The approximation-theory tag has no usage guidance.

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### A differentiable approximation to the minimum function over a vector of reals

In A differentiable approximation to the minimum function, a differentiable approximation of the minimum function is given, but it seems it only works for positive reals.
Is there an ...

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**1**answer

155 views

### Approximating $\prod_{i=1}^{n-1} (1-ai)$ for large $n$

I have a function of the form:
$f(n) = \prod_{i=1}^{n-1} (1-ai)$
Here, $a \geq 0$ and $(a*i) < 1$. For $n > 10^5$ or $10^6$, what is the best possible analytic approximation for $f(n)$ that ...

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241 views

### Algebraic curve approximation

I am wondering wether it exists a theorem that any continuous path on the plane one can
approximate with algebraic curve $P(x,y)=0$ ($P$- is a polynom)?

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**1**answer

112 views

### are p-limits scales dense in the infinite musical scale of all rational frequencies?

In the wiki section on prime limit tuning, one reads:
...

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**1**answer

157 views

### $W^{1,1}$ simplicial approximation

Let $f$ be a continuous real-valued function defined on an $n$ dimesional simplex $\Sigma\subset \mathbb{R}^n $. The classical simplicial approximation scheme provides a sequence $f_k$ of piecewise ...

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538 views

### Approximation theory reference for a bounded polynomial having bounded coefficients

Let $P(x)$ be a real polynomial of degree at most $d$. Assume $|P(x)| \leq 1$ for $|x| \leq 1$. I would like a bound saying that each coefficient of $P(x)$ is at most $C^d$ in magnitude, for some ...

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**1**answer

488 views

### Stone-Weierstrass analogue for $L^p$

Let $A$ be a complex algebra of bounded measurable functions on the measure space $(X,\mu)$ (case of $[0,1]$ with Lebesgue measure is enough for me) closed under conjugation. Assume that $A$ separates ...

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156 views

### what books to read to quickly understand adiabatic approximation

Hi group, I'm a theoretical ecologist with fairly adequate training in applied math (ODE, linear algebra, applied probability, some PDEs). In my current work, I've encountered the use of adiabatic ...

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517 views

### A question about the Beurling-Selberg majorant

Beurling's majorant is defined as the unique entire function $B(z)$ such that the Fourier transform of $B(x)$ is compactly supported in the interval $[-1;1]$, $B(x) \geq \text{sgn}(x)$ and $B(x)$ ...

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160 views

### approximation of holomorphic functions on a halfplane.

Let $\mathbb {C} _ + $ denote the right halfplane and $A$ the algebra
$$
A = \{ f \in H^\infty({\mathbb C} _ +) \cap C(\overline{{\mathbb C} _ +}): \;
|f(z)| \le M (1+|z|)^{-\epsilon} \text{ ...

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### Application of polynomials with non-negative coefficients

Question 1: Are there any deeper applications (in any field of mathematics) of polynomials (with possibly more than one variable) over the real numbers whose coefficients are non-negative? So far I ...

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335 views

### Are piecewise linear curves dense among Hölder curves?

Consider for some $0 < \alpha \leq 1$ the space functions $x:[0,1] \to \mathbb{R}^n$ such that $x(0) = 0$ and
$\sup_{s,t} \frac{\|f(t)-f(s)\|}{|t-s|^{\alpha}}$
is finite.
There are at least two ...

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669 views

### Approximation by polynomials

Let $f:[a,b] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be of class $C^n$. Let $ x_0, ..., x_m$ be different numbers from $[a,b]$.
Does for each $\varepsilon >0$ there exist a polynom $P$ such that ...

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549 views

### polynomials with minimal $L_\infty$ norm on multiple disjoint intervals

It is well-known that Chebyshev polynomials are the polynomials of minimal $L_\infty$ norm on [-1,1] with leading coefficient 1. But what if you want the minimal $L_\infty$ polynomial on two disjoint ...

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406 views

### Padé approximations of $e$

The following question came up in the analysis of some algorithm.
Let $R_{s,t}(z)$ be the Padé approximants of $e^z$, and define $r_{s,t} = R_{s,t}(1)$. Using the explicit expression for the error ...

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739 views

### Stone-Weierstrass for monotone functions

Let $\; f : [0,1] \to \mathbb{R} \;$ be continuous and non-decreasing. $\;\;$ Let $\epsilon$ be a real number such that $\; 0 < \epsilon \;$.
Does it follow that that there exists a real ...

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179 views

### Markov-type inequalities with arbitrary exponents

By a Markov-type inequality I mean an inequality of the form
$$
\| p^{(k)} \| \leq \lambda_{k,n} \| p \|,\quad \forall p \in U_n,
$$
for some $\lambda_{k,n} > 0$, where $U_n \subset L^\infty[-1,1]$ ...

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742 views

### Polynomial approximation in L^p norms

Hello,
I am very new to the field of approximation theory, and since
an extended search on the Internet did not provide answers for
two rather basic questions, I decided to ask them here.
1) From ...

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**1**answer

576 views

### Low degree polynomial approximation for the entropy function

Let $X$ be a discrete random variable with possible values
$\{x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$, and let $p$ denote the probability mass function of
$X$. In addition, denote $p_i=p(x_i)$.
The entropy of $X$ is ...

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**1**answer

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### Accumulation of algebraic subvarieties: Near one subvariety there are many others (?), 3

Part 3 of this series of questions. In the meantime, I realized that there is some very simple question that was left open in Accumulation of algebraic subvarieties: Near one subvariety there are many ...

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**1**answer

226 views

### Low degree approximation of the polynomial extension of the logical-or function

Let $x\in\{0,1\}^n$ be a binary vector of dimension $n$, and let $OR(x)$ be the "logical or" function (i.e., returns $1$ if at least one of the coordinates is $1$ and otherwise returns $0$).
Consider ...

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280 views

### Trigonometrical approximation for the characteristic function of an interval

Hello,
Denoting $e(x)$ for $e^{2i\pi x}$, set
$$E(R):=\left\{f\ \left|\ f(x)=\sum_{r=0}^{R-1}a_re(rx)\mbox{ where }a_r\in\mathbb{C}\ \forall r\mbox{ and }\sum_r|a_r|^2=1\right\}\right.$$
...

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### Functions approximated by rolling epicycle curves

Imagine a decreasing sequence of (positive) radii $r_1 > r_2 > r_3 > \cdots$
and a series of nested circles $C_1 \supset C_2 \supset C_3 \supset \cdots$
with these radii,
initially each ...

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**4**answers

1k views

### Approximation to the ratio of a Gaussian CDF to PDF

Johnstone and Silverman (2005) claimed that for large x
$\frac{1-\Phi(x)}{\phi(x)} \approx \frac{1}{x}$
where $\Phi(x)$ and $\phi(x)$ are the CDF and PDF for a normal random variable.
I was able ...

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1k views

### Uniform approximation of $x^n$ by a degree $d$ polynomial: estimating the error

The answer to this question should be well known, but it's a hard question to search for online.
Suppose we want to approximate the function $x^n$ by a polynomial of degree $d$ in the $L_\infty$ norm ...

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**1**answer

750 views

### Least-squares regression and differential geometry

For $k, n \in \mathbb{N}$, let $\mathcal{C}_n \mathbb{R}^k$ denote the configuration space of $n$ distinct points in $\mathbb{R}^k$.
(1) Is there a description of the tangent space $T_C ...

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802 views

### Accumulation of algebraic subvarieties: Near one subvariety there are many others (?), 2

This is a sequel to the question Accumulation of algebraic subvarieties: Near one subvariety there are many others (?) .
Let $Y$ be some projective variety, over $\mathbb{C}$. Let $X\subset Y$ be ...

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### Accumulation of algebraic subvarieties: Near one subvariety there are many others (?)

Let's work over the field $\mathbb{C}$ of complex numbers, and let $X\subset \mathbb{P}^n$ be a projective variety. Let $\tilde{X}\subset \mathbb{P}^n$ be any small open neighborhood of $X$, in the ...

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334 views

### Approximations of negative Sobolev norms

Consider the standard Cahn-Hilliard free energy, augmented by a nonlocal interaction term which measures the $H^{-1}$ norm of a zero-mean function. Could someone point me to a reference where this ...

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### Approximation in $L^2$ by piecewise constant functions

Dear all,
in order to prove the validity of my Galerkin approach of a certain variational problem, I need to check the so-called approximability property. In my case, it boils down to showing that for ...

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415 views

### nonnegative series expansion of nonnegative functions

The title says it all! When using orthogonal series expansions like the Gram-Charlier expansion to approximate probability density function, a big problem (making this approach less usefull and less ...

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355 views

### Regularization of Zygmund functions

Dear community.
I would like to derive a "good" estimate on $\frac{d}{dt}f_\epsilon(t)$, where $f_\epsilon$ is a regularization of a Zygmund-continuous function $f$, i.e.
...

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### Kronecker Approximation theorem and Fibonacci numbers

There is a famous old theorem by Kronecker that for every positive real $\alpha$ and $\epsilon>0$ there exists a positive integer n such that $\alpha n$ is within $\epsilon$ of an integer.
...

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### best approximation to the LambertW(x) or exp(LambertW(x))

what is the best available approximation ( say up to 10 digits ) for LambertW(x) or exp(LambertW(x)) for x > 2000

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232 views

### Cubic spline smooting question

Hello,
I came across this link when searching for an algorithm for spline smoothing. Though I understand basically what I have to do I need further clarifications on the formula chosen for curvature ...

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387 views

### Approximating derivatives between gridpoints

Hi,
Suppose we have a grid (possibly irregular) of N function/value pairs, $(x_i, f_i)$, $i=1...N$. The function is differentiable everywhere at least twice (perhaps more).
What would be a good way ...

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903 views

### L1 distance from a trigonometric susbspace

How to check, whether the $L^{1}$ distance between a finite exponential sum $S_{F}(x)=\sum\limits_{n\in F} \exp(inx)$ and the $L^{1}$-closure of subspace $\mathrm{span}\left(\exp(inx): n\in ...

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**1**answer

2k views

### smooth approximation of the hinge loss function

I came across this paper but the smooth approximation for the hinge loss function is wrong. Can someone guide me to the proper smooth approximation (using polynomials) of the function ...

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223 views

### Density of C^\infty in the domain of the exterior derivative on a noncompact, complete manifold?

Let $(M,g)$ be a geodesically complete Riemannian manifold that is not necessarily compact. Futhermore, assume that $M$ has at most exponential volume growth (ie., locally doubling property). Let ...

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### Simple algorithm to generate a Mondrian “Random Grid”

Hello,
I was wondering if there is a simple way or algorithm that can generate 2-d grids resembling Mondrian paintings like the boogie woogie grid ( ...

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### The closures in $C^0(\mathbb{R}, \mathbb{R})$ of the set of integer valued polynomials, resp, of polynomials with integer coefficients

This is a follow up of an interesting recent question on the topic. The answer given there by fedia shows that the matter is rich and complicated, and I can't resist to submit here a further question.
...

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### What is the function $\sin(n \omega) / (n \sin \omega)$?

During my work, I encounter the function like $\frac{\sin(n \omega)}{n \sin \omega}$. I'm puzzled and knew nothing about this function before.
Given integer $n>1$, my question is how to find a ...

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### Non-linear “Fourier analysis”

Call a function of the following form a beep: $e^{-(\frac{x-\alpha}{\beta})^2}\sin(\rho x+\theta)$. Given a real-valued function $f\in L^2(R)$ and a number $n$, I'm interested in the approximating ...

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### A senseful meaning of 'approximation of manifolds'?

Any continuous function can be uniformly approximated by smooth functions.
I would like to have something similar - in what-ever sense - for continuous manifolds.
For example, by Whitney's theorem, ...

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### Polynomial upper approximation with respect to the Gaussian measure

Let $f = 1_{[a,+\infty)}$ be the indicator function of a half-line. Does there exist a sequence $(P_n)$ of polynomials such that $f(x) \leq P_n(x)$ for every real $x$ and
$$ \lim_{n\to \infty} ...

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288 views

### Schrodinger's equation over a randomized grid

I am interested in solutions to
$$
\frac{d}{dt} \Psi = -iH \Psi
$$
for $H$ hermitian and time independent. This boils down to evaluating
$$
\Psi(t) = e^{-iHt}\Psi_0
$$
at points of interest $t_n$. I ...

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### Noisy bases for linear functions

For any $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$, the following statement is trivially true:
There exists a set $I \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ with $|I| \leq n$ such that for any $x' \in \mathbb{R}^n$, if $x \cdot y = x' ...

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427 views

### methods for interpolating a function, holomorphic in the upper halfplane

Let $n,k\colon\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be real functions such that function $N$ given by $N(x)=n(x)-ik(x)$ is a holomorphic function in the upper half-plane. Also I know some additional properties of ...

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### Where does the Chebyshev polynomial notation come from?

The $k$th Chebyshev polynomial is denoted by $T_k$ where
$T_k(x) = \cos(k\cos^{-1}(x))$
I was wondering where this notation came from. It has been suggested that it comes from Tschebyscheff (the ...

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1k views

### Relative error approximation by polynomials

For given continuous real functions $f$ and $g$ defined on $[-1,1]$, let's define
$$
D(f,g) = \sup_{x \in [-1,1]} \left|{\frac{f(x)-g(x)}{f(x)}}\right|
$$
(in this context, let's take $0/0$ to be $0$ ...