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52
votes
9answers
5k views

Why should I believe the Mordell Conjecture?

It was Faltings who first proved in 1983 the Mordell conjecture, that a curve of genus 2 or more over a number field has only finitely many rational points. I am interested to know why Mordell and ...
49
votes
11answers
4k views

Why certain diophantine equations are interesting (and others are not) ?

It is quite clear why certain differential equations, among the jungle of possible diff equations that is possible to conceive, are studied: some come from physical problems, or from "spontaneous" ...
39
votes
8answers
4k views

Questions about analogy between Spec Z and 3-manifolds

I'm not sure if the questions make sense: Conc. primes as knots and Spec Z as 3-manifold - fits that to the Poincare conjecture? Topologists view 3-manifolds as Kirby-equivalence classes of framed ...
35
votes
2answers
8k views

What are “perfectoid spaces”?

This talk is about a theory of "perfectoid spaces", which "compares objects in characteristic p with objects in characteristic 0". What are those spaces, where can one read about them? Edit: A bit ...
35
votes
2answers
2k views

Langlands in dimension 2: the Yoshida conjecture

Background: One prominent part of the Langlands program is the conjecture that all motives are automorphic. It is of interest to consider special cases that are more precise, if less sweeping. ...
34
votes
2answers
4k views

What is a good roadmap for learning Shimura curves?

I am interested in learning about Shimura curves. Unlike most of the people who post reference requests however (see this question for example), my problem is not sorting through an abundance of books ...
33
votes
2answers
4k views

current status of crystalline cohomology?

The great references given on Ilya's question make me wonder about the current status of the many conjectures and open questions in Illusie's survey from 1994 on crystalline cohomology. Obviously ...
30
votes
1answer
839 views

Is the group of integer points on a finite-type group scheme over Z finitely presented?

Let $G$ be a group scheme of finite type over $\mathbf{Z}$. Must $G(\mathbf{Z})$ be finitely presented? (The question is inspired by a not yet successful attempt to answer a question of Brian ...
29
votes
1answer
8k views

What is inter-universal geometry?

I wonder what Mochizuki's inter-universal geometry and his generalisation of anabelian geometry is, e.g. why the ABC-conjecture involves nested inclusions of sets as hinted in the slides, or why such ...
24
votes
6answers
3k views

Intuition for the last step in Serre's proof of the three-squares theorem

Serre's A Course in Arithmetic gives essentially the following proof of the three-squares theorem, which says that an integer a is the sum of three squares if and only if it is not of the form 4^m (8n ...
23
votes
3answers
2k views

Arithmetic geometry examples

(This is inspired by Algebraic geometry examples.) I want to collect here (counter)examples in arithmetic geometry. Curves violating the Hasse principle: The Selmer curve $3X^3 + 4Y^3 + 5Z^3 = 0$. ...
22
votes
1answer
3k views

Fontaine-Mazur for GL_1

For any number field $K$, the Fontaine-Mazur conjecture predicts that any potentially semistable $p$-adic representation of the absolute Galois group $G_K$ of $K$ that is almost everywhere unramified ...
22
votes
1answer
2k views

Degeneration of the Hodge spectral sequence

Let $f\colon X \to S$ be a smooth proper morphism of schemes. If $S$ is of characteristic zero (i.e., $S$ is a $\mathbb Q$-scheme), then Deligne has shown: $R^af_*\Omega^b_{X/S}$ is locally free for ...
20
votes
6answers
2k views

Does the moduli space of smooth curves of genus g contain an elliptic curve

Let $M_g$ be the moduli space of smooth projective geometrically connected curves over a field $k$ with $g\geq 2$. Note that $M_g$ is not complete. Does $M_g$ contain an elliptic curve? The answer ...
20
votes
1answer
803 views

Do all curves have Néron models

Let $X$ be a smooth projective geometrically connected curve over a number field $K$. Assume that $g\geq 2$. Does there exist a Néron model $\mathcal X$ for $X$ over $O_K$? By a Néron model, I mean ...
19
votes
6answers
5k views

roadmap for studying arithmetic geometry

hi everybody, I have already finished the Hartshorne's algebraic geometry from chapter 1 to chapter 4, so I'd like to find some suggestions about the next step to study arithmetic geometry. I want to ...
19
votes
4answers
1k views

Simplest example of jumping of cohomology of structure sheaf in smooth families?

Using Hodge theory (and the ill-defined Lefschetz principle), one can show that in characteristic 0, given a proper smooth family $X \rightarrow B$, the cohomology groups of the structure sheaf of the ...
19
votes
3answers
1k views

Geometric construction of depth zero local Langlands correspondence

Dear community, In light of the recent work of DeBacker/Reeder on the depth zero local Langlands correspondence, I was wondering if there is an attempt to "geometrize" the depth zero local Langlands ...
18
votes
4answers
831 views

Everywhere locally isomorphic abelian varieties

Is there a standard example of two abelian varieties $A$, $B$ over some number field $k$ which are $k_v$-isomorphic for every place $v$ of $k$ but not $k$-isomorphic ?
18
votes
2answers
1k views

Are most curves over Q pointless?

Fresh out of the arXiv press is the remarkable result of Manjul Bhargava saying that most hyperelliptic curves over $\mathbf{Q}$ have no rational points. Don Zagier suggests the paraphrase : Most ...
18
votes
4answers
2k views

Have people successfully worked with the full ring of diferential operators in characteristic p?

This question is inspired by an earlier one about the possibility of using the full ring of differential operators on a flag variety to develop a theory of localization in characteristic $p$. (Here ...
18
votes
1answer
1k views

De Rham cohomology of formal groups

Let $G$ be some (dimension $1$, to simplify) formal group over a characteristic $0$ field $K$. The law of $G$ is denoted by $\oplus$. If $w(X) \in K[[X]] dX$ is a differential form, let $F_w(X)$ be ...
18
votes
3answers
666 views

Drawing planar graphs with integer edge lengths

It is well known that every planar graph has an embedding such that every edge is drawn as a straight line segment (Fáry's Theorem). Kemnitz and Harborth made the following stronger conjecture ...
18
votes
3answers
737 views

Do isogenies with rational kernels tend to be surjective?

Dear MO Community, this is a pretty vague title, so let me tell you the precise observation I have made. Consider the family of elliptic curves over $\mathbf{Q}$ having a rational $5$-torsion point ...
17
votes
2answers
3k views

Intuition behind the Eichler-Shimura relation?

The modular curve $X_0(N)$ has good reduction at all primes $p$ not dividing $N$. At such a prime, the Eichler-Shimura relation expresses the Hecke operator $T_p$ (as an element of the ring of ...
17
votes
2answers
1k views

unboundedness of number of integral points on elliptic curves?

If $E/\mathbf{Q}$ is an elliptic curve and we put it into minimal Weierstrass form, we can count how many integral points it has. A theorem of Siegel tells us that this number $n(E)$ is finite, and ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

Over which fields does the Mordell-Weil theorem hold?

According to a well-known theorem of Mordell, the group of rational points $E(\mathbf{Q})$ of an elliptic curve $E/\mathbf{Q}$ is finitely generated. Weil generalized this theorem to abelian varieties ...
17
votes
1answer
622 views

Divisibility properties of Hurwitz numbers

Define numbers $H_k$ for integers $k\geq 4$ by $\sum_{x \in \mathbf{Z}[i]}x^{-k}=\frac{H_k}{k!} \omega^k$, where $\omega=\frac{\Gamma(1/4)^2}{\sqrt{2\pi}}$. These are nonzero when $4|k$, and Hurwitz ...
17
votes
1answer
715 views

Does smooth and proper over $\mathbb Z$ imply rational?

Does smooth and proper over $\mathbb Z$ imply rational? I think someone told me that this is a standard conjecture. Is it a widely held? held at all? Did someone in particular make this conjecture? ...
17
votes
1answer
2k views

Field with one element example?

$$\frac{1}{\mu(B)}\int_B \vert x \vert d\mu(x) = \frac{1}{p+1}$$ This formula holds for the unit ball in $\mathbb{Q_p}$. This formula also holds for $\mathbb{R}$ when $p=1$. Should one expect ...
17
votes
0answers
354 views

On Determinants of Laplacians on Riemann Surfaces

History of the Formula: In their famous paper "On Determinants of Laplacians on Riemann Surfaces" (1986), D'Hoker and Phong computed the determinant of the Laplacian $\Delta_n^+$ on the space $T^n$ of ...
16
votes
1answer
616 views

Why does the Section Conjecture exclude curves of genus 1?

Let $X$ be an integral proper normal curve over a (perfect) field $F$, of genus $\geq 2$. One variant of Grothendieck's "section conjecture" states that the sections $G_F \rightarrow \pi_1(X)$ of the ...
16
votes
0answers
549 views

Smooth proper schemes over Z with points everywhere locally

This is a variation on Poonen's question, taking Buzzard's fabulous example into account. It was earlier a part of this other question. Question. Is there a smooth proper scheme ...
16
votes
0answers
890 views

Two conjectures by Gabber on Brauer and Picard groups

In a paper I need to make reference to 2 conjectures by Gabber (see Conjectures 2 and 3, page 1975) http://www.mfo.de/programme/schedule/2004/32/OWR_2004_37.pdf 1) Let $R$ be a strictly henselian ...
15
votes
1answer
438 views

Is there a known example of a curve X of genus > 1 over Q such that we know the number of points of X over the n-th cyclotomic field, for every n?

By Falting's theorem, these numbers are of course finite. Is there an example where we can explicitly compute them for every $n$? Thank you!
15
votes
2answers
798 views

Are there Néron models over higher dimensional base schemes?

Are there Néron models for Abelian varieties over higher dimensional ($> 1$) base schemes $S$, let's say $S$ smooth, separated and of finite type over a field? If not, under what additional ...
15
votes
2answers
785 views

Why does Tate's conjecture imply semisimplicity of crystalline Frobenius?

I'm trying to find a reference for the following fact: If Tate's conjecture is true for all smooth projective varieties over $\mathbb{F}_p$, then the Frobenius endomorphism on the crystalline ...
15
votes
3answers
725 views

A-valued points of projective space

I have been reading "The Geometry of Schemes" by Eisenbud and Harris and have a question about Exercise III-43. There, one should show that there is a bijection between the sets $\{(n+1)\mbox{-tuples ...
15
votes
1answer
633 views

Lifting to Characteristic 0 not over W

I thought of this several months ago and forgot about it. Now I rethought of it again and I just can't find it anywhere in the literature, so I'll ask here. Is it known whether or not there exists a ...
15
votes
1answer
696 views

On the Hasse-Weil L-function of $P^n$

So let us start with the "simplest" scheme over $Spec(\mathbf{Z})$ namely $X_0=Spec(\mathbf{Z})$. Then the (reciprocal) Weil zeta function of $X_0$ at a prime $p$ is given by $Z_p(T)=1-T$ (a ...
14
votes
2answers
822 views

Deligne Weil II

Deligne's Weil I has been published under the title "La conjecture de Weil: I" in 1974, and Weil II in 1980. So did Deligne know in 1974 that there would be a Weil II, and can one explain the period ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Which curves have infinitely many rational points

Question: Assuming finiteness of the Tate-Shafarevich group, is there an algorithm to determine whether a curve $C$ defined over a number field $K$ has infinitely many $K$-rational points? I ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Stacks in modern number theory/arithmetic geometry

Stacks, of varying kinds, appear in algebraic geometry whenever we have moduli problems, most famously the stacks of (marked) curves. But these seem to be to be very geometric in motivation, so I was ...
14
votes
1answer
802 views

Does the moduli space of genus three curves contain a complete genus two curve

Inspired by the question Does the moduli space of smooth curves of genus g contain an elliptic curve and its amazing answers, I ask (pure out of curiosity) whether the moduli space $M_3$ of (smooth ...
14
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is Faltings' “almost purity theorem” a purity theorem?

My understanding of purity theorems is that they come in several flavors: 1) Those of the form "this Galois representation is pure, i.e. the eigenvalues of $Frob_p$ are algebraic numbers all of whose ...
14
votes
1answer
747 views

Is there a connected $k$-group scheme $G$ such that $G_{red}$ is not a subgroup?

I've been trying a learn a little more about group schemes by working through a set of exercises on Brian Conrad's website. Exercise 8.3 of http://math.stanford.edu/~conrad/papers/gpschemehw1.pdf ...
13
votes
3answers
2k views

Are there any rational solutions to this equation?

I am not sure if this is an appropriate question, but I was asked this by a colleague today and do not know how to answer it. 1) Are there any rational solutions to the following equation: ...
13
votes
3answers
906 views

rational points on algebraic curves over $Q^{ab}$

Motivation: Let $Q_{\infty,p}$ be the field obtained by adjoining to $Q$ all $p$-power roots of unity for a prime $p$. The union of these fields for all primes is the maximal cyclotomic extension ...
13
votes
2answers
471 views

Existence of points on varieties which avoid a given number field.

Let C be a geometrically integral curve over a number field K and let K' be a number field containing K. Does there exist a number field L containing K such that $L \cap K' = K$, and $C(L) \neq ...
13
votes
4answers
857 views

K3 surfaces with good reduction away from finitely many places

Let S be a finite set of primes in Q. What, if anything, do we know about K3 surfaces over Q with good reduction away from S? (To be more precise, I suppose I mean schemes over Spec Z[1/S] whose ...