Questions designed to generate a "big list" of certain results, examples, conjectures, etc. via many individual answers, each contributing one or a few instances. Such a question should typically be in Community Wiki mode (CW); after asking, please, flag for moderators attention requesting the ...

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3
votes
0answers
177 views

Roadmap for the ideas expressed in Grothendieck's Esquisse d'un Programme

I would like to understand Grothendieck's Esquisse d'un Programme more. Are there any references that would help me, and are there modern works pursuing the same themes? At this point I am still ...
30
votes
1answer
647 views

A dictionary of Characteristic classes and obstructions

I apologize in advance as this is not a research level question but rather one which could benefit from expert attention but is potentially useful mainly to novice mathematicians. In an effort to ...
9
votes
1answer
480 views

Problems which use S₄ → S₃

I need examples of problems which use, directly or indirectly, the homomorphism $S_4\to S_3$ in the solution (its kernel is $\mathbb{Z}_2\oplus\mathbb{Z}_2$). Obvious candidates: Lagrange resolvent ...
29
votes
8answers
5k views

What are some important but still unsolved problems in mathematical logic?

In the past, First order logic and its completeness and whether arithmetic is complete was a major unsolved issues in logic . All of these problems were solved by Godel. Later on, independence of ...
4
votes
3answers
114 views

Repository of graph classes that are tough to test non-isomorphic pairs from isomorphic pairs

(1) Which graph classes are extremely tough to test for graph non-isomorphic pairs from isomorphic pairs? (2) Is there a repository of adjacencies from such classes?
3
votes
2answers
85 views

Database of adjacency matrices on cospectral non-isomorphic graph pairs

Is there a repository of cospectral non-isomorphic graphs available somewhere? I am looking for list of $0/1$ adjacency matrix pairs that can be input data in tools such as MATLAB.
9
votes
0answers
168 views

Algebraic K-theory of a ring.

I started to learn some algebraic $K$-theory and its relation to geometric topology problems. My question is : What is the list of rings such that all their algebraic $K$-theory groups are known ? I ...
16
votes
14answers
1k views

Applications of Representation Theory in Combinatorics

What are the examples of interesting combinatorial identities (e.g. bijection between two sets of combinatorial objects) that can be proved using representation theory, or has some representation ...
8
votes
4answers
933 views

Which journals publish experimental results in pure maths?

All pure mathematicians know that the goal is to produce insight, rather than to simply obtain results. However, it might sometimes be of value to disseminate largely empirical work. In the same ...
59
votes
15answers
6k views

Sophisticated treatments of topics in school mathematics

Sophisticated mathematical concepts typically shed light on sophisticated mathematics. But in a few cases they also apply to elementary mathematics in an interesting way. I find such examples ...
1
vote
0answers
72 views

On Different Ways of Proving Isoperimetric Inequalities [closed]

Update: Thanks to Douglas Zare's comment, My previous questions in this thread turned out to be equivalent to the Isoperimetric problem. Thus I edited my question to make it a bit different. ...
5
votes
0answers
142 views

List of finitely presented groups with undecidable word problem

Is there any reasonably updated list of (representative) examples of finitely presented groups with undecidable word problem? By "representative" I mean "avoiding obvious redundancy", i.e. examples ...
12
votes
1answer
265 views

Alternate proofs of Hilberts Basis Theorem

I'm interested in proofs using ideas from outside commutative algebra of Hilbert's Basis Theorem. If $R$ is a noetherian ring, then so is $R[X]$. or its sister version If $R$ is a noetherian ...
70
votes
30answers
10k views

What are some very important papers published in non-top journals?

There has already been a question about important papers that were initially rejected. Many of the answers were very interesting. The question is here. My concern in this question is slightly ...
0
votes
1answer
143 views

Equivalence relations of topological spaces not comparable with homotopy [closed]

The question is pretty much contained in the title: What are examples of equivalence relations of topological spaces which are neither stronger nor weaker than homotopy equivalence? Something that ...
9
votes
5answers
478 views

List of generic properties of Riemannian metrics

I am highly interested in compiling a list of generic properties of Riemannian metrics on a (may be compact) manifold in general, or under "relatively broad" assumptions, like generic properties of ...
4
votes
4answers
448 views

Which journals publish short notes in discrete mathematics?

The journal Discrete Mathematics contains a lot of short notes (i.e., less than 7 journal pages). What are some other journals that publish short notes in discrete mathematics? I've looked at other ...
9
votes
3answers
531 views

Historical developement of analysis and partial differential equations (especially in the 20th century)

Q: Is there a set of some comprehensive surveys or monographs describing (in technical detail) the historical development of the various subareas of analysis and partial differential equations? ...
44
votes
17answers
4k views

Essays and thoughts on mathematics

Many distinguished mathematicians, at some point of their career, collected their thoughts on mathematics (its aesthetic, purposes, methods, etc.) and on the work of a mathematician in written ...
1
vote
1answer
234 views

Best way to find recent papers in a special field of mathematics?

My subjects of interest are Geometry of Banach spaces, renorming theory and fixed point theory. When I want to find recent papers in these fields of mathematics, mostly, I search name of paper, say, ...
11
votes
1answer
212 views

On Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula for irrational numbers

A BBP-type formula for an irrational number $\alpha$ in the integer base $b\geq 2$ is a formula in the form $\alpha=\Sigma_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{b^k}\frac{p(k)}{q(k)}$ ($p, q$ are polynomials in ...
77
votes
17answers
6k views

Proposals for polymath projects

Background Polymath projects are a form of open Internet collaboration aimed towards a major mathematical goal, usually to settle a major mathematical problem. This is a concept introduced in 2009 by ...
34
votes
29answers
7k views

Most intriguing mathematical epigraphs

Good epigraphs may attract more readers. Sometimes it is necessary. Usually epigraphs are interesting but not intriguing. To pick up an epigraph is some kind of nearly mathematical problem: it ...
16
votes
5answers
922 views

What are examples when the equality of some invariants is good enough in algebraic topology?

As far as my understanding goes, most of the tools of algebraic topology (homotopy groups, homology groups, cup product, cohomology operations, Hopf invariant, signature, characteristic classes, knot ...
42
votes
3answers
3k views

Advice for PhD Supervisors

My first PhD student is having his viva tomorrow. Hence, I began contemplating a bit about the whole process of supervising. One thing I realized is that while there seems to be plenty of advice for ...
70
votes
22answers
6k views

Special rational numbers that appear as answers to natural questions

Motivation: Many interesting irrational numbers (or numbers believed to be irrational) appear as answers to natural questions in mathematics. Famous examples are $e$, $\pi$, $\log 2$, $\zeta(3)$ etc. ...
2
votes
0answers
120 views

What other axioms for set theory can be written in the form: “If mathematical structures $X$ and $Y$ are equipotent, then they're isomorphic”?

The "injective continuum function hypothesis" (ICF) is the following statement. ICF (Version 0). For all cardinal numbers $\kappa$ and $\nu$, we have $2^\kappa = 2^\nu \rightarrow \kappa = \nu.$ ...
71
votes
48answers
10k views

Important formulas in Combinatorics

Motivation: The poster for the conference celebrating Noga Alon's 60th birthday, fifteen formulas describing some of Alon's work are presented. (See this post, for the poster, and cash prizes offered ...
97
votes
17answers
23k views

Mathematical software wish list

Like many other mathematicians I use mathematical software like SAGE, GAP, Polymake, and of course $\LaTeX$ extensively. When I chat with colleagues about such software tools, very often someone has ...
4
votes
2answers
399 views

$C^{*}$ algebras which do not admit nontrivial idempotent morphism

In this question which I flag it as a community wiki, I search for a big list of $C^{*}$ algebras(and a big list of criterions) which do not admit a non trivial idempotent $C^{*}-$morphism. I ...
6
votes
2answers
786 views

Survey papers on the role played by PDE in mathematics

There are already several questions on MathOverflow that inquire about the many diverse relationships between PDE and several other 'areas' of mathematics (e.g., algebraic and differential geometry ...
1
vote
1answer
174 views

Noncommutative analogs of classical Banach geometric properties

The scale of Schatten-von Neumann classes is noncommutatitve analog of classical $\ell_p$-spaces. A lot of researchers devoted their lives to study Banach geometric structure of these spaces. ...
0
votes
1answer
317 views

Collection of graduate research projects in Real Analysis [closed]

While there are many open problems in Real Analysis like Khabibullin's conjecture or Lehmer's conjecture, those are big enough to take an expert's life for several years, let alone some graduate ...
58
votes
20answers
6k views

Solving algebraic problems with topology

Often, topologists reduce a problem which is - in some sense - of geometric nature, into an algebraic question that is then (partiallly) solved to give back some understanding of the original problem. ...
7
votes
0answers
128 views

Nice applications of Liouville's theorem

I need a big list of nice-looking and simple applications of Liouville's theorem on geodesic flow in Riemannian geometry. Please help. Examples: A Riemannian manifold with finite volume does not ...
193
votes
9answers
17k views

John Nash's Mathematical Legacy

It would seem that John Nash and his wife Alicia died tragically in a car accident on May 23, 2015 (reference). My condolences to his family and friends. Maybe this is an appropriate time to ask a ...
3
votes
2answers
180 views

Examples of TVS with no non-trivial open convex subsets

I give here the classical example of the space $E = L^p([0,1])$ which has no open convex subsets apart from $\emptyset$ and $E$. Consequently, there is no non-trivial continuous linear form on $E$. ...
-4
votes
3answers
165 views

Collecting sufficient conditions for Sorli's conjecture on odd perfect numbers [closed]

Sorli's conjecture predicts that, for an odd perfect number $N$ given in the Eulerian form $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ (where $q$ is prime with $\gcd(q, n) = 1$ and $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$), the condition ...
0
votes
1answer
345 views

Physics that needs “new” math [closed]

Just curious: I can't think of a single example that a physicist did not had his mouth open in amazement when he learnt that all (OK, lets say the foundations) the math he needs for his brand-new ...
11
votes
7answers
674 views

Finite-space dynamical systems

This question is quite open-ended, but I will formulate several sub-questions that I'll try to make precise. It is about finite-state dynamical system: start with a finite set $X$, with say $n$ ...
1
vote
1answer
159 views

Maximality statements that cannot be proved using $\mathsf{ZL}$ [closed]

What are examples for maximality statements that cannot be proved using Zorn's Lemma?
49
votes
4answers
2k views

When has the Borel-Cantelli heuristic been wrong?

The Borel-Cantelli lemma is very frequently used to give a heuristic for whether or not certain statements in number theory are true. For example, it gives some evidence that there are finitely many ...
2
votes
4answers
355 views

Higher Moments, what are they good for? [closed]

Absolutely nothing? And now seriously - When I studied the basics of probability theory, and even in more advanced topics (random walks, stochastic processes, etc.), I always felt that the mean and ...
3
votes
3answers
362 views

When few simple conditions yield a unique intricate structure

If people were asked to do a brainstorming related to the title, everyone would probably come up with dozens of examples. Those could include things as different as the Mandelbrot set, Julia sets ...
10
votes
7answers
961 views

Open problems in continued fractions theory

I propose to collect here open problems from the theory of continued fractions. Any types of continued fractions are welcome.
15
votes
2answers
997 views

What are the applications of operator algebras to other areas?

Question: What are the applications of operator algebras to other areas? More precisely, I would like to know the results in mathematical areas outside of operator algebras which were proved by ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Famous examples of PhD advisors younger than their student [closed]

What are the most famous examples of PhD advisors in mathematics, younger than their student? (if possible put the date of birth and/or the difference in age).
-2
votes
1answer
222 views

Degree of a rational function [closed]

I would like to have a simple proof for the following result: Let $f=\frac{p}{q}:\mathbb{C}\longrightarrow\mathbb{C}$ be a quotient of polynomials (of course, at some points it may be undefined). ...
4
votes
2answers
313 views

Proving results about complete Boolean algebras in ZFC using Boolean valued models

I want to know what non-trivial ZFC theorems (not consistency results) about complete Boolean algebras (or more generally of partially ordered sets) one can prove using forcing. I am mainly ...
2
votes
1answer
425 views

Statistical distance between discrete and continuous distributions

Are there any statistical distance functions that are capable of comparing a continuous and a discrete distribution? From reading this list http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_distance the only ...