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### What is a Frobenioid?

Since there will be a long digression in a moment, let me start by reassuring you that my intention really is to ask the question in the title.
Recently, there has been a flurry of new discussion ...

**60**

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**9**answers

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### Why should I believe the Mordell Conjecture?

It was Faltings who first proved in 1983 the Mordell conjecture, that a curve of genus 2 or more over a number field has only finitely many rational points.
I am interested to know why Mordell and ...

**51**

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**11**answers

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### Why certain diophantine equations are interesting (and others are not) ?

It is quite clear why certain differential equations, among the jungle of possible diff equations that is possible to conceive, are studied: some come from physical problems, or from "spontaneous" ...

**44**

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**0**answers

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### What is an étale theta function?

Let me start out by urging you to take seriously that whatever I write about the papers surrounding IUTT really are questions. If you would like to use it as a guide to the mathematics in any way, ...

**43**

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**2**answers

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### What are “perfectoid spaces”?

This talk is about a theory of "perfectoid spaces", which "compares objects in characteristic p with objects in characteristic 0". What are those spaces, where can one read about them?
Edit: A bit ...

**42**

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**8**answers

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### Questions about analogy between Spec Z and 3-manifolds

I'm not sure if the questions make sense:
Conc. primes as knots and Spec Z as 3-manifold - fits that to the Poincare conjecture? Topologists view 3-manifolds as Kirby-equivalence classes of framed ...

**42**

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**1**answer

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### What were the main ideas and gaps in Yoichi Miyaoka's attempted proof (1988) of Fermat's Last Theorem?

Out of sheer curiosity I have been reading Stewert and Tall's "Algebraic Number Theory and Fermat's Last Theorem" (2001). As it contains various bits of history, I found out to my own shame that I was ...

**39**

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**2**answers

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### What is a good roadmap for learning Shimura curves?

I am interested in learning about Shimura curves. Unlike most of the people who post reference requests however (see this question for example), my problem is not sorting through an abundance of books ...

**38**

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**2**answers

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### Langlands in dimension 2: the Yoshida conjecture

Background:
One prominent part of the Langlands program is the conjecture that
all motives are automorphic.
It is of interest to consider special cases that are more precise, if less
sweeping. ...

**37**

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**2**answers

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### current status of crystalline cohomology?

The great references given on Ilya's question make me wonder about the current status of the many conjectures and open questions in Illusie's survey from 1994 on crystalline cohomology. Obviously ...

**36**

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**4**answers

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### Fermat's last theorem over larger fields

Fermat's last theorem implies that the number of solutions of $x^5 + y^5 = 1$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ is finite.
Is the number of solutions of $x^5 + y^5 = 1$ over $\mathbb{Q}^{\text{ab}}$ finite?
Here ...

**33**

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**1**answer

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### What is inter-universal geometry?

I wonder what Mochizuki's inter-universal geometry and his generalisation of anabelian geometry is, e.g. why the ABC-conjecture involves nested inclusions of sets as hinted in the slides, or why such ...

**30**

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**6**answers

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### Intuition for the last step in Serre's proof of the three-squares theorem

Serre's A Course in Arithmetic gives essentially the following proof of the three-squares theorem, which says that an integer a is the sum of three squares if and only if it is not of the form 4^m (8n ...

**30**

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**1**answer

906 views

### Is the group of integer points on a finite-type group scheme over Z finitely presented?

Let $G$ be a group scheme of finite type over $\mathbf{Z}$. Must $G(\mathbf{Z})$ be finitely presented?
(The question is inspired by a not yet successful attempt to answer a question of Brian ...

**24**

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**3**answers

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### Arithmetic geometry examples

(This is inspired by Algebraic geometry examples.)
I want to collect here (counter)examples in arithmetic geometry.
Curves violating the Hasse principle: The Selmer curve $3X^3 + 4Y^3 + 5Z^3 = 0$. ...

**24**

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**1**answer

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### Degeneration of the Hodge spectral sequence

Let $f\colon X \to S$ be a smooth proper morphism of schemes. If $S$ is of characteristic zero (i.e., $S$ is a $\mathbb Q$-scheme), then Deligne has shown:
$R^af_*\Omega^b_{X/S}$ is locally free for ...

**23**

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**1**answer

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### Do all curves have Néron models

Let $X$ be a smooth projective geometrically connected curve over a number field $K$. Assume that $g\geq 2$.
Does there exist a Néron model $\mathcal X$ for $X$ over $O_K$?
By a Néron model, I mean ...

**22**

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**1**answer

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### Fontaine-Mazur for GL_1

For any number field $K$, the Fontaine-Mazur conjecture predicts that any potentially semistable $p$-adic representation of the absolute Galois group $G_K$ of $K$ that is almost everywhere unramified ...

**21**

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**2**answers

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### Intuition behind the Eichler-Shimura relation?

The modular curve $X_0(N)$ has good reduction at all primes $p$ not dividing $N$. At such a prime, the Eichler-Shimura relation expresses the Hecke operator $T_p$ (as an element of the ring of ...

**21**

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**4**answers

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### Have people successfully worked with the full ring of diferential operators in characteristic p?

This question is inspired by an earlier one about the possibility of using the full ring of differential operators on a flag variety to develop a theory of localization in characteristic $p$. (Here ...

**20**

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**6**answers

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### Does the moduli space of smooth curves of genus g contain an elliptic curve

Let $M_g$ be the moduli space of smooth projective geometrically connected curves over a field $k$ with $g\geq 2$. Note that $M_g$ is not complete.
Does $M_g$ contain an elliptic curve?
The answer ...

**20**

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**6**answers

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### roadmap for studying arithmetic geometry

hi everybody, I have already finished the Hartshorne's algebraic geometry from chapter 1 to chapter 4, so I'd like to find some suggestions about the next step to study arithmetic geometry. I want to ...

**20**

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**4**answers

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### Simplest example of jumping of cohomology of structure sheaf in smooth families?

Using Hodge theory (and the ill-defined Lefschetz principle), one can show that in characteristic 0, given a proper smooth family $X \rightarrow B$, the cohomology groups of the structure sheaf of the ...

**20**

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**3**answers

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### Over which fields does the Mordell-Weil theorem hold?

According to a well-known theorem of Mordell, the group of rational points $E(\mathbf{Q})$ of an elliptic curve $E/\mathbf{Q}$ is finitely generated. Weil generalized this theorem to abelian varieties ...

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**3**answers

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### Geometric construction of depth zero local Langlands correspondence

Dear community,
In light of the recent work of DeBacker/Reeder on the depth zero local Langlands correspondence, I was wondering if there is an attempt to "geometrize" the depth zero local Langlands ...

**19**

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**4**answers

854 views

### Everywhere locally isomorphic abelian varieties

Is there a standard example of two abelian varieties $A$, $B$ over some number field $k$ which are $k_v$-isomorphic for every place $v$ of $k$ but not $k$-isomorphic ?

**19**

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**2**answers

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### unboundedness of number of integral points on elliptic curves?

If $E/\mathbf{Q}$ is an elliptic curve and we put it into minimal Weierstrass form, we can count how many integral points it has. A theorem of Siegel tells us that this number $n(E)$ is finite, and ...

**19**

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**2**answers

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### Are most curves over Q pointless?

Fresh out of the arXiv press is the remarkable result of Manjul Bhargava saying that most hyperelliptic curves over $\mathbf{Q}$ have no rational points. Don Zagier suggests the paraphrase : Most ...

**19**

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**1**answer

871 views

### When is “independence of l” known?

My question is for which varieties over local fields is "independence of l" known for
etale cohomology. Say $X/{\mathbb Q}_p$ is a complete non-singular variety and $W_l$ is the (complex) ...

**18**

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**4**answers

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### Are there Néron models over higher dimensional base schemes?

Are there Néron models for Abelian varieties over higher dimensional ($> 1$) base schemes $S$, let's say $S$ smooth, separated and of finite type over a field?
If not, under what additional ...

**18**

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**1**answer

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### De Rham cohomology of formal groups

Let $G$ be some (dimension $1$, to simplify) formal group over a characteristic $0$ field $K$. The law of $G$ is denoted by $\oplus$. If $w(X) \in K[[X]] dX$ is a differential form, let $F_w(X)$ be ...

**18**

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**1**answer

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### Why is Faltings' “almost purity theorem” a purity theorem?

My understanding of purity theorems is that they come in several flavors:
1) Those of the form "this Galois representation is pure, i.e. the eigenvalues of $Frob_p$ are algebraic numbers all of whose ...

**18**

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**3**answers

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### Variety acquiring rational point over any quadratic extension

Does there exist a variety $X$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ (or a number field) such that it has no rational points over $\mathbb{Q}$ but acquires points over any quadratic extension $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{d})$?
If ...

**18**

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**2**answers

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### Divisibility properties of Hurwitz numbers

Define numbers $H_k$ for integers $k\geq 4$ by $\sum_{x \in \mathbf{Z}[i]}x^{-k}=\frac{H_k}{k!} \omega^k$, where $\omega=\frac{\Gamma(1/4)^2}{\sqrt{2\pi}}$. These are nonzero when $4|k$, and Hurwitz ...

**18**

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### Drawing planar graphs with integer edge lengths

It is well known that every planar graph has an embedding such that every edge is drawn as a straight line segment (Fáry's Theorem). Kemnitz and Harborth made the following stronger conjecture
...

**18**

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**1**answer

861 views

### Does smooth and proper over $\mathbb Z$ imply rational?

Does smooth and proper over $\mathbb Z$ imply rational?
I think someone told me that this is a standard conjecture. Is it a widely held? held at all? Did someone in particular make this conjecture? ...

**18**

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**3**answers

764 views

### Do isogenies with rational kernels tend to be surjective?

Dear MO Community,
this is a pretty vague title, so let me tell you the precise observation I have made.
Consider the family of elliptic curves over $\mathbf{Q}$ having a rational $5$-torsion point ...

**18**

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**1**answer

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### Field with one element example?

$$\frac{1}{\mu(B)}\int_B \vert x \vert d\mu(x) = \frac{1}{p+1}$$
This formula holds for the unit ball in $\mathbb{Q_p}$. This formula also holds for
$\mathbb{R}$ when $p=1$. Should one expect ...

**18**

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**0**answers

575 views

### function field analogy and global/absolute geometry

The "function field analogy" seems to be a topic that is considerably bigger than any one existing writeup conveys. There are several old question on MO and and MathSE that ask for details. One of the ...

**18**

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**0**answers

362 views

### Bounding failures of the integral Hodge and Tate conjectures

It is well know that the integral versions of the Hodge and Tate conjectures can fail. I once heard an off hand comment however that they should only fail by a "bounded amount". My question is what ...

**17**

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**1**answer

730 views

### Why does the Section Conjecture exclude curves of genus 1?

Let $X$ be an integral proper normal curve over a (perfect) field $F$, of genus $\geq 2$. One variant of Grothendieck's "section conjecture" states that the sections $G_F \rightarrow \pi_1(X)$ of the ...

**17**

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### On Determinants of Laplacians on Riemann Surfaces

History of the Formula: In their famous paper "On Determinants of Laplacians on Riemann Surfaces" (1986), D'Hoker and Phong computed the determinant of the Laplacian $\Delta_n^+$ on the space $T^n$ of ...

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### Smooth proper schemes over Z with points everywhere locally

This is a variation on Poonen's question, taking Buzzard's fabulous example into account. It was earlier a part of this other question.
Question. Is there a smooth proper scheme ...

**16**

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**1**answer

480 views

### Is there a known example of a curve X of genus > 1 over Q such that we know the number of points of X over the n-th cyclotomic field, for every n?

By Falting's theorem, these numbers are of course finite. Is there an example where we can explicitly compute them for every $n$?
Thank you!

**16**

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**1**answer

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### Is there a connected $k$-group scheme $G$ such that $G_{red}$ is not a subgroup?

I've been trying a learn a little more about group schemes by working through a set of exercises on Brian Conrad's website. Exercise 8.3 of http://math.stanford.edu/~conrad/papers/gpschemehw1.pdf ...

**16**

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**1**answer

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### On the Hasse-Weil L-function of $P^n$

So let us start with the "simplest" scheme over $Spec(\mathbf{Z})$ namely $X_0=Spec(\mathbf{Z})$. Then the (reciprocal) Weil zeta function of $X_0$ at a prime $p$ is given by $Z_p(T)=1-T$ (a ...

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### Two conjectures by Gabber on Brauer and Picard groups

In a paper I need to make reference to 2 conjectures by Gabber
(see Conjectures 2 and 3, page 1975)
http://www.mfo.de/programme/schedule/2004/32/OWR_2004_37.pdf
1) Let $R$ be a strictly henselian ...

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**3**answers

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### Stacks in modern number theory/arithmetic geometry

Stacks, of varying kinds, appear in algebraic geometry whenever we have moduli problems, most famously the stacks of (marked) curves. But these seem to be to be very geometric in motivation, so I was ...

**15**

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**1**answer

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### Does the moduli space of genus three curves contain a complete genus two curve

Inspired by the question
Does the moduli space of smooth curves of genus g contain an elliptic curve
and its amazing answers, I ask (pure out of curiosity) whether the moduli space $M_3$ of (smooth ...

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**2**answers

939 views

### Why does Tate's conjecture imply semisimplicity of crystalline Frobenius?

I'm trying to find a reference for the following fact:
If Tate's conjecture is true for all smooth projective varieties over $\mathbb{F}_p$, then the Frobenius endomorphism on the crystalline ...