**15**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Is it possible to formulate the axiom of choice as the existence of a survival strategy?

Consider the following situation:
There is an infinite set $G$ of giraffes.
A lion comes and announces a set $C$ of all possible colours and an infinite cardinal $\kappa$.
The hungry lion ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

193 views

### Does existence of $\omega_1$ subset of reals imply $\omega_1$ choice for subsets of reals?

Suppose there exists a subset of $\Bbb R$ which has cardinality $\omega_1$. Is it then necessarilly true that for every collection of $\omega_1$ subsets of $\Bbb R$ there exists a choice function?
I ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

572 views

### Is $\mathbb{R}$ a $\mathbb{C}$-module without AC?

Assuming ZFC. We can make $(\mathbb{R},+)$ into a nontrivial(scaler multiplication is not identicaly zero) $\mathbb{C}$-module.
Now my questions are?
0.Is it consistent with $ZF$ that $\mathbb{R}$ is ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

536 views

### Exponentiation and Dedekind-finite cardinals

It is known that the sum and the product of two Dedekind-finite cardinals are also Dedekind-finite cardinals. What about cardinal exponentiation ?
Question: Let A and B be two Dedekind-finite ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

326 views

### Relationship between fragments of the axiom of choice and the dependent choice principles

The dependent choice principle ${\rm DC}_\kappa$ states that if $S$ is a nonempty set and $R$ is a binary relation such that for every $s\in S^{\lt\kappa}$, there is $x\in S$ with $sRx$, then there ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

219 views

### Without AC, which implications between the different definitions of amenability still hold?

More precisely, I would like to know which implications between the following definitions of amenability of a discrete countable (or even finitely generated) group can be proved to hold with only ZF ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

174 views

### Is it compatible with ZF to assume that every amenable discrete group is finite?

The question is in the title, amenability being understood as the existence of a left-invariant finitely additive probability measure on the group of interest. The case of countable groups is treated ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

238 views

### Forcing $\neg AC$

Sorry if this sounds like a silly reference request, but I wasn't able to track down any. I'm looking for proof, via forcing, that axiom of choice can fail in a model of $ZF$. All of papers I found ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

362 views

### Forcing, cuts, and Dedekind-finite cardinalities

Tl;dr version: there are two natural classes of cuts in the nonstandard model of arithmetic consisting of the Dedekind-finite sets (if, in fact, they constitute such a model); both these classes are ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### How much of GCH do we need to guarantee well-ordering of continuum?

It's well known that, if GCH holds, then every cardinal can be well-ordered. However, I'm sure we don't need full power of GCH to prove it for specific cardinal, e.g. continuum. I have been wondering, ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

254 views

### Does Sageev's result need an inaccessible?

In 1981, building on work by Ellentuck in 1974, Sageev showed ("A model of ZF + there exists an inaccessible, in which the Dedekind cardinals constitute a natural non-standard model of arithmetic," ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

297 views

### What axioms (other than choice) have a taming effect on the ordering of cardinalities?

Axiom of choice arranges all cardinalities into a well-ordered chain but without it their ordering can be wild in general ZF models, e.g. two cardinalities may not even have inf or sup. However, ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

238 views

### Choice principle strong enough to defy $V=L$

When using axiom of choice in proofs, people often say that this is non-constructive because AC gives us only proofs of existence, without giving explicit example. However, because in $L$ AC holds, we ...

**21**

votes

**1**answer

648 views

### Is there a model of ZF set theory with a set that does not inject into the cardinals?

Question. Is there is a model of ZF set theory with a set $X$ that does not inject into the cardinals?
I use the term "cardinal" here in the ZF sense, so they are not necessarily well-orderable.
To ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

461 views

### Can we prove an open affine subscheme of a noetherian scheme is noetherian without Axiom of Choice?

I'm interested in proving basic results of algebraic geometry without Axiom of Choice.
As for why I think this is interesting, please see Pete L. Clark's answer to this question.
To state my problem, ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

236 views

### Sets of cardinalities of bases without choice

For a vector space $V$, let $BS(V)$ be the set of cardinalities (not necessarily $\aleph$s) of bases of $V$. Of course, in ZFC each $BS(V)$ is a singleton, but supposing the axiom of choice fails, it ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

469 views

### Properties of vector spaces without AC

With AC, it is easy to see that any vector space is injective, and free, therefore alse flat and projective.
Without AC, vector spaces can be not free. Are they must be projective modules? Flat ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

776 views

### Can we construct cohomolgy theory on noetherian separated schemes without Axiom of Choice?

The usual cohomology theory on schemes uses injective or flasque resolutions of quasi-coherent sheaves. Hence it uses Axiom of Choice.
However, if the base scheme is a noetherian separated scheme, the ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

349 views

### Are the reals really a fraction field?

In an answer to this question I was led to show the trick proving that $\mathbb R$ is the fraction field of some strict subring $A\subsetneq \mathbb R=\operatorname{Frac}(A)$.
A crucial point in the ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

583 views

### Pathological behavior of Borel sets?

Usually in set theory, Borel sets are much more nicely behaved than arbitrary sets of reals. One reason for this is Borel determinacy, which immediately yields measurability, Baireness, and the ...

**5**

votes

**4**answers

412 views

### Is every Heyting algebra the Lindenbaum algebra of an intuitionistic first order theory?

This question comes after the comments in the recent related question Sigma-complete Lindenbaum algebras?, but in its current form is sufficiently different in my opinion, and so I decided to follow ...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

343 views

### Why doesn't choice imply global choice (in NBG)?

I thought ZFC proved the existence of an inductive well-ordering that is itself a set for any stage of V. NBG with only the regular AC should then prove/assert the existence of a class R of ordered ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

323 views

### Linear maps between arbitrarily chosen vectors of vector spaces $V$ and $W$

I recently came across this question:
Is the axiom of choice needed to prove the following statement:
Let $V, W$ be vector spaces, and suppose $V \neq \{0\}$. Let $v \in V$, $v \neq 0$, $w \in W$. ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

158 views

### Function Approximation in c.c.c Forcings without AC in Ground Model

Consider the following basic theorem.
Theorem. If $M$ is a c.t.m of ZFC and $\mathbb{P}$ a c.c.c forcing notion in $M$ and $G$ a $\mathbb{P}$ - generic filter on $M$ then for all $A,B$ in $M$ and for ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

385 views

### Re-interpreting vector spaces in a choice-less model of ZF as modules over a regular ring in ZFC

I am searching a module $M$ over a (von Neumann) regular ring $A$ ($\forall a\in A$, $\exists x\in A$: $axa=a$) with two properties:
(1) every finitely generated submodule of $M$ is projective ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

171 views

### Intermediate submodels which do not satisfy AC

The following is known:
Theorem. Suppose $V[G]$ is a generic extension of $V$ by a set forcing, and let $N$ be a model of $ZFC$ with $V\subseteq N\subseteq V[G].$ Then $N$ is a generic extension of ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

229 views

### How many Dedekind-finite sets can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into?

Building off Asaf Karagila's answer to my previous question (Can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into dedekind-finite sets?) on partitioning $\mathbb{R}$ into strictly Dedekind-finite sets:
(1) What ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

915 views

### Weak forms of the Axiom of Choice

Let $n\geq 2$ be a natural number and consider the following:
$AC(n)$: For each family $\{X_i\}_{i \in I}$ of $n$-element sets the product $\prod_{i\in I}X_i$ is non-empty.
Is it known that for ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

311 views

### Can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into dedekind-finite sets?

Assuming $ZF$ itself is consistent, it is consistent that there are sets $D$ which are infinite but cannot be placed in bijection with any of their proper subsets; such sets are called "strictly ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

318 views

### In $L$, does there exist a definable non-principal ultrafilter on $\mathbb{N}$

The axiom of constructibility $V=L$ leads to some very interesting consequences, one of which is that it becomes possible to give explicit constructions of some of the "weird" results of AC. For ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

711 views

### Can we prove that the ring of formal power series over a noetherian ring is noetherian without axiom of choice?

Let $A$ be a commutative ring with an identity.
Suppose that every non-empty set of ideals of $A$ has a maximal element.
Let $A[[x]]$ be the formal power series ring over $A$.
Can we prove that every ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

149 views

### What is the meaning of restricting a Boolean value to a subalgebra?

$\require{AMScd}$
I am studying the proof that the ordering principle does not imply the axiom of choice in Jech's book "The Axiom of Choice" (Section 5.5). Let $P$ be the set of finite partial ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

267 views

### A question about the first Cohen model

Consider the first Cohen model, i.e. let $M$ be a countable transitive model of ZFC + $V=L$, let $\mathbb P$ be the poset consisting of finite partial functions from $\omega\times\omega$ to $2$, let ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

145 views

### Group morphism and axiom of choice

Let $n$ be a strictly positive natural integer. Let us consider the topological group $(\mathbb{R}^n,+)$ with its usual structure.
In ZF, can we deduce some form of the axiom of choice from the ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

874 views

### Can an infinite number of mathematicians guess the number in a box with only one error?

In this question the following observation was made:
Consider a sequence of boxes numbered 0, 1, ... each containing one real number. The real number cannot be seen unless the box is opened.
Define ...

**21**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Probabilities in a riddle involving axiom of choice

The question is about a modification of the following riddle (you can think about it before reading the answer if you like riddles, but that's not the point of my question):
The Riddle:
We assume ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

162 views

### Strength of claims about extensions of partial preorders and orders to linear ones

Consider these two axioms:
Every partial order extends to a linear order.
Every partial preorder (reflexive and transitive relation) extends to a linear preorder while preserving strict orderings: ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

631 views

### Subsets of Real Numbers (Edited & Revised Version)

Question 1: Is it consistent with $\text{ZF}$ that only countable subsets of $\mathbb{R}$ are well-orderable?
Question 2: Is it consistent that for some $\lambda$, $\aleph_0 < \lambda < ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

441 views

### Minimal Generalized Continuum Hypothesis & Axiom of Choice

It is well known that working in the frame of $\text{ZF}$, the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis ($\text{GCH}$) implies the Axiom of Choice ($\text{AC}$), i.e. $\text{ZF}+\text{GCH}\vdash \text{AC}$.
...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

161 views

### Discontinuous representations of GL(n,C) in ZF

Discontinuous linear representations of $GL(n,\mathbb{C})$ can be obtained from the so-called "wild" (field) automorphisms of $\mathbb{C}$; but these wild automorphisms in turn require some choice to ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

566 views

### Full conditional probabilities and versions of AC?

A probability is a finitely additive measure on a boolean algebra with total measure $1$.
A function $P:\scr B \times (\scr B - \{ 0 \})$ is a full conditional probability on $\scr B$ (for a boolean ...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

414 views

### Strength of some claims about finitely additive measures on infinite sets?

Assume ZF. Consider the claim:
(1) For any infinite set $\Omega$, there is a finitely additive probability measure $\mu:2^\Omega\to[0,1]$ with $\mu(A) = 0$ whenever $|A|<|\Omega|$.
Then (1) is ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

279 views

### Possible Choices for Cofinality of $\aleph_n$ without Choice

$\text{ZFC}$ proves that each $\aleph_{n}$ for $n\in \omega$ is a regular cardinal. But it seems without the Axiom of Choice there are many consistent possible choices for cofinality of such ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

500 views

### Is sigma-additivity of Lebesgue measure deducible from ZF?

Is sigma-additivity (countable additivity) of Lebesgue measure (say on measurable subsets of the real line) deducible from the Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (without the axiom of choice)?
Note 1. ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

286 views

### Solovay's Theorem on Partitions of Stationary Sets and Weak Choice Principles

There is a weak choice principle called $DC_\lambda$ which holds in $L(V_{\lambda+1})$ under the assumption of a non-trivial elementary embedding $$j:L(V_{\lambda+1})\prec L(V_{\lambda+1})$$ and it is ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

479 views

### Seemingly elementary geometric problem in R^3 which requires the axiom of choice

While playing with what I called "quantum matching", the following problem arose: construct a map $F$ from the unit sphere $S_2$ in $R^3$ to itself such that $F(X)$ is orthogonal to $X$ plus has one ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

422 views

### Non continuous Linear form on $E=C([0,1],\mathbb{R})$ without AC

Let's note $E=C([0,1],\mathbb{R})$ the Banach space of real continuous funtions from the [0,1] interval with the uniform norm.
Is it possible to show a non-continuous linear form on $E$ exists ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

79 views

### Metric space has a basis countably locally finite

it is know that all metric space has a basis countably locally finite and this result is proved by using axiom of choice. Then, the natural question is: is possible to prove this result without using ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

269 views

### What is the order type of $L$ with Godel's well ordering?

In some sense $Ord$ is a "proper class" ordinal. Unfortunately the notion of a proper class ordinal is not a straight forward generalization of the notion of "set" ordinals because the proper classes ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

213 views

### Proving equivalence of a tree-based version of Countable Choice for families of finite sets

In this paper by Good and Tree, the following result is mentioned without proof as part of Proposition 6.5:
Each of the following statements imply those beneath it.
The countable union of ...