,1]}$ be the m -times convolution (so $m+1$ characteristic functions are involved).
Then the Fourier transform of this function is given by
...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

104 views

### Hellinger integral for the Student/Cauchy family

Let $p$ and $q$ be probability densities on $\mathbb R$, with respect to the Lebesgue measure $dx$. The corresponding Hellinger integral is
$H(p,q):=\int_{\mathbb R}\sqrt{pq}\,dx$.
Let now $p$ be ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

64 views

### A limsup representation for the upper Buck density

The upper Buck density, introduced by R.C.Buck in 1946, is defined to be the function
$$
\mathfrak{b}^\star: \mathcal{P}(\mathbf{N}^+) \to \mathbf{R}: X\mapsto \inf_{X\subseteq A:A\in ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

55 views

### ODE estimate for boundary value problem

Let $X$ be a solution to the boundary value problem
$$ X^{\prime\prime}(s) = A(s)X(s), \quad X(0) = X_0, ~~X(t) = X_1,$$
where $0 < t \leq 1$, $A$ is some matrix-valued function, defined on $[0, ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

49 views

### Redundancy in transseries representation of functions?

"Transseries" are a kind of generalized power series that allow things like fractional exponents and exponentials (with another transseries as the exponent). I know very little about them but I have ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

51 views

### Idempotent solutions to the implict function theorem other than the identity?

I am interested in the following problem. Assume that an (anti)symmetric function $g:\mathbb{R}^2 \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfies the implicit function theorem. That is, $g(x,y) = \pm g(y,x)$ and $g(x,y)=0$ ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

5k views

### The unreasonable effectiveness of Pade approximation

I am trying to get an intuitive feel for why the Pade approximation works so well. Given a truncated Taylor/Maclaurin series it "extrapolates" it beyond the radius of convergence. But what I can't ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

117 views

### An extreme of Jacobi elliptic function on an interval

Consider the Jacobi elliptic function $sn(\cdot,k)$ restricted to the interval $(0,2K)$, where $K=K(k)$ is complete elliptic integral of the first kind. If $0<k<1$, then it is well known the ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

346 views

### Number of real roots of an exponential polynomial

Let $a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n$ and $b_1, b_2, \dots, b_n$ be real numbers, and assume that $\{a_i\} \neq \{b_i\}$. Can the equation
$$ e^{a_1 x} + e^{a_2 x} + \dots + e^{a_n x} = e^{b_1 x} + e^{b_2 x} + ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

77 views

### How to eliminate secular terms for perturbed non-oscillatory equations?

Even in a linear second order equation like $x''+x'+\epsilon x=0$ the standard asymptotic expansion has a secular term already in the first order of $\epsilon$, namely
...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

138 views

### Roots of the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind

It is known that the roots of Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind, denote it by $U_n(x)$, are in the interval $(-1,1)$. I have noticed that, by looking at the low values of $n$, the roots of ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

612 views

### Generalized trigonometric functions $Cos(n) v$ and $Sin(n) v$.

I just discovered a paper from 1948, Eine Verallgemeinerung der Kreis-und Hyperbelfunktionen by R. Grammel which introduces functions he calls Cos(n) and Sin(n), representing a parameterization of the ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

124 views

### Convergence of Sobolev functions near the boundary

Let $B_0(1)$ be the unit ball in $\mathbb R^n$, $n\geq2$. Let $f\in W_0^{1,2}(B_0(1))$, and $W^{1,2}(B_0(1))\ni f_i\to f$ in the sense of $L^2(B_0(1))$-norm, as $i\to \infty$.
Question 1: Can we ...

**54**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Why does $d^n \exp(-x-x^{-1})/(dx)^n$ only have $n$ positive real zeroes?

Set $f(x) = \exp(-x-x^{-1})$. An easy induction shows that
$$\frac{d^n}{(dx)^n} f(x) = \phi_n(x^{-1}) f(x)$$
for $\phi_n$ a polynomial of degree $2n$. Clearly, the roots of $\phi_n(x^{-1})$ are the ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

42 views

### “Harmonic oscillator” with $p$-Laplacian

I wonder if there is any literature on the eigenvalue problem for the "$p$-harmonic oscillator" $$-(|u'|^{p-2}u')'(x)+(x^2-\lambda) |u(x)|^{p-2} u(x)=0$$ in $L^p(\mathbb R)$, $p\in(1,\infty)$. Are ...