Special functions, orthogonal polynomials, harmonic analysis, ODE's, differential relations, calculus of variations, approximations, expansions, asymptotics.

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26
votes
6answers
1k views

On an example of an eventually oscillating function

For $x\in(0,1)$, put $$f(x):=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}(-1)^{n}x^{2^{n}}.$$ This function possesses interesting properties. It grows monotonically from $0$ up to certain point. Then it starts to oscillate ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Trigonometric multiple integral identity

How this alleged multiple integral identity can be proved? $$\int\limits_{-\infty }^{\infty }ds_{1}\int\limits_{-\infty}^{s_{1}}ds_{2}\cdots \int\limits_{-\infty }^{s_{2n-1}}ds_{2n}\;\cos { ...
13
votes
1answer
368 views

Lower-Hölder embeddings of the sphere

My question is very simple: Given $d\ge 3$, does there exist $s\in (0,1)$ and an embedding $f:S^{d-1}\to \mathbb{R}^d$ such that $$ |f(x)-f(y)| \ge |x-y|^s \quad\textrm{if } |x-y|<r, $$ for ...
2
votes
0answers
49 views

Uniqueness of solution of elliptic equation with exponential nonlinearity

Consider the following equation $$\Delta v + p(r)e^v = 0$$ on $\mathbb{R}^n$ where $p(r)$ is a polynomial in $r = |(x_1,..., x_n)|$. I want to understand when equations like these have unique ...
4
votes
1answer
85 views

Infinite dimensional Cauchy-Lipschitz theorem

From the answers to Mathoverflow Question "Continuity in Banach space for non-linear maps", it is possible to infer that the assumption of the Cauchy-Lipschitz theorem for the autonomous equation $$ ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Renormalization for Transport Equations with SBD velocity field

In the paper Traces and fine properties of a $BD$ class of vector fields and applications by Ambrosio, Crippa and Maniglia (to be found here)the authors prove a chain rule for vector fields $B\in ...
51
votes
2answers
971 views

History of $\frac d{dt}\tan^{-1}(t)=\frac 1{1+t^2}$

Let $\theta = \tan^{-1}(t)$. Nowadays it is taught: 1º that $$ \frac{d\theta}{dt} = \frac 1{dt\,/\,d\theta} = \frac 1{1+t^2}, \tag1 $$ 2º that, via the fundamental theorem of calculus, this is ...
5
votes
1answer
425 views

Integral of a product of Laguerre polynomials

In order to estimate the non linear term in a particular PDE, I have to decompose $L_k^\alpha(x)^3\cdot x^{-\delta}$ (with $0<\delta<\alpha+1$) into a basis consisting of Laguerre polynomials ...
2
votes
0answers
72 views

Multivariate Maximal Hilbert Transform

One way to define the maximal Hilbert transform of a function, $f$, is by $$\mathcal{H}[f](x):=\underset{\varepsilon>0}{\sup}\;\int_{|t|\geq\varepsilon}\dfrac{f(t)}{x-t}dt,\quad x\in\mathbb{R},$$ ...
5
votes
1answer
163 views

Asymptotic expansion of $\zeta(s \mid a,b)= \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n+a)^{s}(n+b)}$

I'm interested in an asymptotic expansion of the following Riemann zeta-type function $$ \begin{align} \displaystyle \zeta(s \mid a,b) := \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n+a)^{s}(n+b)}, \quad \Re a ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Searching for conditions?

I have this operator $$Au(t)=\int_0^1 G(t,s) f(s,u(s)) ds$$defined from $H^1_{0}$ to $H_0^1$ and satisfy the problem: $$\begin{cases} -(Au)''(t)=f(t,u(t)), t\in[0,1]\\Au(0)=Au(1)=0\end{cases}$$ Where ...
1
vote
1answer
140 views

Complete solution set of a Convolutional Equation?

Here is a problem that am I stuck and I appreciate any help. In essence, I am trying to show that the only solutions for the described problem are the ones provided below. Best.. Setup: In what ...
2
votes
1answer
207 views

All solutions to a set of integral equations

I would like a better understanding of the set of pairs $(f_1,f_2)$ of functions $[0,1] \times [0,1] \to [0,1]$ which satisfy the following conditions: For all $y \in [0,1]$, $f_1(x,y) \geq ...
14
votes
1answer
479 views

Interesting integral

Numerical evidence shows the validity of the following identity $$\int\limits_0^z\frac{xdx}{\sin{x}\sqrt{\sin^2{z}-\sin^2{x}}}=\frac{\pi}{4\sin{z}}\ln{\frac{1+\sin{z}}{1-\sin{z}}},\tag{1}$$ if $0< ...
18
votes
6answers
3k views

Square roots of the Laplace operator

In several places in the literature (e.g. this paper of Caffarelli and Silvestre), I've seen an integral formula for fractional Laplacians. I'd like to understand it. In this question, I'll stick to ...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

Uniqueness of analytic center manifold

In a book, i have read a remark which says that the center manifold of an equilibrium point of a differential equation is not unique in general but is unique in the class of analytic manifold. The ...
0
votes
1answer
77 views

Number of critical points

Let $f:[0,2\pi]\rightarrow R^2$ be a smooth function such that $f([0,2\pi])$ is a smooth closed simple curve $C$. Suppose $(0,0)$ lies inside the the bounded open region enclosed by $C$ and ...
1
vote
0answers
90 views

A Characterization of Closed Ideals in $C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)$

The space $C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ can be turned into a topological ring using the Whitney topology. Whitney's Spectral Theorem says that the closure of an ideal in this ring is the ideal of all ...
26
votes
6answers
6k views

A question regarding a claim of V. I. Arnold

In his Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke, Arnold mentions a notorious teaser that, in his opinion, "modern" mathematicians are not capable of solving quickly. Then, he adds that the exception that ...
3
votes
1answer
301 views

Differentiability: Partially Defined Functions

These ideas came to my mind while reading Lee's Introduction to Smooth Manifolds. (Cf. discussion on p. 45.) Definition Let $E$ and $F$ be two Banach spaces together with a plain subset ...
0
votes
0answers
153 views

Hammerstein integral equation with inverse of the solution

In signal processing theory I found this integral equation that I recognized to be of Hammerstein type: $$u(t)-\int_{0}^{1}d\phi cos(\omega t+\phi)\frac{1}{u(\phi)}=0$$ Unfortunately the solution ...
0
votes
0answers
64 views

Condition for boundedness in stationary phase theorem

I am trying to understand theorem 7.7.1 in Hormander's Analysis of linear partial differential operators, vol.1. Let $K \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be a compact set, $X$ an open neighborhood of $K$ and ...
12
votes
3answers
838 views

Are there any nonlinear solutions to $f(x+1) - f(x) = f'(x)$?

Are there any nonlinear solutions to $f(x+1) - f(x) = f'(x)$? (Asked by bcross at math.iuiui.edu on the Q&A board at JMM.)
3
votes
1answer
480 views

The Weyl algebra modules which are also rings

Consider the space $C^\infty(\mathbb{R})$. We have on it a natural action of the Weyl algebra generated by $x$ and $d/dx$, where $x$ is the coordinate on $\mathbb{R}$, and there is plenty of Weyl ...
3
votes
1answer
286 views

First integrals of a 3D incompressible flow

Let $\Omega$ be an unbounded periodic smooth domain of $\mathbb{R}^3$. We are Given an incompressible vector field $q:\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^3\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^3$ (i.e. $\nabla\cdot q\equiv 0$ ...
8
votes
1answer
408 views

Basic examples of induction on scales arguments

An important ingredient in recent progress on Euclidean harmonic analysis has been that of "inductions on scales". A few examples are the papers of Wolff, Tao, and Bourgain and Guth. Here is a ...
10
votes
2answers
356 views

On the convexity of certain integrals involving Bessel functions

Let $n\geq 0$ be an integer and let $J_n=J_n(r)$ denote the usual Bessel function (of the first kind) of order $n$ i.e. one of the solutions to Bessel's differential equation ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Maximum modulus principle and restriction

Suppose I have a complex multivariate polynomial $f\in \mathbb{C}[z_1,\ldots,z_n]$ and a connected, bounded open set $U$. The maximum modulus principle says $f$ achieves its maximum value on the ...
2
votes
1answer
255 views

Error term in formula for products of necklaces

Let us consider the $\lim_{n\to \infty}\prod_{p=1}^n N(p,a)$, where the number of fixed necklaces of length n composed of a types of beads $N(n,a)$ can be calculated via totient function: ...
3
votes
0answers
91 views

Homogeneous polynomial

Can a homogeneous harmonic polynomial mapping $p(x)=(p_1(x),p_2(x),p_3(x))$, $p(0)=0$, of odd degree $m\ge 3$, of the unit ball $B^3$ into $R^3$ be injective. This means that $p_i$ are harmonic ...
2
votes
0answers
86 views

Linear forms with best approximation vectors lying in a subspace

Setup: For $u \in \mathbb{R}^n$, let $\rho(u)$ be the Euclidean length, $\sqrt{u_1^2 + \ldots + u_n^2}$. For $x \in \mathbb{R}$ let $\|x\| = \min_{k \in \mathbb{Z}} |x - k|$, and for $x \in ...
2
votes
2answers
107 views

Limiting Ratio of Solutions to Ordinary Differential Equations

I'm trying to find the limit of the ratio of two functions $ \lim_{t \rightarrow \infty} \frac{f(t)}{g(t)} $ but only have the initial conditions and the differential equations they solve, but the ...
12
votes
2answers
471 views

Surjectivity of curl

Let: $\mathbb R^3\ni x\mapsto v(x)\in\mathbb R^3$ be a vector field with null divergence belonging to the Schwartz class such that $$ \int_{\mathbb R^3} v(x) dx=0. $$ Is it true that there exists a ...
0
votes
1answer
142 views

What is the limit of the derivative of the harmonic extension/Dirichlet solution in $C^{1,\alpha}$ cases?

Let $f:\mathbb{S}^1 \to \mathbb{S}^1$ be an orientation-preserving homeomorphism. Denote by $H(f)$ the complex harmonic extension/solution in $\mathbb{D}$ to the Dirichlet problem with boundary data ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Upper bound a function

The problem is of finding the maximum of the following function (in terms of i) $\ f_i = \frac{(2m-i) \cdot i}{2 b} \ln(b) - \tfrac{1}{2} i \ln(i) +O(i) $ providing $\ 0<b \leq m, 0<i \leq m ...
16
votes
7answers
1k views

Extensional theorems mostly used intensionally

Some theorems are stated and proved extensionally, but in practice are almost always used intensionally. Let me give an example to make this clear -- integration by parts: $$ \int_a^b f(x)g'(x)ds = ...
0
votes
0answers
283 views

What is the Fourier transform of this function?

Consider the function $$ f(x_1,x_2)=|x_1x_2|^{-\alpha/2}\int_{\mathbb{R}} \frac{e^{it(x_1+u)}-1}{i(x_1+u)} \frac{e^{it(x_2-u)}-1}{i(x_2-u)} |u|^{-\beta}du. $$ It is known that $f(x_1,x_2)\in ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Comparing Calculation Error in Divergent Numerical Methods

I'm not an expert in numerical methods, but I'm doing a simulation based on non-linear differential equations (General Relativity), there solutions has singularities, thus at some points numerical ...
9
votes
1answer
692 views

How to rearrange only negative part of a conditionally convergent series to get any sum greater then initial?

Suppose that $\sum^\infty_{n=1} u_n = s,$ where the series converges conditionally, and $s'>s$. How to prove the existence of such a permutation $\sigma,$ such that 1) $u_n\geq 0 \rightarrow ...
0
votes
0answers
62 views

variation norm of a Fourier transform

Motivated by certain uniform estimate in oscillatory integrals, I am now trying to calculate the Fourier transform of the function ${\large e^{i|t|^{\epsilon}}/t}$ on $\mathbb{R}$, where $\epsilon\in ...
0
votes
2answers
195 views

A certain sum with q by the power of binomial (n 2)

Is there a closed form to the following sum: $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}a^nq^{n(n-1)/2}$ for all $a>0$ and $0\lt q\lt 1$ ?
4
votes
1answer
431 views

Elementary Proof of the Uniqueness of Smooth Structures on R

Is there any 'elementary' proof of the uniqueness of smooth structures on $\mathbb{R}$? By elementary, I mean that the proof does not use any sophisticated topological machinery. In particular, I'm ...
19
votes
3answers
638 views

Is this combination of generalized polygamma and dilogarithm actually zero? $\Im\;\psi^{(-2)}(1+i)+\frac1{4\pi}\text{Li}_2(e^{-2\pi})-\log\sqrt{2\pi}+\frac{5\pi}{24}+\frac12$

I encountered this quantity in my calculations and tried to simplify it. Approximate numeric calculations suggested it could be zero (more precisely, it is certainly less than $10^{-4\times10^3}$ in ...
0
votes
0answers
65 views

Alternative definition of the Lagrange Inversion formula

While reading this paper, the author provides an alternative definition of the Lagrange inversion formula. Call me crazy, but my intuition tells me that there's something wrong with his derivation. ...
4
votes
0answers
97 views

Unit eigenvalue of the linearized Poincare return map

Consider a surface $S$ and a vector field on the surface which has a closed orbit. The vector field on both sides of the closed orbit spirals towards it, which gives us that the linearized Poincare ...
74
votes
0answers
5k views

Dropping three bodies

Consider the usual three-body problem with Newtonian $1/r^2$ force between masses. Let the three masses start off at rest, and not collinear. Then they will become collinear a finite time ...
1
vote
1answer
131 views

Another type of derivative, and the associated primitive

Let $\mathbf{v}:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}^2$ be a continuous function, such that $||\mathbf{v}(t)||=1,\ \forall t\in (a,b)$. Find all continuous functions $\mathbf{r}:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}^2$ so that: $ ...
1
vote
1answer
165 views

Generalization of the triple tangent identity

It is well known that if $x + y + z = \pi$ then $$\tan x \times \tan y \times \tan z = \tan x+ \tan +\tan z.$$ I came across the following generalization of this equality: $$\sqrt{1-k^2} {\rm ...
3
votes
1answer
406 views

Do upper-semicontinuous polyhedral multifunctions have Lipschitz continuous selections?

We are interested in the following question (definitions and references are given below): Main Question: Given an upper-semicontinuous polyhedral multifunction $F:R^n \rightarrow R^m$, is there ...
12
votes
2answers
354 views

Simultaneous zero set of two equations in $\mathbb R^3$

Can we have positive reals $x,y,z$ with $$ x^{\left( y^z \right)} = y^{\left( z^x \right)} = z^{\left( x^y \right)} $$ in cyclic permutation, other than the line $x=y=z$? I put this at ...