# Tagged Questions

**8**

votes

**2**answers

458 views

### Prove that the Dirichlet eta function is monotonic

Let us consider $\eta(p):= \sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n^p}$ for $p>0$. Has anyone come along with an elementary proof that $\eta(x)$ is monotonically increasing on this set? By ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

117 views

### Caratheodory equations

Ok, I am reading Fillipov book on discontinuous right hand side differential equations (the red book).
He states the next lemma:
"
Let the function $f(t,x)$ satisfy the Caratheodory conditions and ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

76 views

### Variational Principle for a System of Differential Equations

I am studying a differential operator of the form $$ L\left(\begin{array}{c} u \\ v \end{array}\right) = -\Delta \left(\begin{array}{c} u \\ v \end{array}\right) + V(x)\left(\begin{array}{c} u \\ v ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

564 views

### Functions that Calculate their $L_p$ Norm

are there any examples of functions $f:x\in\mathbb{R}_0^+\rightarrow\mathbb{R}_0^+$ and intervals $(a,b), 0\le a \lt b \le \infty$ , for which $$\Big(\int_a^b{|f(x)|^p dx}\Big)^\frac{1}{p} = f(p)$$ ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

469 views

### Survey of the history of calculus?

Boyer 1939 is a nice readable survey of the history of the calculus, but it's showing its age. Discussing the notion of instantaneous velocity, he has:
Mathematics knows no minimum interval of ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

113 views

### On the geometry of roots of a sum of complex linear fractions

I was wondering if there is anything known about the geometry (position) of the roots of a rational map of the form
$$R(z):= \sum_{j=1}^{n} \frac{a_j}{z-p_j},$$
where the $a_j$'s are nonzero complex ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

83 views

### Periodic solution of first order ODE

There is a famous result shows that for every continuous function $f:{\mathbb R}\rightarrow {\mathbb R}$, the first order autonomous system
$$
\left\{
\begin{array}{l}
\dot{x}=f(x), \\
x(t_0)=x_0,
...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

63 views

### radius of the ball where the inverse of Lipschitz maps exists

I am aware of the inverse function theorem for Lipschitz maps, which uses the notion of generalised derivative $δ_{x_0} f$ of a Lipschitz map $f$, due to F.H.Clarke:
Teorem. Let $f : U ⊂ \mathbb{R}^n ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

340 views

### The Weyl algebra modules which are also rings

Consider the space $C^\infty(\mathbb{R})$. We have on it a natural action of the Weyl algebra generated by $x$ and $d/dx$, where $x$ is the coordinate on $\mathbb{R}$, and there is plenty of Weyl ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

474 views

### Ramanujan's problem 754 still open?

In addition to the MO question The Ramanujan Problems. , I would like to ask the following.
Problem 754 from the list of the Ramanujan's problems ( ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

108 views

### Reference for the fact that the images of the narrow and wide Denjoy integrals are respectively $ACG_\ast$ and $ACG$?

The narrow Denjoy integral (which also goes by the names Henstock-Kurzweil integral, Perron integral, and Lusin integral) is a transfinite integration process defined by Denjoy in the early 20th ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

118 views

### Absolute convergence of multi-dimensional Fourier series

For a Lipschitz function $f$ defined in $[0,2\pi]^d$ for $d>1$, is that true
that the multi-dimensional Fourier series converges absolutely?
In other words, $\sum_{k\in ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

79 views

### Detailed Taxonomy of Multivariate Real Functions: $\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$

I want to classify the following functions:
$$ f:(x,y)\in\mathbb{R}\times\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\sqrt{(x+1)^2+y^2}+\sqrt{(x-1)^2+y^2}-2$$
$$ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

156 views

### Local positivity of solutions to linear differential inequalities (Chaplygin's theorem)

According to the entry "Differential inequality" of the Encyclopedia of Mathematics
http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php/Differential_inequality
the following result is due to Chaplygin ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

223 views

### Alternative proof of Lojasiewicz inequality

is there a "brute force proof" of the Lojasiewicz inequality? By "brute force" i mean without introducing the machinery of semianalytic sets and so on but only using elementary results (i.e. standard ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

172 views

### Number of solutions of a system of equation!

Let $\Theta =(\theta_1,\ldots, \theta_n)\in {\mathbb T}^n$. I want to show that the system of equations
$$
\sum_j 2\sin(\theta_i -\theta_j)+\sin(2\theta_i -2\theta_j) =0,\ \ i=1,\ldots, n,
$$
has ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

141 views

### Parameter dependent differential equation in a Lie group

It is well-known that a linear differential equation in a finite-dimensional vector space depends continuously on some external parameters (for details see below). I search for an explicit reference ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

230 views

### Exact Differential Equations of Order n via Pfaffian Differential Equations?

I'm wondering if somebody could both shed some light on, & offer references for more details about, this interesting quote:
The derivation of the conditions of exact integrability of an ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

154 views

### Asymptotic solution of the integral equation

What is the asymptotic solution (for $s\gg 1$) of the following integral equation $$z(s)=1+\gamma\int\limits_{-\infty}^s ds_1\int\limits_{-\infty}^{s_1}ds_2
\cos{(s_1^2-s_2^2)}z(s_2)\;?$$
In fact I ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

120 views

### Dalzel's integral for $\pi$ and the lemniscate constant

$\pi=\varpi_2$ can be considered as a member of the sequence of real numbers
$$\varpi_m=2\int\limits_0^1\frac{dt}{\sqrt{1-t^m}},$$
and, for example, the Wallis product formula ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

166 views

### Ewald's generalized theta function

Could anyone provide me some materials on the derivation of Ewald's generalized theta function (in English)? The original paper was written in German :-(
Die Berechnung optischer und ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

152 views

### Spectral theory for Dirac Laplacian on a funnel

I would like to study the spectral theory of the Dirac Laplacian on a non-compact quotient of the hyperbolic plane by a discrete group (I am particularly interested in the simple case where the ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

429 views

### For what spaces is the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator of strong type $(p,p)$ if and only if $p > p_0 > 1$?

(This is essentially a continuation of my previous question, here.)
Let $(X,d,\mu)$ be a metric measure space, i.e. $\mu$ is a Borel measure on the metric space $(X,d)$. Further assume (though you ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

778 views

### Reference for a nice proof of “undetermined coefficients”

I'm teaching an honors differential equations class and have been using linear algebra heavily. I thought it would be interesting to include a proof of the method of undetermined coefficients along ...

**6**

votes

**5**answers

720 views

### Background for Hejhal's "The Selberg Trace Formula for $PSL(2, \mathbb{R})$

Reposted from math.stackexchange where my question received only five views and no answers...
I'm trying to learn the Selberg trace formula, but have very little background in harmonic analysis. I ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

633 views

### Cantor Sets Inside Cantor Sets

(Or: "I heard you liked Cantor Sets...")
I'm working on a student project, and the following construction came up very naturally: If $C$ is the usual Cantor Set, build a countable union of copies of ...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

237 views

### Extension of lipschitz functions along a curve

Given a curve $\gamma$ in a Banach space $X$ and a function f defined along the curve s.t.
$$\big\Vert f(\gamma(t))-f(\gamma(s))\big\Vert\\leq L\big\Vert\gamma(t)-\gamma(s)\big\Vert$$
is it possible ...

**2**

votes

**5**answers

217 views

### Good reference for the construction of a Greens functions fur the Sturm-Liouville

Does anyone know a good reference for the constructions of a Greens functions fur the Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problem.

**4**

votes

**2**answers

394 views

### Can we calculate the inner product of a semicontinous function with the Dirac delta function?

Dear all,
It is clear that if $f:R\mapsto R$ is a continuous function, than $< f, \delta_x >=f(x)$. Now, if $f$ is only semicontinous, can we say that $< f, \delta_x >=f(x)$? I think this ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

219 views

### Limit connected with a periodic function

I am posting the following question from Math.Stackexchange:
Let $f$ be a $1$-periodic function, i.e., $f(x+1)=f(x)$, defined on the interval $(0, 1)$ by the formula
$$
f(x)=2x-1.
$$
For a real ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

759 views

### Request for the proof of a result from Ramanujan's letter to Hardy.

Srinivasa Ramanujan in his first letter to G.H. Hardy stated many results for which he didn't give proofs. Among them the result taken from this link seems interesting :
If ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

74 views

### Reference Request: Holomorphic Dependence on Parameters to Solutions of Complex Linear ODEs Near an Irregular Singularity

I'm looking for a reference which discusses the following:
Consider the ODE
$\frac{d^2H}{dz^2} + f(z,x)\frac{dH}{dz} + g(z,x)H(z) = 0$
where
1) $f$ and $g$ depend holomorphically on $x$ and $z$
...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Divergent series expansion in Apéry's proof of the irrationality of $\zeta(2)$ and $\zeta(3)$

UPDATE. I am now making this a CW in the hope someone can improve the content of this question and/or correct the text.
This is a concise version of this math.SE question of mine. I've got an answer ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

445 views

### How do we use an Ehresmann connection to define a semispray?

Let $M$ be a differentiable manifold, let $TM$ be its tangent bundle, and consider $TTM$, the double tangent bundle.
Let $V \subseteq TTM$ denote the vertical subbundle, which is determined in a ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

293 views

### Solution uniqueness for ODE

I have a vectorial, non-linear second order ordinary differential equation
$$Z''=f(Z)$$
for which I have a solution $Z^0$ on $[0,1]$ with $Z^0_i(0)=0$ and $Z^0_i(1)=1$. I would like to know under ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

178 views

### a limit by Gosper involving a product of arctan and $4^{1/\pi}$

On the Wolfram page about pi formulas, there is this curious limit by R. W. Gosper (130) $$\lim\limits_{n\to\infty}\prod\limits_{k=n}^{2n}\dfrac{\pi}{2\arctan k}=4^{1/\pi}.$$
The only reference given ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Nonvanishing of Jacobians implies global injectivity?

I am interested in obtaining injectivity of a $C^1$ map from the nonvanishing minors of its Jacobian matrix. Here is a brief history of the topic.
In 1953, Samuelson asked the following:
If the ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

219 views

### Bounding the series of the geometric means of the terms of a given positive series

Let $ \{ a _ k \} _{k\in\mathbb{N} _ +} $ be a sequence of non-negative numbers, and let $MG(a_1,\dots,a_n)$ denote the geometric mean of the first $n$ terms. Then, the inequality
$$ \sum _ {n\ge ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

166 views

### vector valued BVP for ODE's

I am dealing with a vector valued second order homogeneous BVP:
$\ddot u(t) = A(t)\dot u(t) + B(t)u(t)$ with $u(0)=u(1)=0.$
where $A$ and $B$ are $n \times n$ matrices with smooth coefficients and ...

**11**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Graduate ODE textbook

Suppose that a hypothetical math grad student was pretty comfortable with first-year real variables and algebra, and had even studied some other things (algebraic geometry, Riemannian geometry, ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

202 views

### A slightly generalized existence and uniqueness theorem for integral equations (reference request)

I want to use the following statement without including the proof, which is completely straightforward but rather tedious:
Let $G_0:\mathbb R\times\mathbb R^m\to\mathbb R^m$, $\Theta_0:\mathbb ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Smoothness of $f(\sqrt x)$

I found that I need to use the following facts in a paper that I am writing.
Let $f\in C^\infty(\mathbb R)$, then
If $f(0)=0$, then $f(x)=x g(x)$ for some $g\in C^\infty(\mathbb R)$.
If $f$ is ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

127 views

### How are epidemic models simulated in case of mobility?

I am not a mathematician but out of curiosity I am trying to implement the SIS epidemic model when the nodes have mobility to understand how it will change the results. I understand how to perform ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

382 views

### Equivalent references for Schwartz's book of the distribution theory

Hello,
It seems that there is no English translation of the Schwartz's book 1966. I may need to use the spaces like
$$
\dot{\mathcal{B}}(R),\quad \dot{\mathcal{B}}'(R),\quad \mathcal{B}(R),\quad ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

421 views

### What would the best treatment of Gehring's lemma look like?

In a course about elliptic regularity probably one sooner or later stubles into the reverse Holder inequalities, and has to introduce the Gehring lemma, which in one of its many versions improves a ...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

503 views

### Interpretation of the two-dimensional de-Rham complex

The de-Rham complex in one dimension describes phenomena that can be described in terms of ordinary differential equations. The de-Rham complex in three dimensions can be used to describe classical ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

312 views

### Extension operator for Lipschitz domain for fractional Sobolev spaces

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded domain, with Lipschitz smooth boundary. Then a well known result by Stein gives that there exists an extension operator $E: H^k(\Omega)\rightarrow ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

200 views

### Functions with “gradients of bounded variation”

Dear all,
I would like to know whether the following concept is one that is commonly studied, or has a name, or if there are any textbooks that make reference to it:
We say that a function $f:[a,b] ...

**17**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Learning roadmap for harmonic analysis

In short, I am interested to know of the various approaches one could take to learn modern harmonic analysis in depth. However, the question deserves additional details. Currently, I am reading Loukas ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Integral representation of higher order derivatives

I'm quite curious about the following phenomena, that still puzzle me although I have a proof, and I'd be really glad if someone may shred some light, showing an interpretation or a generalization. I ...