A Banach space is a complete normed vector space: A vector space equipped with a norm such that every Cauchy sequence converges.

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Norms of Commutators

If an $n$ by $n$ complex matrix $A$ has trace zero, then it is a commutator, which means that there are $n$ by $n$ matrices $B$ and $C$ so that $A= BC-CB$. What is the order of the best constant ...
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2, 3, and 4 (a possible fixed point result ?)

The question below is related to the classical Browder-Goehde-Kirk fixed point theorem. Let $K$ be the closed unit ball of $\ell^{2}$, and let $T:K\rightarrow K$ be a mapping such that $\Vert ...
38
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3answers
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Absolute value inequality for complex numbers

I asked this question on stackexchange, but despite much effort on my part have been unsuccesful in finding a solution. Does the inequality $$2(|a|+|b|+|c|) \leq |a+b+c|+|a+b-c|+|a+c-b|+|b+c-a|$$ ...
33
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Example of a compact set that isn't the spectrum of an operator

This question is somewhat ill-posed (due to the word easy) and is triggered by idle curiosity: Is there an easy example of a (separable, infinite-dimensional) Banach space $X$ and a nonempty ...
32
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1answer
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tr(ab)=tr(ba), part 2.

This is a Banach space version of Andre Henriques' question Trace Question for Hilbert spaces. Let $a:X\to Y$ and $b:Y\to X$ be bounded linear operators between Banach spaces s.t. $ba$ and $ab$ ...
27
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Are there non-reflexive vector spaces isomorphic to their bi-dual?

Let $V$ be an infinite dimensional topological vector space and consider the natural application $\iota\colon V\to V^{**}$. The space $V$ is said to be reflexive if $\iota$ is an isomorphism. Are ...
26
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3answers
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Surjectivity of operators on $\ell^\infty$

Can anyone give me an example of an bounded and linear operator $T:\ell^\infty\to \ell^\infty$ (the space of bounded sequences with the usual sup-norm), such that T has dense range, but is not ...
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7answers
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When is a Banach space a Hilbert space?

Let $\mathcal{X}$ be a Banach space. It is a well known fact that $\mathcal{X}$ is a Hilbert space (i.e. the norm comes from an inner product) if the parallelogram identity holds. Question: Are there ...
25
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What theorem constructs an initial object for this category? (Formerly “Integrability by abstract nonsense”)

Tom Leinster has a note here about how you can realize L^1[0,1] as the initial object of a certain category. You should really read his note because it is only 2.5 pages and is much more charming than ...
24
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Isometric embeddings of finite subsets of $\ell_2$ into infinite-dimensional Banach spaces

Question: Does there exist a finite subset $F$ of $\ell_2$ and an infinite-dimensional Banach space $X$ such that $F$ does not admit an isometric embedding into $X$? There are some results of the ...
23
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Do there exist infinite-dimensional Banach spaces in which every bounded linear operator attains its norm?

Let $X$ be a Banach space, $L(X)$ the space of all bounded linear operators on $X$. We say that $A ∈ L(X)$ attains its norm if there exists $x ∈ X$ such that $||x|| = 1$ and $||Ax|| = ||A||$. The ...
22
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Decomposable Banach Spaces

An infinite dimensional Banach space $X$ is decomposable provided $X$ is the direct sum of two closed infinite dimensional subspaces; equivalently, if there is a bounded linear idempotent operator on ...
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Subspace of $L^2$ that lies in $L^\infty$

Let $E$ be a closed subspace of $L^2[0,1]$. Suppose that $E\subset{}L^\infty[0,1]$. Is it true that $E$ is finite dimensional? PS. This is actually a question from the real analysis qualifier. I came ...
20
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1answer
515 views

Who proved that $l^1$ and $L^1[0,1]$ are not isomorphic?

$l^1$ has the Schur property (every weakly convergent sequence is norm convergent) and $L^1[0,1]$ does not, so the two spaces cannot be isomorphic. Is this folklore, or is it credited to someone? ...
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Isomorphisms of Banach Spaces

Suppose $X$ and $Y$ are Banach spaces whose dual spaces are isometrically isomorphic. It is certainly true that $X$ and $Y$ need not be isometrically isomorphic, but must it be true that there is a ...
18
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Can you tell whether a space is Banach from the unit ball?

Let $V$ be a real vector space. It is well known that a subset $B\subset V$ is the unit ball for some norm on $V$ if and only if $B$ satisfies the following conditions: $B$ is convex, i.e. if ...
17
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1answer
663 views

Meager subspaces of a Banach space and weak-* convergence

I previously asked a version of this question on Math.SE, but didn't receive an answer. (But there is a bounty there if you want to claim it!) Let $X$ be a Banach space. (If it helps, feel free to ...
17
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Large almost equilateral sets in finite-dimensional Banach spaces

Question: Does there exist a function $C:~(0,1)\to (0,\infty)$ such that for each $\varepsilon\in(0,1)$ every Banach space $X$ of dimension $\ge C(\varepsilon)\log n$ contains an $n$-point set ...
16
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5answers
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Brownian motion and spheres

Consider a Brownian motion on $[0;1]$. A (finite) discrete approximation of this Brownian motion consists of $N$ iid Gaussian random variables $\Delta W_i$ of variance $\frac{1}{N}$: $$ ...
16
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4answers
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Banach-Mazur applied to a Hilbert space

The Banach-Mazur theorem says that every separable Banach space is isometric to a subspace of $C^0([0;1],R)$, the space of continuous real valued functions on the interval $[0;1]$, with the sup norm. ...
16
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Banach spaces with few linear operators ?

Sometimes, dealing with the concrete and familiar Banach spaces of everyday life in maths, I happen nevertheless to ask myself about the generality of certain constructions. But, as I try to abstract ...
15
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A separable Banach space and a non-separable Banach space having the same dual space?

I asked myself the following question when I was student just for curiosity. I asked a bit around (my professor, some researchers that I know), but nobody was able to give me an answer. So maybe it is ...
15
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5answers
605 views

Idiosyncratic characterizations of $\ell^p$, for $p\not=1,2,\infty$

Do there exist, either in the literature or in folklore, theorems that characterize some particular $\ell^p$ space(s) ($p\not=1,2,\infty$)? Such a theorem should reveal the particular space(s) as ...
15
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701 views

A natural center of a convex weakly compact set in Banach space

Question: Let $S$ be a convex weakly compact set in Banach space $H$. Propose a natural way to define the unique center $O \in S$. Motivation: A lot! For example, in game theory $S$ can be a set of ...
15
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Ultraweak topology on B(X): Is the map X\otimes X* -> B(X)* isometric?

Let $X$ be a Banach space. Consider the map $$ \alpha\colon X\hat{\otimes} X^* \to B(X)^*, $$ defined one simple tensors as $$ \alpha(\xi\otimes\eta)(a) = \eta(a(\xi)).\quad (\xi\in X, \eta\in X^*, ...
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Lipschitz Homeomorphisms Between Spheres of N-dimensional Spaces

Let $B_p^N$ be the unit ball of $\mathbb{R}^N$ under the $\ell_p^N$ norm. Question: Let $C_N$ be the infimum of all $C$ for which there is a homeomorphism $f_N$ from $B_\infty^N$ onto $B_2^N$ so ...
15
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Dual of the Ultraproduct of a Banach Space

Suppose we have a Banach space ultraproduct $(E_i)_U$. I can think of three natural objects which are "dual-like": $(E_i^*)_U$, the ultraproduct of the duals of the ground spaces. The space made up ...
14
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1answer
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Is the space of Hankel operators complemented in B(H)?

Let $H$ be $\ell^2({\mathbb N})$ and let $S:H\to H$ be the unilateral forward shift, so that $S^*S=I\neq SS^*$. Then a bounded operator $T:H\to H$ is Hankel if and only if it satisfies $TS=S^*T$. Let ...
14
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What are the right categories of finite-dimensional Banach spaces?

This is inspired partly by this question, especially Tom Leinster's answer. Let me start with some background. I apologize that this will be rather long, since I'm hoping for input from people who ...
14
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1answer
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$(1+\epsilon)$-injective Banach spaces, complex scalars

It is well known that a real Banach space which is $(1+\epsilon)$-injective for every $\epsilon >0$ is already 1-injective (Lindenstrauss Memoirs AMS, 1964, download here). Using common ...
14
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1answer
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Generalizing the Mazur-Ulam theorem to convex sets with empty interior in Banach spaces

The Mazur-Ulam theorem (1932) states that any isometry of a normed linear space is affine. See Nica (Expo. Math. 30 (2012), 397-398; arXiv:1306.2380) for a very elegant proof. Question: Let $M$ be a ...
14
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1answer
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Infinite convex combinations in a Banach space

Let's say that a subset $C$ of a Banach space $X$ is $\sigma$-convex if the following property holds: For any sequence $(x_k)_{k\ge0}$ in $C$, and for any sequence of non-negative real numbers ...
14
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$C^*$-algebra generated by those operators that are bounded on every $\ell_p$

Suppose $T: c_{00} \to c_{00}$ is a linear map such that, when regarded as an infinite matrix, there is a uniform bound on the $\ell_1$-norms of its columns, and a uniform bound on the $\ell_1$-norms ...
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An open problem in convex geometry

Is it possible to find four norms $\| \cdot\|_k$ $( 1 \leq k \leq 4)$ on the plane such that a three-dimensional normed space containing four subspaces isometric to these normed planes does not exist? ...
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Unbounded operator bounded in a dense subset

Let $X,Y$ be normed vector spaces, X infinite dimensional. Can I find a linear map $T:X\rightarrow Y$ and a subset D of X such that D is dense in X, T is bounded in D (i.e. $\sup _{x\in D, x \neq 0} ...
13
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2answers
742 views

Does $X$ embed in $Y$, and $Y$ embed in $X$, always imply that $X$ isomorphic onto $Y$?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be Banach spaces. The notion of the embedded spaces was introduced by D.S. Djordjevic. Say that $X$ embed in $Y$, and write $X \preceq Y$, if there exists a left invertible operator ...
13
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Usefulness of Frechet versus Gateaux differentiability or something in between.

If you have a function $V: L \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, where $L$ is an infinite dimensional topological vector space, there are multiple notions of differentiability. For $x,u \in L$, $V$ is Gateaux ...
13
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1answer
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Are “most” operators on an infinite-dimensional complex Banach space “diagonalizable”?

This is true for finite-dimensional spaces: the diagonal operators on a finite dimensional complex vector space form contain a dense open set and the nondiagonalizable operators have measure 0. To be ...
13
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1answer
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Intersection of complemented subspaces of a Banach space

The following seems a very basic question in the theory of complemented subspaces of Banach spaces, but I was not able to find a reference, so I wish to ask it here. Question. Let $X$ be a Banach ...
13
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1answer
494 views

Operator norms of circulant matrices

The definition and basic properties of circulant matrices can be found here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulant_matrix. For complex numbers $a_1,\ldots,a_n$, I will use the notation $$ ...
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521 views

Second duals of Grothendieck spaces

The classical example of a Grothendieck space is $\ell_\infty$. It is also known that its even duals $\ell_\infty^{**}$, $\ell_\infty^{(4)}$, $\dots$ are Grothendieck spaces. (See, e.g., this note ...
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Finite Rank Commutators

My former student Detelin Dosev and I are interested in classifying the commutators in $L(X)$, the bounded linear operators on the Banach space $X$ (see our joint paper on my home page or the ArXiv ...
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What is an isomorphism of Banach spaces?

The nLab page on Banach spaces (http://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/Banach%20space) was recently criticised as being, in effect, too heavily biased to category theory (not of the Baire kind) and not enough ...
12
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Do non-stable Banach spaces exist?

Let $K$ be $\mathbb{R}$ or $\mathbb{C}$. A Banach space $X$ over $K$ is stable if $X\cong X\times K$. I encountered the following question in some papers in the sixties: Is every infinite ...
12
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When is the closed unit ball in a smaller Banach space closed in a larger Banach space?

Recently I saw an interesting lemma: For any $s>0$, the closed unit ball in $H^s$ is also closed in the $L^2$ norm. That is, suppose $u_j\in H^s$ and $\|u_j\|_{H^s}\le 1$. Suppose $u_j\to u$ in ...
12
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686 views

Point on a line nearest a point in Banach space

I have a Banach space geometry question (a curiosity-driven spin-off from a research topic). Given a point $x$ on the unit sphere of a Banach space and a vector $y\ne 0$, there is a multiple $t_0y$ of ...
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“Orthogonal complement” of a subspace of a Banach space

I'm looking for a reference. I am considering the situation where $X$ is a Banach space and $Y$ is a closed finite co-dimensional subspace. I am looking for a $W$ that is a complement of $Y$ (i.e. so ...
12
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ODE properties true in finite dimension but not in Banach spaces of infinite dimension

Some properties of Ordinary Differential Equations - ODE are true in finite dimension spaces but not in Banach spaces of infinite dimension. The first one I know is the Peano existence theorem. I ...
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Can a self-adjoint operator have a continuous set of eigenvalues?

This should be a trivial question for mathematicians but not for typical physicists. I know that the spectrum of a linear operator on a Banach space splits into the so-called "point," "continuous" ...
11
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B(H) as a direct sum of a closed two sided ideal and a subalgebra

Let $B(H)$ is the C*-algebra of all bounded linear operators on Hilbert space $H$. Are there a closed two-sided ideal $I$ and a subalgebra $A$ of $B(H)$ such that $B(H)=I \oplus A$ (direct sum I and ...