The approximation-theory tag has no usage guidance.

**10**

votes

**0**answers

396 views

### Functions approximated by rolling epicycle curves

Imagine a decreasing sequence of (positive) radii $r_1 > r_2 > r_3 > \cdots$
and a series of nested circles $C_1 \supset C_2 \supset C_3 \supset \cdots$
with these radii,
initially each ...

**1**

vote

**4**answers

1k views

### Approximation to the ratio of a Gaussian CDF to PDF

Johnstone and Silverman (2005) claimed that for large x
$\frac{1-\Phi(x)}{\phi(x)} \approx \frac{1}{x}$
where $\Phi(x)$ and $\phi(x)$ are the CDF and PDF for a normal random variable.
I was able ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

976 views

### Uniform approximation of $x^n$ by a degree $d$ polynomial: estimating the error

The answer to this question should be well known, but it's a hard question to search for online.
Suppose we want to approximate the function $x^n$ by a polynomial of degree $d$ in the $L_\infty$ norm ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

713 views

### Least-squares regression and differential geometry

For $k, n \in \mathbb{N}$, let $\mathcal{C}_n \mathbb{R}^k$ denote the configuration space of $n$ distinct points in $\mathbb{R}^k$.
(1) Is there a description of the tangent space $T_C ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

747 views

### Accumulation of algebraic subvarieties: Near one subvariety there are many others (?), 2

This is a sequel to the question Accumulation of algebraic subvarieties: Near one subvariety there are many others (?) .
Let $Y$ be some projective variety, over $\mathbb{C}$. Let $X\subset Y$ be ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Accumulation of algebraic subvarieties: Near one subvariety there are many others (?)

Let's work over the field $\mathbb{C}$ of complex numbers, and let $X\subset \mathbb{P}^n$ be a projective variety. Let $\tilde{X}\subset \mathbb{P}^n$ be any small open neighborhood of $X$, in the ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

329 views

### Approximations of negative Sobolev norms

Consider the standard Cahn-Hilliard free energy, augmented by a nonlocal interaction term which measures the $H^{-1}$ norm of a zero-mean function. Could someone point me to a reference where this ...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

1k views

### Approximation in $L^2$ by piecewise constant functions

Dear all,
in order to prove the validity of my Galerkin approach of a certain variational problem, I need to check the so-called approximability property. In my case, it boils down to showing that for ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

406 views

### nonnegative series expansion of nonnegative functions

The title says it all! When using orthogonal series expansions like the Gram-Charlier expansion to approximate probability density function, a big problem (making this approach less usefull and less ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

350 views

### Regularization of Zygmund functions

Dear community.
I would like to derive a "good" estimate on $\frac{d}{dt}f_\epsilon(t)$, where $f_\epsilon$ is a regularization of a Zygmund-continuous function $f$, i.e.
...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Kronecker Approximation theorem and Fibonacci numbers

There is a famous old theorem by Kronecker that for every positive real $\alpha$ and $\epsilon>0$ there exists a positive integer n such that $\alpha n$ is within $\epsilon$ of an integer.
...

**5**

votes

**6**answers

846 views

### best approximation to the LambertW(x) or exp(LambertW(x))

what is the best available approximation ( say up to 10 digits ) for LambertW(x) or exp(LambertW(x)) for x > 2000

**1**

vote

**1**answer

223 views

### Cubic spline smooting question

Hello,
I came across this link when searching for an algorithm for spline smoothing. Though I understand basically what I have to do I need further clarifications on the formula chosen for curvature ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

385 views

### Approximating derivatives between gridpoints

Hi,
Suppose we have a grid (possibly irregular) of N function/value pairs, $(x_i, f_i)$, $i=1...N$. The function is differentiable everywhere at least twice (perhaps more).
What would be a good way ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

899 views

### L1 distance from a trigonometric susbspace

How to check, whether the $L^{1}$ distance between a finite exponential sum $S_{F}(x)=\sum\limits_{n\in F} \exp(inx)$ and the $L^{1}$-closure of subspace $\mathrm{span}\left(\exp(inx): n\in ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

2k views

### smooth approximation of the hinge loss function

I came across this paper but the smooth approximation for the hinge loss function is wrong. Can someone guide me to the proper smooth approximation (using polynomials) of the function ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

222 views

### Density of C^\infty in the domain of the exterior derivative on a noncompact, complete manifold?

Let $(M,g)$ be a geodesically complete Riemannian manifold that is not necessarily compact. Futhermore, assume that $M$ has at most exponential volume growth (ie., locally doubling property). Let ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Simple algorithm to generate a Mondrian “Random Grid”

Hello,
I was wondering if there is a simple way or algorithm that can generate 2-d grids resembling Mondrian paintings like the boogie woogie grid ( ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

675 views

### The closures in $C^0(\mathbb{R}, \mathbb{R})$ of the set of integer valued polynomials, resp, of polynomials with integer coefficients

This is a follow up of an interesting recent question on the topic. The answer given there by fedia shows that the matter is rich and complicated, and I can't resist to submit here a further question.
...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

638 views

### What is the function $\sin(n \omega) / (n \sin \omega)$?

During my work, I encounter the function like $\frac{\sin(n \omega)}{n \sin \omega}$. I'm puzzled and knew nothing about this function before.
Given integer $n>1$, my question is how to find a ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

884 views

### Non-linear “Fourier analysis”

Call a function of the following form a beep: $e^{-(\frac{x-\alpha}{\beta})^2}\sin(\rho x+\theta)$. Given a real-valued function $f\in L^2(R)$ and a number $n$, I'm interested in the approximating ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

969 views

### A senseful meaning of 'approximation of manifolds'?

Any continuous function can be uniformly approximated by smooth functions.
I would like to have something similar - in what-ever sense - for continuous manifolds.
For example, by Whitney's theorem, ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

219 views

### Polynomial upper approximation with respect to the Gaussian measure

Let $f = 1_{[a,+\infty)}$ be the indicator function of a half-line. Does there exist a sequence $(P_n)$ of polynomials such that $f(x) \leq P_n(x)$ for every real $x$ and
$$ \lim_{n\to \infty} ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

286 views

### Schrodinger's equation over a randomized grid

I am interested in solutions to
$$
\frac{d}{dt} \Psi = -iH \Psi
$$
for $H$ hermitian and time independent. This boils down to evaluating
$$
\Psi(t) = e^{-iHt}\Psi_0
$$
at points of interest $t_n$. I ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

103 views

### Noisy bases for linear functions

For any $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$, the following statement is trivially true:
There exists a set $I \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ with $|I| \leq n$ such that for any $x' \in \mathbb{R}^n$, if $x \cdot y = x' ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

422 views

### methods for interpolating a function, holomorphic in the upper halfplane

Let $n,k\colon\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be real functions such that function $N$ given by $N(x)=n(x)-ik(x)$ is a holomorphic function in the upper half-plane. Also I know some additional properties of ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

652 views

### Where does the Chebyshev polynomial notation come from?

The $k$th Chebyshev polynomial is denoted by $T_k$ where
$T_k(x) = \cos(k\cos^{-1}(x))$
I was wondering where this notation came from. It has been suggested that it comes from Tschebyscheff (the ...

**3**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Relative error approximation by polynomials

For given continuous real functions $f$ and $g$ defined on $[-1,1]$, let's define
$$
D(f,g) = \sup_{x \in [-1,1]} \left|{\frac{f(x)-g(x)}{f(x)}}\right|
$$
(in this context, let's take $0/0$ to be $0$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

740 views

### Padé approximation - usability in iterative algorithms

Firstly, I have to say that I don't understand Padé approximation well.
But I discovered that, it is more precise than Taylor series.
I have to create approximation for these functions: Log(x) and ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

903 views

### Interpolation Splines of Bounded Curvature

Given $n$ points $p_i=(x_i,y_i)$ on the [Euclidean] plane, and a positive real number $\rho$. Can we have a polynomial spline (e.g natural cubic spline) passing through all these points, such that: ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

479 views

### Approximating an integral representation of the Number Partition Problem

One can write out an integral whose solution gives the number of solutions to the NP-Complete Number Partition Problem and I'm wondering if anyone has an suggestions or ideas on who to solve or ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

474 views

### Rational solutions of homogeneous equations

Can every solution of a homogeneous linear system be approximated by a solution in rational numbers?
In mathematical terms: Let $$Ax=0$$ be a homogeneous linear system in $n$ determinates for an ...

**1**

vote

**4**answers

2k views

### A differentiable approximation to the minimum function

Suppose we have a function $f : \Re^N \rightarrow \Re$ which, given a vector, returns the value of its smallest element. How can I approximate $f$ with a differentiable function(s)?

**4**

votes

**2**answers

282 views

### Can SO_n(R) be approximated arbitrarily well using a discrete subgroup?

Let $G := SO_n(R)$ be equipped with the Euclidean metric on vectors of length $n^2$. Is it true that for any $\epsilon >0$, there is a finite subgroup of $G$ which intersects every metric ball of ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Approximation with continuous functions

Is it true that for every function $\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ there exists a sequence of continuous functions $f_n(x): \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ such that for any $x \in \mathbb{R}$ $f_n(x)$ ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

532 views

### Does NP = “epsilon-P” (PTAS / BPP)?

Some NP-complete optimization problems, like the knapsack problem, have a solution reachable in polynomial time that is guaranteed to be within arbitrary ε of the optimum answer. (aka PTAS - ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Efficient approximation of a matrix and its inverse

Assume that $ A $ is a real $ n\times n $ matrix whose rows constitute an orthonormal basis of $ \mathbb R^n $.
Informal statement of question: Assume we want to approximate $ A $ by a rational ...

**5**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Approximation by exponential polynomials

Let $u(t) = \Sigma_{k=1}^n c_k e^{\lambda_k t} (c_k \in \mathbb C, \lambda_k \in \mathbb C) $ be an exponential polynomial of $\underline{order}$ $n$.
Define $E_n$ to be the collection of all ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

850 views

### Probability of system failure in a distributed network

I am trying to build a mathematical model of the availability of a file in a distributed file-system. The system works like this: a node $x$ stores a file $f$ (encoed using erasure codes) at $rb$ ...

**12**

votes

**5**answers

905 views

### Does this sequence span $L^2$?

Consider the following sequence of functions in $L^2[0,\infty)$:
$$f_n(x)=e^{-x/n}x^n,\;\;n\geq 1$$
Does this sequence span $L^2[0,\infty)$ (that is, is the set of finite linear combinations
of these ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

763 views

### Fast gradient approximations

I am trying to use the one-sided Simultaneous Perturbation (SP) method to get a gradient approximation for multi-variable function.
The equations are very simple: ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

342 views

### References regarding unisolvent sets

Let $X = {x_1, ..., x_N}$ be a finite subset of $R^n$ and let $p$ and $q$ be any polynomials of degree $k$ or less. X is called $\underline{P_k-unisolvent}$ if $p(x_j) = q(x_j)$ ($j = 1, ..., N$) ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### approximate a probability distribution by moment matching

Suppose we want to approximate a real-valued random variable $X$ by a discrete random variable $Z$ with finitely many atoms. Suppose all moments of $X$ is finite. We want to match the moments of $X$ ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Matrix approximation

Let A be an $m\times n$ matrix and $k$ be an integer. Assume that $A$ is non-negative. We want to find a scalar $\epsilon$ and an $n\times n$ matrix $B$ such that $A\leq A(\epsilon I + B)$ (where ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

842 views

### Approximation of a Normal Distribution function

I am reviewing and documenting a software application (part of a supply chain system) which implements an approximation of a Normal Distribution function; the original documentation mentions the ...

**13**

votes

**4**answers

650 views

### Finite interpolation by a nondecreasing polynomial

Let $x_1 < x_2 < \ldots < x_n$ and $y_1 < y_2 < \ldots < y_n$ be two sequences
of $n$ real numbers. It is well known that there are polynomials that "interpolate"
in that ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

439 views

### convergence rate in Wiener's approximation theorem

Wiener has the following fantastic results about approximations using translation families:
Given a function $h: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$, the set $\{\sum a_i h(\cdot - x_i): a_i, x_i \in ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

298 views

### Sparse approximate representation of a collection of vectors

Suppose I have a collection of $n$ vectors $C \subset \mathbb{F}_2^n$. They are of course spanned by the canonical set of $n$ basis vectors.
What I would like to find is a much smaller (~ $\log n$) ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

981 views

### Variant of Fermat's last theorem

By Fermat's last theorem, the equation $u^3+v^3=w^3$ has no solutions
in positive integers $u,v,w$. Now consider the following variant : call $\rho(x)$
the distance between $x$ and the nearest ...

**14**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Solving NP problems in (usually) Polynomial time?

Just because a problem is NP-complete doesn't mean it can't be usually solved quickly.
The best example of this is probably the traveling salesman problem, for which extraordinarily large instances ...