The axioms tag has no usage guidance.

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### Pasch axiom and Pythagorean field condition?

I am looking for a reference for the claim that the Pasch axiom is equivalent to the Pythagorean field condition, and with respect to what base theory this should be true.
Since posting the question, ...

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### Can we strengthen the axiom of choice to settle the generalized continuum problem?

By the generalized continuum problem, I mean the following: given an infinite cardinal $\kappa$, find the order type of the set of all cardinals strictly between $\kappa$ and $2^\kappa$.
Now whenever ...

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### Arguments against Freiling's argument against Continuum Hypothesis

Freiling's axiom of symmetry ($\sf AS$) is known as a justification for falsity of Continuum Hypothesis. Freiling in his 1986 paper, Axioms of symmetry: throwing darts at the real number line, ...

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### What are the advantages of the more abstract approaches to nonstandard analysis?

This question does not concern the comparative merits of standard (SA) and nonstandard (NSA) analysis but rather a comparison of different approaches to NSA. What are the concrete advantages of the ...

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### How undecidable is the spectral gap?

Nature just published a paper by Cubitt, Perez-Garcia and Wolf titled Undecidability of the Spectral Gap, there is an extended version on arxiv which is 146 pages long. Here is from the abstract:"Many ...

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### Is the axiom schema of replacement used in algebraic number theory (or more generally outside logic)

Here's a precise question. Does Wiles' proof of FLT run just fine in the set theory that logicians would perhaps call "Zermelo + choice" -- i.e. drop the axiom schema of replacement but assume the ...

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### Quasigroups extracted from the rational numbers and division

Consider a quasigroup $(Q,/)$, that is, Q is a set and for $\forall a,b\in Q$ there are unique solutions to the equations $x/a=b$ and $a/y=b$. How to find a maximal set of independent representants of ...

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### Does this axiom (a weak form of class valued choice) has a name?

At some point in my work (which has nothing to do with set theoretics foundation) I need to consider the following axiom:
For any set $X$, any class $V$ with a surjective map $f : V ...

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### Axiomatic approach to means

Recently I have been contemplating on a talk for high school children. One of my favorite topics in high school was the inequality of means. I had a great high school teacher who wrote some very nice ...

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### A generalization of SOCA

Roughly speaking, SOCA (Semi Open Coloring Axiom) says that for an open coloring of the unordered pairs over an uncountable separable metric space you can always find an uncountable homogeneous subset ...

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### An axiomatic system with a set of constants that form a complete ordered field [closed]

I am developing a ZFC axiomatic system where together with the empty set, there is a singular (and huge) set of constants that are themselves sets and form a complete ordered field (cof) these ...

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### Characterize the category of rings

(Sub)categories of many well-studied mathematical objects have been characterized purely in terms of their morphisms. Some (famous) examples:
Sets and functions, due to Lawvere.
Modules over some ...

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### Transfinitely extending $\sf PA$ — can we get stronger than $\sf ZFC$?

Let $\sf PA$ denote the theory of natural numbers with constants $(0, 1)$ and binary operators $(+,\times)$ based on the first-order predicate calculus with equality, having the following axioms, ...

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### Possible no standard use of replacement axiom

The idea is to build in ZFC using replacement, a set REPLACEMENT(x ∈ A: TERM(x))
from a set and a term in the same way the set {x ∈ A: FORMULA(x)} is built
using specification from a set and a ...

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### Consistency of: “The continuum function is injective, and for all infinite cardinals $\kappa$ we have that $2^\kappa$ is weakly inaccessible.”

I asked here about "large powerset axioms" and to my delight, learned that such axioms are being taken seriously. I've been toying with them ever since. My favourite is: "The continuum function is ...

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### Class theory with support for self-application of class functions?

To every natural number $n$, we can assign its Church numeral $\underline{n}.$ A formal definition would be:
$\underline{0}(f)=\mathrm{id}_{\mathrm{dom}(f)}$
$\underline{n+1}(f) = ...

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### Have axioms / axiom schemata of this flavour been proposed or otherwise considered?

With the exception of a few miscellaneous cases, the axioms (and/or schemeta) of ZFC can roughly be divided into two kinds:
Those that guarantee the existence of more complicated sets, given that ...

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### What is an example of a non-axiomatic mathematical system? [closed]

In this wikipedia article on the foundations of mathematics, it says:
In practice, most mathematicians ... do not work from axiomatic systems
Is this correct? If so, what is an example of this?

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### Please recommend a nice and concise math book on probability theory [closed]

My intention is neither to learn basic probability concepts, nor to learn applications of the theory. My background is at the graduate level of having completed all engineering courses in ...

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### Order Types and Replacement Schema

Using Replacement Schema we can prove any well-ordering is isomorphic to an ordinal number.
Q: Is the following consistent?
$ZFC-Rep+\neg Rep+\text{Any well-ordering is isomorphic to an ordinal ...

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### On wild behavior of $\omega_{1}$ in the absence of some essential axioms of $ZFC$

The regularity of $\omega_{1}$ is one of the most well known facts of set theory. But it seems that in order to prove this simple fact we need the "full power" of mathematics! For example by an ...

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### what are the Rosser Turquette axioms of Lukasiewicz 3 valued propositional logic?

hi I posted this question on mathematics stackexhange ( http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/468855/what-are-the-rosser-turquette-axioms-of-lukasiewicz-3-valued-propositional-logic ) but did not ...

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### Shape of axioms in abstract algebra

When defining abstract algebraic structures (like monoids, groups, etc...), are there some constraints on the shape of the axioms, for the structure to have good properties that we implicitly use in ...

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### Infinite board games: sentences about

As a unified approach if we have an ( read any) infinite board game described as $\mathcal{G}$ using a particular axiom set A..
can a sentence be devised in A which automatically answers the basic ...

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### Counterintuitive consequences of the Axiom of Determinacy?

I just read Dr Strangechoice's explanation that if all subsets of the real numbers are Lebesgue measurable, then you can partition $2^\omega$ into more than $2^\omega$ many pairwise disjoint nonempty ...

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### Result that follows from ZFC and not ZF but are strictly weaker than choice

A number of results that people use that require the axiom of choice (i.e. do not follow from ZF alone) are known to actually imply the axiom of choice. Therefore, one might naturally wonder whether ...

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### Survey of finite axiomatizability for relational theories?

An $L$-theory $T$ is finitely axiomatizable if there is a finite set $A$ of $L$-sentences with the same consequences as $T$, i.e. such that $M \models T$ iff $M \models A$ for every $L$-structure $M$. ...

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### What is known about size-restricted power set axioms?

What is known about ZF without powerset but with an axiom "every set
has a set of all its countable subsets"?
This seems stronger than positing that the set of natural numbers has
a powerset, though ...

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### What's the difference between ZFC+Grothendieck, ZFC+inaccessible cardinals and Tarski-Grothendieck set theory?

Say that "U" is the axiom that "For each set x, there exists a Grothendieck universe U such that x $\in$ U", where Grothendieck universes are defined in the usual way (or, if that's unclear, in this ...

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### Are there any complete, first-order and unstable theories which have non-categorical second-order formulations?

Since it's not stable, $PA$ fails at being categorical in a power in the worst possible way, having $2^{\lambda}$ models in any uncountable $\lambda$. But $PA$ regains its categoricity in the move to ...

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### two versions of the nested interval property

There appear to be two different nested interval properties for the reals with the punchline "... then the intersection of the intervals is non-empty", and I'd like to know their respective histories ...

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### Theories and indiscernible propositions

Are there known examples of statements which are strong from a proof-theoretic standpoint but which are indistinguishable by one set of axioms (or proof system) yet distinct according to a stronger ...

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### getting rid of existential quantifiers

It seems to me that for most of the twentieth century, axiomatic foundations for mathematical theories were constructed with the (mostly allied) goals of minimizing the number of primitive notions and ...

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### theorems equivalent to the parallel postulate

Is there a good survey article listing all the theorems of Euclidean geometry that are equivalent to the parallel postulate?

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### Axiom of class collection

One version of the Axiom of Collection says that any surjection $A\to B$ from a class $A$ to a set $B$ is factored through by some surjection $C\to B$ where $C$ is a set.
Note that assuming $B$ is a ...

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### Are there uncountably many essentially inequivalent versions of Mathematics?

Hi everyone,
Disclaimer 1: logic and set theory are a long way from my field, so apologies in advance if I demonstrate extreme ignorance or stupidity, and please correct me if (when?) I write stupid ...

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### Is it possible to show that an infinite set has a countable (infinite) subset, without using the Axiom of Choice?

Let X be an infinite set.
Is it possible to show the existence of a countably infinite subset of X without using the Axiom of Choice?

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### Minimal subset of axioms for ZFC

Hello all, one may look for "minimal system of axioms" for ZFC (or any other
theory) in the following (unusual) sense : say that a subset S of ZFC is
"sufficient" if there is an explicit procedure ...

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### How would calculus be possible in a finitist axiom system?

I am interested in learning a little more about finitism, currently about which I only know a few encyclopedic paragraphs.
I know that during some time, some mathematicians like Kronecker thought ...

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### Does the Axiom of Choice (or any other “optional” set theory axiom) have real-world consequences? [closed]

Or another way to put it: Could the axiom of choice, or any other set-theoretic axiom/formulation which we normally think of as undecidable, be somehow empirically testable? If you have a particular ...

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### What is cardinality of the set of true undecidable minimal sentences in a formal theory of aritmetic

Let T be a true theory of arithmetic to which the incompleteness theorems apply. Consider two sentences in the language of T to be equivalent if they are provably equivalent over T. How many ...

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### Axiom of Computable Choice versus Axiom of Choice

What would be the consequence of requiring that any choice function be computable; i.e. using as the foundational basis ZF + ACC? Does it make a difference if we admit definable functions?
I guess I ...

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### Any paradoxical theorems arising from large cardinal axioms?

If we accept the axiom of choice, we take the responsibility of living in a world in which, e.g., a ball in Euclidean 3-space is equiscindable to two isometric copies of itself (Banach-Tarski). So we ...

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### Axiomatic definition of integers

The real numbers can be axiomatically defined (up to isomorphism) as a Dedekind-complete ordered field.
What is a similar standard axiomatic definition of the integer numbers?
A commutative ordered ...