5
votes
4answers
263 views

NP-hard problems in linear algebra and real analysis [closed]

I am curious about NP-hard problems in linear algebra and real analysis. An example in linear algebra would be the calculation of the permanent. I would thus like to collect in this thread a list of ...
8
votes
7answers
793 views

Classic applications of Baire category theorem

I've seen Baire category theorem used to prove existence of objects with certain properties. But it seems there is another class of interesting applications of Baire category theorem that I have yet ...
12
votes
4answers
1k views

Statements which were given as axioms, which later turned out to be false.

I know that early axiomatizations of real arithmetic (in the first half of the nineteenth century) were often inadequate. For example, the earliest axiomatizations did not include a completeness ...
15
votes
12answers
2k views

Constructions unique up to non-unique isomorphism

1) Fields have algebraic closures unique up to a non-unique isomorphism. 2) Nice spaces (without base point) have universal covering spaces unique up to a non-unique isomorphism. 3) Modules have ...
4
votes
10answers
1k views

Proving theorems by using functions with fixed points.

I am trying to get a better feel for solving questions where creating a function with a unique fixed point is the crux of the proof. In particular, the Inverse Function Theorem as well as the ...
31
votes
18answers
8k views

Interesting Calculus Questions/Exercises

I am in the process of redesigning the calculus course that I have taught five or six times. What I would like to know is if anyone has some really good examples or exercises that I could either do ...
6
votes
3answers
795 views

Uses of Divergent Series and their summation-values in mathematics ?

This question was posed originally on MSE, I put it here because I didn't receive the answer(s) I wished to see. Dear MO-Community, When I was trying to find closed-form representations for odd ...
4
votes
1answer
638 views

Examples and importance of Embedding (and Non-Embedding) Theorems

An embedding is an injective map into a universal, simpler model object. Many embedding theorems are without obstruction, in the sense that every object which you wish to embed can be embedded. ...
2
votes
6answers
7k views

What are your favorite calculus books for math majors of various levels? [closed]

Since I'll be working ("I" being the original poster, Andrew L) as either a high school math teacher or adjunct at a university as well as private tutoring, to make ends meet for the next year or so ...
33
votes
16answers
4k views

How helpful is non-standard analysis?

So, I can understand how non-standard analysis is better than standard analysis in that some proofs become simplified, and infinitesimals are somehow more intuitive to grasp than epsilon-delta ...
1
vote
2answers
479 views

How many ways can we characterize gamma function?

First let's state a well-known characterization of gamma function. If f is a positive function on positive real numbers such that: (1).f(x+1)=xf(x); (2).f(1)=1; (3).logf is convex, then f(x) is gamma ...
7
votes
3answers
898 views

What are some interesting sequences of functions for thinking about types of convergence?

I'm thinking about the basic types of convergence for sequences of functions: convergence in measure, almost uniform convergence, convergence in Lp and point wise almost everywhere convergence. I'm ...
7
votes
17answers
13k views

Text for an introductory Real Analysis course.

Any suggestions on a good text to use for teaching an introductory Real Analysis course? Specifically what have you found to be useful about the approach taken in specific texts?