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**21**

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**1**answer

741 views

### Automatic groups - recent progress

Epstein's (et al.) "Word Processing in Groups" is a quite comprehensive monograph on automatic groups, finite automata in geometric group theory, specific examples like braid groups, fundamental ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

574 views

### Complementation of $\omega$-regular languages in reverse mathematics

Does anyone know where Büchi's theorem that $\omega$-regular languages are closed under complementation fits into the reverse-mathematics classification scheme? That is, is it equivalent over ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

202 views

### Eilenberg's rational hiererchy of nonrational automata & languages — where is it now?

In the preface to his very influential books Automata, Languages and Machines (Volumes A, B), Samuel Eilenberg tantalizingly promised Volumes C and D dealing with "a hierarchy (called the rational ...

**7**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Regular languages and the pumping lemma

In certain dark corners of computer science and group theory, one often wants to prove that a language is not a regular language (ie a language accepted by a finite state automaton).
The only ...

**7**

votes

**5**answers

856 views

### Generating function of a regular language

It is well known that the generating function of a regular language $L$, i.e. $\sum n_kz^k$ where $n_k$ is the number of words of length $k$ in $L$, is rational, i.e. a quotient of two polynomials ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

562 views

### Can you hide a letter without losing information?

Consider the following game between Alice and Bob.
$\Sigma$ is a finite nonempty alphabet, $\Delta \notin \Sigma$ denotes
a special symbol, and $k > 0$ is a positive integer constant representing
...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Wolfram's 2-state 3-symbol Turing machine

A few years ago it was announced that a 2-state symbol Turing machine was proven to be universal. However, Vaughn Pratt disputed the proof, and I gather he still disputes it. Wolfram's prize committee ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

369 views

### Growth zeta-functions of regular languages

Dear All,
my following question may be known and ought to be known, so in case it is folklore please could you give me the references.
To start, it is obvious that growth of rational languages are ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

91 views

### Generalising the adherence operator and its closure properties with regard to regular (rational) languages

Let $X$ be an alphabet and denote by $X^{\omega}$ the set of all infinite sequences (i.e. words) in $X$. A subset $L \subseteq X^{\omega}$ is called $\omega$-regular if it is acceptable by some ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

130 views

### Separating infinite words sharing factors by automata

Two infinite words $\xi, \eta \in X^{\omega}$ are separated by an (Büchi-)automaton if it accepts one but not the other.
Denote by $F_n(\xi)$ the factors of length $n$ of an infinite word $\xi$ and ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

764 views

### Rabin's Tree Theorem

I've been reading Rabin's article on decidability in Barwise's text, and I came across Rabin's discussion of the decidability proof of his tree theory: the second-order theory with two successor ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

197 views

### Is it decidable whether the support of a rational $\mathbb{Z}$-series is a regular language?

Let $S \in \mathbb{Z}\langle\langle A\rangle\rangle$ be a rational series in noncommutative variables. The support of $S$ is the set of all words $u \in A^*$ such that $(S, u) \not= 0$. It is ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

447 views

### Isomorphism in category of finite automata

What does meanthat two finite automata is equivalent? I think that we must define category of finite automata, i.e. we must define $\mathrm{Hom}(A,B)$, where $A,B$ be an arbitrary finite automata. ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

648 views

### A special class of regular languages: “circular” languages. Is it known?

We can define a subclass of the regular languages. Fix an alphabet $\Sigma$. Define the "circular" languages (actually, the name already exists to denote a different thing it seems, used in the field ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

149 views

### K-fellow traveler property and automatic structure

I have been reading several articles about automatic groups and metric spaces of negative curvature. However it is not clear for me the relationship between automatic groups, hyperbolcity and the ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

313 views

### Computing the pro-solvable closure of a finitely generated subgroup of a free group

The pro-solvable topology on a group $G$ is the unique group topology such that the set of normal subgroups $N\lhd G$ with $G/N$ a finite solvable group is a fundamental system of neighborhoods of the ...

**5**

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**0**answers

212 views

### Büchi automata with acceptance strategy

I have already asked this question on cstheory.stackexchange, but without success. Maybe it is too close to an "open problem", although it is not a famous one. Anyway I try here, I can always remove ...

**5**

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**0**answers

187 views

### “Question-answer” bisimulation

I often come across relations that would be defined as a bisimulation, except that the label match can be "inexact", that is, in the bisimulation game, a move labelled with "a" can be replied to with ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Are context-free languages with context-free complements necessarily deterministic context-free?

Let $L \subseteq A^\star$ be a formal language over $A$ generated by a context-free grammar, and $L' = A^\star - L$ be the relative complement in $A^\star$.
If $L$ and $L'$ are both context-free, are ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

90 views

### Computations with conetypes of hyperbolic groups

I'd like to know if there exists (and, in this case, where I can find it) some computer program/programming language/any kind of software that can find explicitly the conetypes of a hyperbolic group ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

881 views

### Deciding equivalence of regular languages

Given two regular expressions $R$ and $S$ on an alphabet $\Sigma$ it is possible to decide their equivalence as follows:
build two finite automata $M_R$ and $M_S$ such that $L(R) = L(M_R)$ and $L(S) ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

229 views

### Deterministic finite-state automaton driven by a Markov chain

I've stumbled on some problem, and I have the feeling that this is closed to something well-studied in dynamical systems. The problem is the following. Consider a finite-state automaton with state ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

101 views

### Properties of classical automata preserved in Büchi automata

Given two NFW $A$ and $B$, we regarded $A$ and $B$ as Büchi automata.
We can show that the containment property is not preserved in Büchi automata. That is, we can construct a example: $L(A) ...

**4**

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**0**answers

193 views

### How should one generate a random set of mappings?

My motivation for this question comes from the study of synchronizing automata. There is a general consensus that random automata are synchronizing and have short synchronizing words. I am hoping ...

**4**

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**0**answers

148 views

### connectivity in automata by words of length n-1

Let $A$ be a complete strongly connected automaton with $n$ states. Does always exist a word $v$ of length at most $n-1$ such that its underlying graph is connected?
That is for any pair of distinct ...

**3**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Theory mainly concerned with $\lambda$-calculus?

Automata theory is mainly concerned with Turing machines and all its relatives-in-spirit. $\lambda$-calculus is rather rarely mentioned in textbooks on automata theory.
What's the common name of the ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Is there an algorithm that can “reverse engineer” a Regular Expression?

Given a Regular language (represented as a black box to which one can apply inputs and get 0/1) Is there an algorithm that can find a finite deterministic automaton that produces that language?

**3**

votes

**1**answer

624 views

### Collatz conjecture— finite state machine transducer construction, origination?

wikipedia has an entry on the Collatz conjecture with a section on As an abstract machine that computes in base two. this apparently describes a construction of a FSM transducer computing sequential ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

448 views

### Finite variation and idempotent languages and automata.

Let $L$ be a regular language over alphabet $\Sigma$ and let $A:=(Q,\Sigma,\delta, q_0, F)$ be the minimal DFA recognizing $L$. For every $w\in \Sigma^*$ define the variation of $w$ w.r.t. $L$ by
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

458 views

### Study of free monoids of the recursive S. Eilenberg.

Compared to the usual treatises on recursion (eg, Rogers H. "Computability and Undecidability." McGraw-Hill, New York) the book of Samuel Eilenberg & Calvin C. Elgot "Recursiveness" treats such ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

488 views

### 'Closure' of CFLs under complementation and intersection

Consider two context-free languages $L_1, L_2$. Of course, $L_1 - L_2, L_1\cap L_2, \bar{L}_1$, etc. are not necessarily context-free, but they are context-sensitive (the second is easy, the other two ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

122 views

### Subsets of $\omega$-regular lanuages accepted by automata with special acceptance condition

Let $\mathcal A = (X, Q, \delta, q_0, F)$ be a deterministic finite automata with the following acceptance condition on infinite words:
The automata accepts $\xi \in X^{\omega}$ with respect to $F$ ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

151 views

### Exponential objects in a category of abstract automata

I'm working with a more or less standard definition of the category Aut(C) of automata over a category C (where C has finite products) which has tuples $$
A=\langle I_{A},O_{A},S_{A},\sigma_{A}, ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

618 views

### Turing-complete primitive blind automata

Let $N$ be the set of natural numbers, $S$ be the set of finite binary sequences, and
$Q = [N \rightarrow N] \times [N \rightarrow N],$
where $[N \rightarrow N]$ is the set of all computable ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

743 views

### Certain type of regular languages

Dear All,
there is one type of regular languages, over $\{a,b\}$, which appear naturally in what I am studying, so if anybody could recognise them, or say any sort of their characterisation, that ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

120 views

### Estimating the growth rate of nondeterministic finite automata

Given a nondeterministic finite automaton $\mathcal{A}$ (or a regular expression, or a regular grammar), can we efficiently compute the number $|L_k(\mathcal{A})|$ of accepted words of length $k$?
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

754 views

### Algebraic structure generated by primitive graph operations

Let $M$ be a finite set, and
$S(M) = \{(f_0, f_1) | f_0, f_1: M → M\}$.
Each element of $S(M)$ can be considered as a finite directed graph with the set of nodes $M$, which has exactly two arrows ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

200 views

### Proof that the $\omega$-language consisting of all words containing every finite word as a factor is not rational/regular

Let $\eta$ be an $\omega$-word over $X = \{0,1\}$ and let $F_k(\eta)$ denote the factors of $\eta$ of length $k$. Define the following $\omega$-languages
$$
L_k := \{ \xi : F_k(\xi) = X^k \} = \{ \xi ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

108 views

### Varieties of rational languages and (pseudo-)varieties of finite monoids, question regarding closure property

Let $\mathcal Rat(A)$ denote the class of rational (or regular) languages over the alphabet $A$, a subset $\mathcal V(A) \subseteq \mathcal Rat(A)$ is called a variety of (rational) languages iff
...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

342 views

### Let G and H be finite index subgroups of a free group. Does GH=HG?

Let $\Sigma$ be a finite set. Let $F_\Sigma$ be the free group over $\Sigma$. Let $G$ and $H$ be finite index subgroups of $F_\Sigma$. Consider the sets $GH$ and $HG$. Is it always true that $GH=HG$? ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

117 views

### Representability of sets of infinite sequences sharing common prefixes and factors (i.e. infixes)

Here we are concerned with the space $X^{\omega}$ of infinite sequences. Denote by $F_n(\xi)$
the set of factors (consecutive finite subsequences) of length $n$ and consider the set
$$
K_n(\xi) = ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

124 views

### QBF of exponential length?

We consider a slightly extended version of a nondeterministic finite automaton, call it a "propositional nondeterministic finite automaton". It is defined as follows. Consider a fixed propositional ...

**2**

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**0**answers

442 views

### Question about $\omega$-regular languages

As most of you already know, in model checking most linear-time properties are either safety properties or liveness properties. A linear time property is usually described with an $\omega$-regular ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

311 views

### Given a PDA M such that L(M) is in DCFL construct a DPDA N such that L(N) = L(M)

Is it possible to construct an algorithm which takes as input a pushdown automaton $M$ along with the information that the language accepted by this automaton $L(M)$ is a deterministic context-free ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

603 views

### Translate a buchi automaton to LTL

How can I translate a Büchi automaton A to LTL(linear temporal logic) if $L(A)$ is definable in the LTL?
MY idea is : Büchi automaton $A$ ===> QPTL ===> LTL
I know that given any Buchi ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

795 views

### example :concatenation of 2 undecidable language gives a decidable language [closed]

give example of 2 languages A and B such that A and B are undecidable but there concatenation A.B is decidable.

**1**

vote

**1**answer

142 views

### Optimum control of a probabilistic automaton

Suppose we have a probabilistic automaton and we assign a weight to each state. An "interaction strategy" would be a fixed map from states to inputs. Any interaction strategy could be used to ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

200 views

### Dumb question about Minimization in IATLC

I have probably a pretty dumb question about the classical Minimization algorithm for a DFA, as described in the Hopcroft book "Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages and Computation", pg. ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

25 views

### Relation between indexed languages (OI-macro or context-free tree) and scattered context languages

I'm not sure about the relation between indexed languages (generated by indexed grammars--Aho) and scattered context languages (generated by
scattered context grammars--J Hopcroft).
I think that ...

**1**

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**0**answers

96 views

### LTL - Büchi-automaton Translation [closed]

I need some help in Generalized Büchi automaton ..
I do understand the translation of a LTL-formula ϕ into Generalized Büchi automaton A= (Q, Δ, I, F), with F= {F1,...,Fn}
My problem is F ..
I know ...