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Number of connected components of the Hurwitz space $H_n^o$ and subgroups of the fundamental group

A cover (of $\mathbf{P}^1_{\overline{\mathbf{Q}}}$) is a finite morphism $X\to \mathbf{P}^1_{\overline{\mathbf{Q}}}$, where $X$ is a smooth projective connected curve over $\overline{\mathbf{Q}}$. ...