Special functions, orthogonal polynomials, harmonic analysis, ODE's, differential relations, calculus of variations, approximations, expansions, asymptotics.

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2
votes
2answers
137 views

Are all mixtures of these unimodal functions unimodal?

Let us say that a function $F\colon(0,\infty)\to\mathbb{R}$ is increasing-decreasing if, for some $c\in[0,\infty]$, $F$ is non-decreasing on $(0,c]$ and non-increasing on $[c,\infty)$. Is it true that ...
4
votes
1answer
271 views

Ref. request: Additive probability measure on $\mathcal P({\bf N})$ supplies subset of $\mathbf R$ without Baire property

ZFC proves, among the other things, the existence of a (finitely) additive probability measure $\theta: \mathcal P(\mathbf N) \to \mathbf R$ on the power set of $\mathbf N$ such that $\theta(X) = 0$ ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Numerical solution of singular ODE

Consider the singular ODE $y''+\frac{y'}{r}+p(r)y=0 \ \ with \ \ y(0)=1 \ \ and \ \ y'(0)=0$. Theoretically such solution exists and is unique if $p$ is nice. Is there a method to numerically ...
4
votes
0answers
3k views

Eliminating Gibbs phenomenon, and approximating with jumping functions in Fourier Analysis : An attempt and a question in this regard

This problem seems like a nightmare to me. I tried to expand $K_{\omega}^f(t)$, but I am clueless of getting some kind of a closed form or some kernel like structure. If I try to take derivative, ...
1
vote
0answers
181 views

p-adic asymptotic analysis

There is a huge field of asymptotic expansions and such over the real and complex fields (see Bender and Orszag, or Copson, or Whittaker and Watson). How different is the theory over p-adic fields? ...
4
votes
0answers
166 views

Evaluate a multiple integral

I want to compute this integral and I would appreciate any help: $N\geq 1$ is fixed. $$I_N=\int_{0\le r_n\le r_{n-1}\le\cdots\le r_1} e^{-(r_1^2+\cdots+r_n^2)} \prod_{i<j} \sinh(r_i-r_j) dr_1\...
1
vote
0answers
142 views

First to note the relation between Stasheff polytopes (associahedra) and compositional inversion?

In my answer to MO-Q: Enumerative geometry and nonlinear waves, I outline the relation between the refined face polynomials of the Stasheff polytopes (associahedra) and the partition polynomials for ...
10
votes
2answers
484 views

The space of polynomials with all real roots

The question stems from an attempt to answer a question of David Speyer. Let $R \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ be the space of coefficients of all polynomials of degree $n$ whose all roots are real, i.e. $R ...
52
votes
3answers
5k views

Is this differential identity known?

Recently I discovered the differential identity $$ \frac{d^{k+1}}{dx^{k+1}} (1+x^2)^{k/2} = \frac{(1 \times 3 \times \dots \times k)^2}{(1+x^2)^{(k+2)/2}}$$ valid for any odd natural number $k$; for ...
2
votes
1answer
151 views

Construct smooth functions with prescribed derivatives

To be specific, suppose we are given a sequence of smooth functions $\{f_k\}_{k\geq 0}$ on flat torus $\mathbf{T}^2$(you may think of it as doubly periodic functions on $\mathbf{R}^2$ and smooth). ...
7
votes
1answer
335 views

Dominated convergence to characteristic function

Let $\phi_m(x):=\chi_{[0,1]} * \chi_{[0,1]} *...* \chi_{[0,1]}$ be the m -times convolution (so $m+1$ characteristic functions are involved). Then the Fourier transform of this function is given by $...
3
votes
2answers
422 views

Who needs a symmetric upper asymptotic density on the integers?

The upper asymptotic density on $\mathbf Z$, viz. the function $$ {\sf d}^\ast: \mathcal P(\mathbf Z) \to [0,1]: X \mapsto \limsup_{n \to \infty} \frac{|X \cap [1,n]|}{n}, $$ has a ''symmetric ...
5
votes
0answers
51 views

Value of prolate speroidal wave function at 0

I have a very basic question about prolate speroidal wave functions that can be defined as eigenfunctions to the following integral equation: $$ \lambda\cdot \psi(x) = \int_{-1}^{1}\frac{\sin 2c(x-y)}{...
26
votes
0answers
543 views

Finding a path through real rooted polynomials

This is a lemma I wanted in order to solve Patrizio Neff's conjecture. It turned out to be the wrong way to think about it, but I am still curious if it is true. Let $z^n+a_{n-1} z^{n-1} + \cdots + ...
7
votes
2answers
306 views

Radial limit does not exist almost everywhere

Problem 4 in Chapter 4 of Stein's book "Real Analysis" says $\sum_{n\geqslant 0}z^{2^n}$ doesn't have radial limit as $z$ approaches the unit circle from inside almost everywhere. It's fairly easy ...
3
votes
0answers
106 views

Reference for a lemma on the asymptotic upper density of special sets with large gaps and intervals

Update. Based on Anthony Quas' comment below, the proof can be made sensibly shorter and the lemma can be slightly generalized by weakening the old assumption (iii). In a joint paper that I am ...
3
votes
1answer
177 views

A question on the Frechet derivative

Suppose the derivative of a functional is given by \begin{equation*} \int_{\Omega}(\vec{v}.\nabla u)|\nabla u|^{p-2} \phi=\int_{\Omega}\nabla.(u\vec{v})|\nabla u|^{p-2} \phi,~\phi\in W_0^{1,p}(\...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

Hyperelliptic generalization of Euler's formula

Are there any hyperelliptic generalizations of the following formula, first proved by Euler in 1782, $$\int\limits_0^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1-x^4}}\int\limits_0^1\frac{x^2\,dx}{\sqrt{1-x^4}}=\frac{\pi}{4}\,?...
10
votes
1answer
319 views

On the independence of lower and upper asymptotic and Banach densities

Given a set $X \subseteq \mathbf N^+$, denote by $\mathsf{d}_\ast(X)$ and $\mathsf{d}^\ast(X)$, respectively, the lower and upper asymptotic (or natural) density of $X$, viz. $$\mathsf{d}_\ast(X) := \...
9
votes
1answer
364 views

Sard's Theorem For Banach Spaces

Given a smooth map from $\phi: B \rightarrow M$ where $B$ is a Banach Space and $M$ is a finite dimensional smooth manifold (for example, the end point map for a control system), what is the strongest ...
0
votes
1answer
135 views

Quadratic stability of linear time varying system

(This question was originally asked at Math.SE, where it didn't receive any answers.) Consider the linear time-varying system $$ \dot{x} = A(t) x, $$ where $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$ and $A: [0,+\infty) \...
3
votes
1answer
245 views

An integral equation

I have a Fredholm integral equation of second kind $$\frac{-1}{2\pi \omega'^2}+\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{1}{\pi \omega'^2}\frac{\psi(\omega)d\omega}{{\text{sinch}}((\omega-\omega')\pi/2)}=\psi(\...
0
votes
0answers
72 views

Derivative of a conjugation of matrices

Let $\mathcal{M}_n$ be the space of complex $n\times n$ matrices. Let $\Phi\colon \mathbb{D}\to \mathcal{M}_n$ and $\psi \colon \mathbb{D}\to \mathcal{M}_n$ be holomorphic functions. Consider the ...
5
votes
1answer
113 views

Gradient flow in simple settings

I would like to solve an equation of the type $\partial_t X = \nabla U (X)$ in $\Omega \subset\mathbb{R}^2$ with an initial condition. I know that under some conditions, $X(t)$ will converge to a ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

help with an asymptotic estimate for a certain product

(I apologize in advance if this question is not suitable for Math Overflow, but it came up in a research problem and thought perhaps I could find some help here.) I'm having difficulty finding an ...
6
votes
2answers
949 views

A (likely) positivity property of the Lerch zeta-function

The problem is to show that $\Re L(b/2,1/2,p+1)>0$ for all real $b\ne0$ and all real $p>-1$, where $$L(\lambda,c,s):=\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{\exp(2\pi i\lambda k)}{(k+c)^s}$$ is the Lerch zeta-...
3
votes
1answer
172 views

On nonlinear fractional field equations

In a paper by Vazquez I read that an interesting variant of fractional diffusion (where the fractional operator is usually $(-\Delta)^s$) could be $(I-\Delta)^s$. Therefore I am wondering if there are ...
4
votes
1answer
114 views

Uniform boundedness of eigenfunctions of an elementary differential operator

Consider a differential operator $L=(-1)^ma(x)\frac{d^{2m}}{dx^{2m}}$, with boundary value conditions $u^{(j)}(0)=u^{(j)}(1)=0, j=m,m+1,\ldots,2m-1$, where $m\ge1$ is an integer and $a(x)>0$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
320 views

Does the following type of Gronwall inequality hold?

Let $I=[0,b)$, $b< \infty$. Suppose $u$ is a positive bounded measurable function on $I$. $v(s)$ is a positive, smooth function on $I$. Note that $u(b),v(b)$ may be $0$. Suppose that $$ u(t) \...
5
votes
0answers
66 views

Rate of convergence of Riemann sum of quasi-regular functions

The following result is well-known (I consider the 3-dimensional case only): Theorem: if $f \in H^s(\mathbb{R}^3)$ with $ s > 3/2$ is compactly supported, then $$ \left| \int_{\mathbb{R}^3} f - \...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Derivative of a time evolution operator w.r.t. a parameter

Let $N\geq1$ be an integer and let $H:[0,1]^2\to\mathbb C^{N\times N}$ be a pointwise hermitean matrix valued function. For $y\in[0,1]$ and $0\leq a\leq b\leq 1$, let $U_y(b,a)$ be the time evolution ...
5
votes
0answers
119 views

behaviour of first eigenfunction near the boundary

Consider $\Omega$ a smooth bounded domain in $R^N$ and suppose $ \phi_1(x)>0$ is the first eigenfunction of $ -\Delta$ in $H_0^1(\Omega)$ normalized however one chooses. My interest is in how $ \...
6
votes
2answers
400 views

Existence of a measure-preserving bijection

Let $f, g \, \colon \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be two Borel-measurable functions such that $f$ is non negative and g is radially symmetric, the function $ (0, \infty )\ni t \mapsto g (tx)$...
3
votes
0answers
94 views

Motivation for the existence of periodic solutions [closed]

I have been reading the book Critical Point Theory and Hamiltonian System by Mawhin and Willem, as well as several other papers on the existence of periodic solutions for equations of the form $$\ddot{...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

Characterization of the maximizer of a function based on a parameter's value

Consider a smooth, continuously differentiable, and jointly concave function $f(x,y,z;a)$, where $x,y$ and $z$ are decision variables and $a$ is a problem parameter. I have two optimization problems. ...
5
votes
3answers
565 views

Is there an analytic solution for this partial differential equation?

The Fokker-Planck equation for a probability distribution $P(\theta,t)$: \begin{align} \frac{\partial P(\theta,t)}{\partial t}=-\frac{\partial}{\partial\theta}\Big[[\sin(k\theta)+f]P(\theta,t)-D\frac{\...
3
votes
1answer
221 views

methods for situations where well-posedness criteria hold but global solutions do not exist

I have been learning PDEs (more specifically, nonlinear dispersive equations (Schrödinger/wave/ Klein-Gordan equations etc...)) through the harmonic analysis methods. And I have read a couple of ...
9
votes
1answer
143 views

Nonconventional ergodic averages for commuting transformations

Let $S$ and $T$ be commuting measure-preserving transformations of a standard probability space $(X,\mu)$, so $S$ and $T$ define an action of $\mathbb{Z}^2$ on $(X,\mu)$. I am wondering about ...
1
vote
0answers
68 views

persistence of regularity for nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation

I have been reading the paper on nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation(NLKG) for initial data in modulation space: For detail please see the paper "Klein-Gordon Equations on Modulation Spaces (2014)" (...
2
votes
1answer
133 views

Is every set of small measure contained in an open set of small measure with null boundary?

Let $\lambda( \cdot )$ denote Lebesgue measure on $[0,1]$. Let $(A_n)_{n=1}^\infty$ be a decreasing sequence of Borel subsets of $[0,1]$ such that $\bigcap_{n=1}^\infty A_n = \emptyset$. Given $\...
2
votes
2answers
192 views

“C^0 estimate for solutions to $\Delta(u)+e^{-u} \geq 0$”

Let $u: \mathbb{R}^2 \to \mathbb{R}.$ Suppose I have a solution to the equation $$\Delta(u)+e^{-u} \geq 0$$ on $\mathbb{R}^2$. Let r be the radial coordinate on $\mathbb{R}^2$. Suppose that $$lim_{r \...
6
votes
2answers
397 views

Texts about Dwork's work

I want to ask about references to papers, that probably exist, which explain the articles of Bernard Dwork starting from "The rationality of the zeta function of an algebraic variety" to "On the ...
2
votes
0answers
109 views

Oscillation aspects of two-way infinite alternating series (a followup from the MO-question “functions that eventually oscillate”)

In the recent question on "eventually oscillating function" I had a heuristic for the function $d(x)$ that its amplitude is constant, but could not further describe that function. I just found a ...
7
votes
2answers
478 views

Interesting triple integral

Some time ago I stumbled on an alleged identity $$\int\limits_0^\infty \frac{dx}{x} \int\limits_0^x \frac{dy}{y} \int\limits_0^y \frac{dz}{z} [\sin{x}+\sin{(x-y)}-\sin{(x-z)}-\sin{(x-y+z)}]= -\frac{\...
5
votes
0answers
117 views

Hyperbolic toral automorphisms, and maximizing over orbits the minimum along an orbit of a function

Setup: Let $\phi\colon T^2 \to T^2$ be a hyperbolic toral automorphism. Let $f\colon T^2 \to \mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function. For $x \in T^2$, let $\underline{f}(x) = \inf_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} f(\...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

Reference for higher order Campanato Lemmas, e.g. `Sufficiently fast L^2 decay on balls to affine functions implies C^{1,\alpha}'

Whence can I reference the following fact (I have seen it quoted as `standard' in respectable places, so I hope it is so)?: Let $f : B_2(0) \to \mathbb{R}$, say $f \in L^2(B_2(0))$ . Suppose that ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

Generating function for products of laguerre polynomials?

In a quantum physics context, I would like to evaluate $S=\sum_{n=0}^\infty z^n\cos(\pi L_n(x))$ for $z<1$. I found generating functions for squares of Laguerre polynomials but not for any higher ...
3
votes
2answers
346 views

Summing cosines

Suppose I want to compute $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \cos(n x)/n^{2k}.$$ Now, For any fixed $k$ this is, at least in principle, doable (see the excellent answer to my math.SE question a while back), but the ...
0
votes
1answer
118 views

Equality cannot hold unless $x \in \{-1,1\}$ and/or Wronskian is not zero [closed]

By playing around with assoc. Legendre polynomials, I arrived at $$((l+1)+m) (P_l^m(x))^2+((l+1)-m)(P_{l+1}^m(x))^2 = 2(l+1)x P_l^m(x)P_{l+1}^m(x).$$ Now, I want to show that we don't have equality ...
1
vote
2answers
377 views

More recently published comprehensive reference on inequalities in the spirit of Hardy-Littlewood-Pólya

Is there a comprehensive reference book on inequalities in the spirit of the one written by G.H. Hardy, J.E. Littlewood, and G. Pólya(*), but more up-to-date (i.e., published in more recent years and ...